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Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify needs of health education of the students, parents, general teachers, and health teacher of the elementary, middle, and high schools. Method : 279 schools of elementary, middle, and high school were sampled nonproportionally during the period from June 28 to July 26, 2004 . The data were collected by the questionnaire from 1,888 students, 1,876 parents, 1,695 general teachers, 279 health teachers. A frequency, % and χ2-test were used to analysis by SAS program. Result : 1. It showed that 98.1% of elementary school students, 92.3% of middle school students, 89.6% of high school students answered that they need health education. The most of students, parents, and general teachers had high interests in health education. 2. In the case of students, main causes of needs of health education was 'to prevent diseases or accidents''. But parents answered that it was 'to build up a healthier behavior'. General teachers answered that it was 'more effective systematic and continuous health education'. 3. Over 80% of students, parents, and general teachers about the question of who qualified person is to teach health education as a regular class responded that health teacher is available. Especially 93% of elementary school students answered like that. 4. The most of students, parents, and general teachers answered that health education in the classroom is favorable 1 to 2 hours per week. Conclusion : As results of the study , the majority of students, parents, general teachers agreed needs of health education. Therefore, on the basis of this study, systematic and continuous health education is necessary. Additionally the establishment of independent health subject is required certainly.
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Edible flower means a flower that is good to eat is subject to either cooking or appetizing. In general, people eat edible flower as raw so that the loss of vitamin and inorganic are minimal. Edible flower is usually utilized as salad material or aromatic, decoration for jelly or cake and solid stuff in soup. Thus, decorating food by edible flower improves flavor, fragrance and appetite. Edible flower serves various purposes both east and west. In Korea, Edible flower is mainly subject to soup, cooked potherbs, frying, tea stuff, brewing and etc, whereas in Japan, its various usage covers cooked potherbs, pickle, sliced raw fish, frying, salad, jelly and decoration. On the other hand, Edible flower is used as numerous salad and tea stuff, condiment, roasting, meat, sweets and desserts in Western Hemisphere.
본 연구는 상담자의 영성이 자기성찰과 자기효능감을 매개로 상담성과에 영향을 미치는지 알아보고, 상담자의 영성을 위한 유용한 자료를 제공하는 데 있다. 이를위해 상담자와 내담자를 한 쌍으로 하여 273명의 연구대상의 자료를 빈도분석, 차이분석, 상관분석, 구조모형검증, 매개효과분석, 다집단분석을 실시하였다. 연구결과 첫째, 상담자의 영성과 자기성찰과 자기효능감, 상담성과 간의 유의미한 상관이 있었고, 둘째, 상담자의 영성과 상담성과의 관계에서 자기성찰과 자기효능감이 완전매개하는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 상담자의 영성과 상담성과의 관계에서 자기성찰과 자기효능감의 매개모형이 숙련상담자와 초보상담자 간에 차이가 없었다. 이러한 연구 결과는 상담자의 영성이 상담성과에 미치는 과정을 과학적으로 입증했다는 점에서 의의가 있다. 또한 상담자의 전문성 향상을 촉진하여 발전을 돕는데 도움이 되었을 것으로 본다. The main purpose of this research is to investigate how the spirituality of the counselor mediated by self–reflection and self–efficacy affects the outcome of the counsel and to examine whether this model can be applied to both experienced and novice counselors. With a pair counselor and client, 273 of the questionnaires were performed to analysis of frequency, t–test, correlation, structure equation analysis, mediating effect analysis, and multi–group analysis. There is a correlation among the spirituality of the counselor, self–reflection and self–efficacy, and the outcome of the counseling except some cases. Second, Relationship between the spirituality of the counselor and the outcome of the counsel is well connected by a mediating model of self–reflection and self–efficacy. Third, there is no difference between a group of experienced and novice counselors about the mediating effects of self–reflection and self–efficacy. This study play a small role in attempt to verify the influence of the counselor’s spirituality scientifically. It may be helpful for development of counselor to promote integrity and professionalism.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of health education in students, their parents and teachers in the elementary, middle and high schools and the current situation of health education class. Method: The subjects of this study were a total of 9450 persons including students, their parents and teachers from 279 schools throughout the country. They were selected through convenient sampling. Data were analyzed through x^(2)test and ANOVA. Result: Students, their parents and teachers replied that 18 dimensions of health education class (DHEC) are necessary. The four DHEC - healthier life style, sex education, mental health and safety education - showed high educational needs in students, their parents, and teacher. High school students had higher educational need of 'symptom management for daily living' than elementary and middle school students. Students, their parents and teachers in elementary school had higher educational needs of 17 DHEC that those in middle and high school. The percentages of schools with health education class taught by health teachers were 99.2%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively in elementary, middle and high schools. Health education was given mainly using physical education classes at elementary schools, and creative class hours at middle and high schools. In general, health education took 1-3 hours per week at elementary schools, and less than an hour at middle and high schools. Conclusion: Therefore, based on the results, systematic health education class should begin from elementary school to meet the need of health education in students, their parents and teachers, and further study should be made on the number of hours required and the amount of contents of 18 DHEC.
Background : The authors of this study analyzed the effect of the green manures cultivated in the soil of the preparation field in order to select the green manures suitable for ginseng cultivation and the effect of the green manures on the variation of ginseng growth development, the content of crude saponin and yield ability with the aim to use the results as the primary data for improving the quality of ginseng. Methods and Results: To analyze the effect of the application of green manures on the growth of ginseng, the authors cultivated 4 varieties of green manures and installed blue polyethylene sheet and one-layered black polyethylene net+three-layered blue polyethylene net(OBPNTB) and sun-shading material on the managed soil by re-applying green manures and then cultivated ginseng. The results suggested that the growth of ginseng was excellent in the barley+hairy, barely and rye cultivation plot in the plot treated with OBPNTB rather than the cultivation plot teated with Blue polyethylene sheet(BPS) and two-layered blue & two-layered black polyethylene net(TBTBPN), and the growth of leaf length and stalk diameter was excellent in barely + hairy vetch material. For the underground root weight, the growth was the most excellent(30.19g) in the barley+ hairy vetch cultivation plot treated with OBPNTB. For the underground red discoloration and root rot, the incidence rate was the lowest in the plot treated with BPS in which the water leak in a levee was small than in the test plot treated with sun-shading net. For the ginsenoside content in the cultivation plot treated with TBTBPN, the ginsenoid content was the highest in the rey cultivation plot, and it was the highest in the cultivation plot treated with OBPNTB. Conclusion : The results of study suggested rye among green manures is the most suitable for the growth of ginseng; underground growth was the most prominent in the plot treated with sun-shading net material (black 1 + blue 3) and the underground ginsenoside content was the most prominent in the rye cultivation plot and the plot treated with the sun-shading sheet.
Background : The survival benefit associated with first-line chemotherapy in lung cancer has led to the need for second -line chemotherapy, for which Docetaxel (Taxotere^(?)) has proven efficacy in both settings. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of docetaxel in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who had failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods : Thirty one patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, who had failed first line platinum-based chemotherapy, between March 1999 and August 2003, were enrolled in this study. Patients received intravenous docetaxel, either 75 mg/㎡ or 100 mg/㎡, with routine premedication every three weeks. Results : Fourteen patients (45.2%) had a partial response. The median survival and progression- free survival times were 12.5 months (95% CI 7.3-17.6) and 3.0 months (95% CI 1.6-4.5), respectively. This study showed 2 factors gave different survival benefits; the age (< 60 years: 20.1 months vs. > 60 years: 6.6 months, p=0.0105) and the histological type (adenocarcinoma: 25.6 months vs. others: 7.9 months, p=0.0055). The predominant toxicity was neutropenia, which occurred as WHO grade 3 or 4 in 38.7 % of patients. One treatment related death was also reported. Non-hematological toxicity was minor and easily controlled. There were no significant statistical differences in the survival benefit and toxicity between the two doses. Conclusion : Docetaxel, as second-line monotherapy, was well tolerated and effective in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who failed first line platinum -based chemotherapy. (Tuberc Respir DiS 2005: 58: 465-472)
Background : Previous data have been reported that subtype B is prevalent in South Korea, but neither the extent nor the proportion of subtypes could be evaluated. This study was designed to analyze the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes, temporal instructions and transmission dynamics between epidemiological groups. Methods : 1,280 Koreans had been diagnosed as HIV seropositive during the period 1985 to 2000. Among them, 134 individuals were selected for this molecular epidemiological study. 134 DNAs were isolated from uncultured or cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. V3-V5 (0.7 kb) fragment of HIV-1 env gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and was sequenced. Results : HIV-1 isolates from thirty-seven homosexuals were all subtype B (100%). On the other hand, 66 isolates from 94 heterosexuals were subtype B (70%) and 28 were non B subtypes (30% : 13 A, 4 C, 2 D, 8 E , 1 G). Only subtype B strains were isolated from 73 males who were infected with HIV inside Korea while 16 B and 20 non B subtype strains were isolated from 36 males who were HIV infected outside of Korea. However, B and non B strains were isolated half and half from females who were infected inside Korea except one. Conclusion : The HIV-1 subtype B strains are prevalent in Korea from the early HIV infection until present in both homo and heterosexuals. Non B strains have been transmitted from men who were infected outside Korea to their spouses and casual partners. So, we need further study to monitor subtype B and non B HIV transmission in epidemiological groups of Korea, (Korean J Infect Dis 33:311∼318, 2001)
Monascus anka를 이용하여 천연식용색소를 대량생산하기 위한 방법을 개발하기 위하여 발효조를 이용하여 적색소와 황색소의 색소생산의 최적 배양 조건과 생산된 색소의 색깔 특성을 조사하였다. Monascus anka 적색소와 황색소를 생산하였는데, 이들 색소는 균체내색소와 균체외 색소로 구분되었다. 균체의 적색소(ERP)는 494nm에서, 균체외 황색소(EYP)는 380nm에서, 균체내 적색소(IRP)는 506nm에서 그리고 균체내 황색소(IYP)는 388nm에서 최대 흡광도를 나타냈다. 적색소와 황색소 생산, 색조의 특성 및 균체증식력을 배양 온도, pH, 쌀가루 농도, peptone 농도, magnesium sulfate 농도, 통기량 및 교반속도에 대하여 조사한 결과 적색소 생산력은 30℃, 초기 pH 6.0, 쌀가루 농도 3~5%, peptone 농도 0.05%, magnesium sulfate 농도 0.25%, 통기량 0.1vvm 교반속도 300rpm의 조건에서 최대치를 보였으며, 이때 ERP, EYP, IRP 및 IYP는 각각 A_494nm 0.84, A_380 nm 0.71, A_506 nm 1.18, A_388 nm 1.10, L값은 각각 29.40, 6.44, 34,98, 8.94, a값은 각각 5.76, -1.08, 11.83, -1.55, b값은 각각 18-19, 3.41 27.26, 6.16 그리고 균체량은 7.4 g/l을 보였다. 또한 황색소 생산력은 온도의 경우 적색소 생산을 위한 최적온도 보다 높은 35℃ 부근에서 우수하였으며 초기 pH와 쌀가루 농도는 적색소 생산을 위한 최적조건과 같았고, 질소원과 무기염의 농도가 높을수록 그리고 통기량이 많을수록 황색소 생산력이 우수하였다. 적색소와 황색소 생산을 위한 발효조의 교반속도는 100~300 rpm이 적합하였다. Production of Red and Yellow Pigments from Monascus anda in a Jar Fermenter, Seong-Gook Kang, Jong-Whan Rhim, Soon-Teck Jung^* and Sun-Jae Kim. Department of Food Engineering. Mokpo National University Chonnam, 534-729, Korea - In order to develop the method for mass production of natural food colorant from Monascus anka, optimum cultivation conditions for producing red and yellow pigments by cultivating the mold in a jar fermenter and their color characteristics were investigated. The mold produced red and yellow pigments both intracellularly and extracellularly. These pigments showed unique light absorption characteristics with maximum absorption of 494, 380, 506, and 388 nm for extracellular red pigment (ERP), extracellular yellow pigment (EYP), intracellular red pigment (IRP), and intracellular yellow pigment (IYP), respectively. Optimum conditions for producing red pigments were found to be temperature 30℃, initial pH 6.0, rice powder 3~5%, peptone 0.05%, magnesium sulfate 0.25%, aeration rate 0.1vvm. Optimum temperature for producing yellow pigments was around 35℃ which is higher than that of producing red pigments. The initial pH rice powder concentration for producing yellow pigments were the same as those of producing red pigments. The higher concentration of nitrogen source and inorganic salt, aeration rate, the more the yellow pigments were produced. Them optimum agitation speed was 100~300 rpm for pigment production.
Background : The survival benefit associated with first-line chemotherapy in lung cancer has led to the need for second -line chemotherapy, for which Docetaxel (Taxotere^(?)) has proven efficacy in both settings. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of docetaxel in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who had failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods : Thirty one patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, who had failed first line platinum-based chemotherapy, between March 1999 and August 2003, were enrolled in this study. Patients received intravenous docetaxel, either 75 mg/㎡ or 100 mg/㎡, with routine premedication every three weeks. Results : Fourteen patients (45.2%) had a partial response. The median survival and progression- free survival times were 12.5 months (95% CI 7.3-17.6) and 3.0 months (95% CI 1.6-4.5), respectively. This study showed 2 factors gave different survival benefits; the age (< 60 years: 20.1 months vs. > 60 years: 6.6 months, p=0.0105) and the histological type (adenocarcinoma: 25.6 months vs. others: 7.9 months, p=0.0055). The predominant toxicity was neutropenia, which occurred as WHO grade 3 or 4 in 38.7 % of patients. One treatment related death was also reported. Non-hematological toxicity was minor and easily controlled. There were no significant statistical differences in the survival benefit and toxicity between the two doses. Conclusion : Docetaxel, as second-line monotherapy, was well tolerated and effective in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who failed first line platinum -based chemotherapy. (Tuberc Respir DiS 2005: 58: 465-472) 연구배경 : 일차항암화학요법 후에 생존의 이득을 얻었음에도 불구하고 비소세포폐암 환자들의 대다수가 결국은 재발하거나 진행성 병변을 보인다. 이에 저자들은 기존의 여러 연구에서 보고 된 구제요법으로서 docetaxel의 항암효과와 비교적 적은 독성의 결과를 바탕으로,platinum을 근거로 한 항암화학요법을 시행 밖았으나 개발되거나 진행된 비소세포폐암 환자들을 대상으로 docetaxel 단독요법의 치료효과와 부작용에 대하여 알아보고자 하였다. 방법 : 조직학적으로 비소세포폐암으로 진단을 받고 platinum을 근거로 한 항암화학요법을 받았으나 재발 또는 진행성 병변을 보인 31명의 환자들을 대상으로 docetaxel 75 mg/m² 또는 100 mg/m²을 3주마다 정주하였다. 임상기록을 통한 후향적인 방법으로 분석하였다. 결과 : 1) 재발 또는 진행성 병변을 보인 31명중 남녀 비는 24:7이고 중앙연령은 60세였다. 2) 반응평가로 완전 관해는 없었고 부분관해는 14명(45.2%), 불변이 10명(32.3%), 진행이 7명(22.6%)으로 전체적인 반응율은 45.2%이었다. 3)중앙생존기간은 12.5개월(95% 신뢰구간: 7.3개월 17.6개월) 이었고, 1년 생존율은 52%였다. 무진행생존기간의 중앙값은 3.0개월(95%신뢰구간: 1.6개월 -4.5개월)이며, 반응군에서의 중앙반응지속피간은 3.7개월(95% 신뢰구간: 3.0개월 - 4.4개월)이었다. 4) 60세 미만인 경우(20.1 months vs 6.6 months. p=0,0105), 조직학적 아형이 선암일 경우(25.6 months vs 7.9 months, 0=0.0055) 통계적으로 유의한 생존기간의 증가가 있었다. 5) 부작용으로 3도 이상의 백혈구 감소증은 12명(38.7%),호중구 감소증에 동반된 발열은 6명(19.3%),감염이 동반된 호중구 감소증은 4명(12.9%)에서 발생했다. 치료와 관련되어 1명이 사망하였다. 6) Docetaxel 용량에 따른 생존기간의 차이나 독성의 차이는 없었다. 결론 : Platinum을 근거로 하는 항암화학요법으로 치료받은 후 재발 또는 진행성 병변을 보이는 비소세포폐암환자들에게 docetaxel을 투여하는 것은 비교적 안전하고 효과적인 항암치료법으로 사료된다.
Background : Gastric cancer is the most common malignant tumor in Korea. surgical operation is one of the major treatment modalities for gastric cancer patients. Therefore, gastrectomy is one of the most common procedures in General Surgery. There were variation in length of hospital stay and medical treatment for gastrectomy between three surgeons at Asan Medical Center. Clinical pathways have received considerable attention as a tool for recucing the medical practice variation, increasing the efficiency of care process, and improving the quality of care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a clinical pathway for gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. Methods : The clinical pathway for gastrectomy was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary group in Asan Medical Center. A computerized clinical pathway program was developed and revised after a pilot test. A total of 145 patients underwent gastrectomy by three surgeons at Asan Medical Center. We compared the length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and unplanned readmission rate between the pre-pathway group(n=67) and the post-pathway group(n=78). We also investigated the degree of satisfaction among the physicians and nurses who were main end-users of the clinical pathway. Results : The clinical pathway was applied to all target patients. The average length of hospital stay was shortened from 12.7days to 10.6days(p<0.01). The degree of patient satisfaction with the care process changed from 90.3% to 89.2% after the implementation of the clinical pathway, but the difference was of satistically significant(p=0.761). Unplanned readmission rate was 2.9% in the pre-pathway group. More than 90% of physicians and nurses answered that the clinical pathway had been a useful tool in their medical practice. Conclusions : The findings of the study demonstrated that implementation of the clinical pathway for gastrectomy produced substantial reduction in the length of hospital stay while improving the quality of patient outcomes. The computerized clinical pathway program can be used as one of the powerful patient management tools for reducing the practice variations and increasing the efficiency of care process in Korea hospital settings.