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The spatial and temporal variations of CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing (RF) due to CO2 were examined at urban center (Yeon-dong) during 2010-2015 and background sites (Gosan) during 2010-2014 on Jeju Island. The RF at the two sites was estimated based on a simplified expression for calculating RF for the study period. Overall, annual mean CO2 concentrations at the Yeon-dong and Gosan sites have gradually increased, and the concentrations were higher at Yeon-dong (401-422 ppm) than at Gosan (398-404 ppm). The maximum CO2 concentrations at the two sites were observed in winter or spring, followed by fall and summer, with higher concentrations at Yeon-dong. The RF at Yeon-dong (annual mean of up to 0.70 W/m2 in 2015) was higher than that at Gosan (up to 0.46 W/m2 in 2014), possibly because of higher CO2 concentrations at Yeon-dong resulting from population growth and human activities (e.g., fossil fuel combustion). The highest monthly mean RFs at Yeon-dong (approximately 0.92 W/m2) and Gosan (0.52 W/m2) were observed in spring 2015 (Yeon-dong) and spring 2013 (Gosan), whereas the lowest RFs (0.17 and 0.31 W/m2, respectively) in fall 2011 (Yeon-dong) and summer in 2012 (Gosan).
The spatial and temporal variations of $CO_2$ concentrations and radiative forcing (RF) due to $CO_2$ were examined at urban center (Yeon-dong) during 2010-2015 and background sites (Gosan) during 2010-2014 on Jeju Island. The RF at the two sites was estimated based on a simplified expression for calculating RF for the study period. Overall, annual mean $CO_2$ concentrations at the Yeon-dong and Gosan sites have gradually increased, and the concentrations were higher at Yeon-dong (401-422 ppm) than at Gosan (398-404 ppm). The maximum $CO_2$ concentrations at the two sites were observed in winter or spring, followed by fall and summer, with higher concentrations at Yeon-dong. The RF at Yeon-dong (annual mean of up to $0.70W/m^2$ in 2015) was higher than that at Gosan (up to $0.46W/m^2$ in 2014), possibly because of higher $CO_2$ concentrations at Yeon-dong resulting from population growth and human activities (e.g., fossil fuel combustion). The highest monthly mean RFs at Yeon-dong (approximately $0.92W/m^2$) and Gosan ($0.52W/m^2$) were observed in spring 2015 (Yeon-dong) and spring 2013 (Gosan), whereas the lowest RFs (0.17 and $0.31W/m^2$, respectively) in fall 2011 (Yeon-dong) and summer in 2012 (Gosan).
Purpose: Critical pathway (CP) refers to the standardized care process that predefines the treatment sequence and timing for a specific group of diseases and patients. The recent interest in CPs has increased as a quality improvement tool and a cost-effective delivery system for medical services. The authors applied a CP for pediatric inguinal hernias, and we investigated the cost effectiveness and also the satisfaction of the patients and the medical staff. Methods: The CP was applied to 24 patients (the CP group) and the characteristics of the patients, the length of the hospital stay, the postoperative course, the medical costs and the results of the survey were compared with 26 other patients (the non-CP group). Results: There was no difference in the patients" characteristics, the length of the hospital stay, the postoperative complications and the course of between the two groups. The cost for the medications, injections, treatments and examinations for the CP group were significantly lower than those for the non-CP group (P<0.05). The satisfaction of patients was significantly improved after the application of the CP (P<0.05), and the satisfaction of the medical staff was high. Conclusion: The application of a CP for pediatric inguinal hernia can save treatment-related medical costs. Moreover, the CP is an effective, excellent care process that improves the satisfaction of both the patients and the medical staff.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of medium composition on organogenesis towards in-vitro cultured diploid and tetraploid Codonopsis lanceolata and obtain in-vitro mass propagation of superior species of C. lanceolata. Regarding MS medium composition for each concentration, diploid C. lanceolata was found to be declined. However, shoot and adventitious root formation were suppressed with higher mineral salt concentration, and active growth of shootand adventitious root was exhibited as 4.9 cm and 3.2 cm respectively in 1/2 MS medium. While in tetraploid C. lanceolata, it showed 2.9 cm and 3.2 cm respectively in 1/4 MS medium. In the case of sucrose concentration, no consistent decrease was observed for growth of shoot and adventitious root of diploid both at high and low concentration. The growth of shoot (at 3% concentration) and adventitious root (at 7% concentration) was 2.3 cm and 2.0 cm respectively. Although there was no difference in shoot formation of tetraploid C. lanceolata in all concentrations with the range of 1.7 ~ 1.8, there was a slight decrease in shoot growth at high concentration. Results revealed that the adventitious root formation was suppressed at high concentration. Concentration of agar exhibited no significant difference in shoot formation of diploid C. lanceolata at all concentrations. The highest result of adventitious growth (4.1 cm) was observed at 0.8% concentration. Slight inhibition of shoot formation and root formation of tetraploid C. lanceolata was observed at higher concentration. Shoot formation of diploid C. lanceolata also exhibited inhibition at higher concentration. Shoot formation of diploid C. lanceolata was increased at lower pH and shoot growth was the highest (2.3 cm) at pH 3.8. Adventitious root formation was higher at lower pH. Although there was no difference in shoot formation of tetraploid C. lanceolata presenting 1.7 ~ 1.8 regardless of high and low pH, growth inhibition was showed at higher pH. Adventitious root formation and growth showed a little higher result at pH 5.8.
My Year of Meats was highly successful in calling attention to the seemingly disparate yet related issues: meat woman`s body, and transnational media. In interweaving two women`s lives in the United States and Japan through a television series on meat, Ozeki`s novel uncovers illegal practices of feedlot and the gruesome outcome of such practices embodied in a sterile woman. The novel`s merging of various themes has invited critical responses from multiple fields. While the variety of critical work is a proof of the novel`s achievements this essay argues that My Year of Mazts remains problematic at its core. This is because the novel`s endorsement of transpacific alliances of women through motherhood served the then-emerging postwhite nationalist narrative of the United States, shored up by the multicultural/multiethnic family and their American children of varying shades. By investigating the ways the "multi-" and "trans.," abounding in the novel, are deterritorialized and reterritorialized within the new American Frontier of the 1990s, my essay argues the need to be wary of such liberatory notions as difference and mobility, which are actively advertised to redefine American global hegemony. I argue that this wariness towards Americanism is the novel`s main 1essor, along with the due fear of unhealthy American meat detailed in the novel.
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Biofilm has been described as a barrier, which produced by microorganisms to survive and protect themselves against various environments, like antibiotic agents. Staphylococcus spp. is a common cause of nosocomial and environmental infection. Thirty-six and thirty-five Staphylococci were isolated from animals and air, respectively. Based on the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium reported in our previous report, relationship between biofilm formation and antibiotic-resistance was investigated in this study. Regarding antibiotics susceptibility, cefazolin was the most effective agent to the bacteria. Strong biofilm-forming Staphylococcus spp. isolates might have a higher antibiotic resistance than weak biofilm isolates regardless of the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (p