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A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate how pH and ionic strength (IS) affect the fate (i.e. size and colloidal stability) of an SC formulation containing the pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin. The response surfaces determined under a range of environmentally relevant conditions were then used to assess the toxicity of the SC formulation of β-cyfluthrin to D. magna. The changes in hydrodynamic diameter (HDD) and colloidal stability as determined by zeta potential measurement were closely related to either or both of the change in pH and IS with the linear factor of IS being the most significant factor affecting those changes. Thus, the concentration of SC formulation of β-cyfluthrin remaining in the water column was dependent on the pH and IS conditions and highest when the colloidal suspension contained small particles or a lack of agglomeration leading to sedimentation of the particles. The toxicity results show correspondingly higher toxicity to D. magna when exposed to the SC formulation of β-cyfluthrin when pH and IS conditions favor formation of either the smallest HDD or most stable colloidal suspensions.
The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) and the embryonic developmental toxicitywere evaluated in the fish test water. Serious aggregation ofAgNPs was observed in undiluted fish water (DM-100) inwhich high concentration of ionic salts exist. However,AgNPs were found to be stable for 7 days in DM-10,prepared by diluting the original fish water (DM-100) withdeionized water to 10 %. The normal physiology of zebrafishembryos were evaluated in DM-10 to see if DM-10can be used as a control vehicle for the embryonic fishtoxicity test. As results, DM-10 without AgNPs did notinduce any significant adverse effects on embryonicdevelopment of zebrafish determined by mortality, hatching,malformations and heart rate. When embryonic toxicityof AgNPs was tested in both DM-10 and in DM-100,AgNPs showed higher toxicity in DM-10 than in DM-100. This means that the big-sized aggregates of AgNPs werelow toxic compared to the nano-sized AgNPs. AgNPsinduced delayed hatching, decreased heart rate, pericardialedema, and embryo death. Accumulation of AgNPs in theembryo bodies was also observed. Based on this study,citrate-capped AgNPs are not aggregated in DM-10 and itcan be used as a control vehicle in the toxicity test of fishembryonic development.