http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.
Pseudomembranous colitis, caused by altering the normal colonic flora and allowing the multiplication of Clostridium difficile, is an deleterious adverse effect of antibiotics. But it is rarely reported by rifampicin. Rifampicin is one of the first line drug in the treatment of tuberculosis and many patients are exposed to its potential adverse effects. We experienced a patient that had abdominal discomfort and hematochezia due to pseudomembranous colitis after receiving antituberculous medication, and which was probably caused by rifampicin. A 82 years old man was admitted with abdominal discomfort and hematochezia for one week. On the past history he had been diagnosed as endobronchial tuberculosis about 4 months ago. Colonoscopy revealed multiple discrete whitish mucosal lesion on rectosigmoid colon, and histologic findings were consistent with pseudomembranous colitis. The antituberculous agents were discontinued and vancomycin was administered. The patient's symptoms were resolved within several days. There was no recurrence after reinstitution of the antituberculous agents excluding rifampicin. We report here on a case of pseudomembranous colitis probably due to rifampicin.
7β-(5-Phenyl-2H-tetrazolyl-2-acetamido) cephalosporanic acid was synthesized by condensation of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid(7-ACA) with(5-phenyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl) acetyl chloride. This compound was tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro against Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Escherichia coli ESS, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 13130, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Staphylococcus aureuss FDA-209p and Salmonella typhimurium SL 1102. This compound revealed excellent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphlococcus aureus FDA 209p. This compound have no antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 13130 and Salmonella typhimurium SL 1102.
목적: 천식의 치료에 있어서 염증조절제의 역할이 강조되고 있기는 하지만, 아직 β_2- 아드레날린 수용체와 반응하여 기도 수축을 이완시키는 β_2- 항진제의 역할은 중요하다. 근래에 β_2- 아드레날린 수용체 유전자 다형과 관련하여, Gly16과 중증 천식 및 야간 천식과 관련이 있고, Glu27은 천식에서 기도과민성의 감소와 관련이 있으며, Gly16 Gln27 일배체형은 아토피군에서 야간 기침과 관련이 있다고 보고되었다. 본 연구에서 천식환자와 정상군에서 β_2- 아드레날린 수용체 유전자 다형이 차이가 있는지 확인하고, β_2- 아드레날린 수용체 유전자가 아토피지표 및 기도과민성과 연관성이 있는지 조사하였다. 방법: 천식으로 진단된 99명과 아토피가 없는 정상아 73명을 대상으로, 말초혈액내 총 호산구수와 혈청 총 IgE를 측정하였고, 메타콜린 기관지 유발검사 및 폐기능 검사를 실시하였다. β_2- 아드레날린 수용체 유전자의 일배체형 분석을 위해 아미노산 16과 27의 부위를 포함하고 있는 β_2- 아드레날린 수용체의 유전자부위를 polymerase chain reaction(PCR)으로 증폭한 후 16번으로 유전형은 allele specific PCR 27번 유전형은 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism(RELP)방법으로 분석하였다. 결과: β_2- 아드레날린 수용체의 16번과 27번 대립 유전자의 빈도는 두 군 사이에 차이가 없었으며, 16번과 27번 아미노산의 일배체형 빈도도 두 군 사이에 차이가 없었다. 그러나 Arg16 Glu27은 한 례도 없어 Arg16 은 Gln27 과 강한 연쇄불평형이 관찰되었다. 천식군에서 총호산구 수와 호산구 분율(%) 및 총 IgE 농도는 각각의 일배체형에 따라 차이가 없었으며, PC_20 및 기도 자극 후 β_2- 항진제에 대한 반응 수치도 각각 일배체형에 따라 차이가 없었다. 결론: 한국 소아에서 β_2- 아드레날린 수용체 유전자 16번 27번 코돈 다형은 천식 자체와는 관련이 없으며, 천식 환아에서 아토피 지표와 기도과민성 및 속효성 β_2- 항진제에 대한 반응과도 의미있는 연관성이 관찰되지 않았다. Background: The role of β_2-agonist is still important to control bronchoconstriction in asthma. Polymorphisms at aminoacid positions 16 and 27 of the β_2-adrenoceptor gene are associated with asthma phenotype. Glu 27 allele is associated with negatively with bronchial hyperresponsiveness(BHR) in asthmatic subjects and Gln 27 allele is associated positively with IgE levels, and Gly 16 Gln 27 haplotype is suggested to be positively associated with BHR in a population study. And Gly 16 Gln 27 haplotypes are positively associated with nocturnal cough in atopic subjects. To evaluate the association between β_2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms as asthmatic phenotypes, the frequency of β_2-adrenoceptor polymorphsisms at 2 sites(Arg16→Gly16 and Gln27→Glu27) were examined in asthmatic and normal children. Methods: Ninety nine asthmatic children and seventy three normal children were enrolled. Asthma phenotypes were determined by physician and bronchial responsiveness and genotypes of β_2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms were determined with PCR based methods. Results: The polymorphisms at aminoacid 16 and 27 of β_2-adrenoceptor gene was not different between asthmatic and normal children. The haplotype frequency of aminoacid 16 and 27 polymorphisms of β_2-adrenoceptor gene was not different between asthmatic and normal children. Haplotypes of aminoacid 16 and 27 was not associated with total eosinophil count, eosinophil %, and total IgE in asthmatic children. Haplotypes of aminoacid 16 and 27 was not associated with PC_20, and response of FEV_1 after β_2agonist in asthmatic children. Conclusion: β_2- adrenoceptor polymorphisms is not associated with the expression of asthma, atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and response to β_2- agonist in Korean children.
본 연구는 패류중 중금속함량 측정을 위한 분석효율이 높고 간편한 분해법을 찾아내어 그 방법에 의끓 유종중인 패류중 중금속함량을 파악하고자 수행하였다. 시료를 분해시키는 Microwave와 습식, 건식회법을 비교한 결과 변형습식회화르가 가장 적합하였다. 변형습식회차딘는 려린0,3+C104+H2SOf의 혼찰산을 쪼 · j 1 (v/v)의 비율로 혼합하여 사용하였 을 때 회수을 Pb린틴. Cd 97.8, Cu 94.2, Zn 92.8%를 나타내었근 분해시간은 2~2.5시간 소요되었다. 유통중인 패류중 중금속함량 」최소~최대(평균), mgAgl 은 Pb 0.028~o.528(0.153), Cd 0.OO7~1,832(0.587), Cu 0.360~37.375(4.6691, Zn 6.317~233.2iO(38.881), Hg 0.001 ~O.151(0.012)mg/ltg으로 나타났다. 또한 유통중인 5종의 패류중 중금속평균항량이 생산지 하재지역에서 구입한 패류에 비해 모든 중금속언써 약간 높은 함량을 보였으나 오염된 수준이 아닌 자연함유량수준이었다. This study was conducted to improve the digestion method for the determination of heavy metals in shellfishes and to estimate the contents of heavy metal in commercial shellfishes by their digestion method. This digestion method was compared microwave with wet and dry ash digestion for shellfish samples, obtained results showed that the modified wet ash Ⅱ digestion was convenient and easy to use. For the modified wet ash Ⅱ digestion, The mixed acid of HNO₃+HClO₄+H₂SO₄(25:5:1, v/v) was used. Under this condition, Recoveries were Pb 94.3, Cd 97.8, Cu 94.2 and Zn 92.8% and digestion time was ∼2.5 hours. The contents of heavy metal [minimum∼maximum (mean), mg/kg in commercial shellfishes were as follows ; Pb:0.028∼0.528(0.153), Cd:0.007∼1.832(0.587), Cu:0.360∼37.375(4.669), Zn:6.317∼233.250(38.881), Hg:0.001∼0.151(0.013). The contents of heavy metal in commercial shellfishes of five species were slightly greater than those of shellfishes purchased at Hajae. There was no great difference between the contents of heavy metal of Hajae and those of shellfishes purchased at Whole market.
( So Hoonsub ),( Byong Duk Ye ),( Young Soo Park ),( Jihun Kim ),( Joo Sung Kim ),( Won Moon ),( Kang Moon Lee ),( You Sun Kim ),( Bora Keum ),( Seong Eun Kim ),( Kyeong Ok Kim ),( Eun Soo Kim11 ),( C 대한장연구학회 2016 Intestinal Research Vol.14 No.1
Gastric pathology and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among Asian patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) are still unclear. We evaluated gastric histologic features and frequency of H. pylori infection in Korean patients with CD. Methods: Among 492 patients with CD receiving upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic evaluation in 19 Korean hospitals, we evaluated the endoscopic findings and gastric histopathologic features of 47 patients for our study. Histopathologic classification was performed using gastric biopsy tissues, and H. pylori infection was determined using the rapid urease test and histology. Results: There were 36 men (76.6%), and the median age of patients at the time of upper GI endoscopy was 23.8 years (range, 22.214.171.124). For CD phenotype, ileocolonic disease was observed in 38 patients (80.9%), and non-stricturing, nonpenetrating disease in 31 patients (66.0%). Twenty-eight patients (59.6%) complained of upper GI symptoms. Erosive gastritis was the most common gross gastric feature (66.0%). Histopathologically, H. pylori -negative chronic active gastritis (38.3%) was the most frequent finding. H. pylori testing was positive in 11 patients (23.4%), and gastric noncaseating granulomata were detected in 4 patients (8.5%). Gastric noncaseating granuloma showed a statistically significant association with perianal abscess/ fistula (P =0.0496). Conclusions: H. pylori -negative chronic active gastritis appears to be frequent among Korean patients with CD. The frequency of H. pylori infection was comparable with previous studies. An association with perianal complications suggests a prognostic value for gastric noncaseating granuloma in patients with CD. (Intest Res 2016;14:60-68)
오형주,( Ha Young Park ),( Tae Ok Kim1 ),( Chul Kyu Park ),( Hong Jun Shin ),( Hee Jung Ban ),( In Jae Oh ),( Yong Soo Kwon ),( Yu Il Kim ),( Sung Chul Lim ),( Young Chul Kim ),( Soo Hyun Kim ),( Myung G 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2015 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 추계학술대회 초록집 Vol.120 No.-
Background: Progastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) is a recently identified biomarker of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We aimed this study for evaluating the usefulness of automated proGRP measurement for diagnosis and treatment monitoring in patients with SCLC. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2013, plasma samples were prospectively collected from 452 [213 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 104 SCLC, 135 other diseases] patients visited for tissue diagnosis and tested by two-step automated immunoassay using the ARCHITECT proGRP assay kit (Abbott Diagnostics, USA). The cutoff level of proGRP was set at 63 pg/mL. Results: The mean proGRP was higher in SCLC (1823.0 ± 2684.0 pg/mL) than in NSCLC (61.0 ± 341.7 pg/mL) and other diseases (51.5 ± 222.6 pg/mL, p<0.001). The sensitivity of proGRP was 85.7% (90/105) in SCLC and 11.8% (25/212) in NSCLC. The specificity was 90.2%, positive predictive value was 72.5%, and negative predictive value was 95.4% in SCLC. The mean proGRP was higher in extensive disease (2158.1 ± 2980.6 pg/mL) than in limited disease (901.4 ± 1216.0 pg/mL, p=0.033). Among the 39 patients with SCLC could be followed, the mean proGRP levels of 23 responders were significantly decreased after chemotherapy (from 1651.5 ± 1386.4 pg/mL to 290.0 ± 524.8 pg/mL, p<0.001), whereas those of the 16 non-responders were not. (from 572.5 ± 790.3 pg/mL to 494.4 ± 610.9 pg/mL, p=0.583). Conclusion: Plasma proGRP could be a useful biomarker of SCLC for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. And the initial level may represent the tumor extent of SCLC.
Although clay can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants from soils and waste-water, the hydration of exchangeable cations in clay minerals makes it hydrophilic at the clay mineral surfaces and interlayers. Thus, natural clays are often ineffective in complexing and stabilizing toxic organic contaminants in soils and groundwater environment. But, substituting these hydrated cations with cationic surfactant such as QAC(Quaternary ammonium Compound) can change the natural clay from hydrophilic to hydropobic. Furthermore functionalized organoclay can act as a powerful dual function sorbent for both toxic metals and organic compounds. It also can be used as landfill clay liners, slurry walls, nano-composite materials, petroleum tank farms, waste treatment, and fflter systems. To use this modified clay minerals effectively, it is required to understand the fundamental chemistry of organoclay, synthetic procedures, its engineering application, bioavailability of sorbed ion-clay complex, and potential risk of organoclay. In this review, we investigate the use, application and historical background of the organoclay in remediation technology. The state-of-the-art of organoclay research is also discussed. Finally, we suggest some future implications of organoclay in environmental research.
본 연구의 목적은 도시와 농어촌간의 수유실태를 비교 분석하는데 있다. 1986년 7월부터 11월까지 도시(대구), 농촌(암곡), 어촌(구룡포)의 영유아 모성 80명을 대상으로 설문조사하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. (1) 대상아는 0∼30개월의 영유아로 남아가 51.3%, 여아가 48.8%였다. (2) 모성의 연령분포는 26∼30세가 도시 농어촌 평균 62.0%로 많았고, 초산연령은 21∼26세 사이가 많은 분포였다. (3) 교육수준 및 월수입은 도시가 월등히 높았으며 교육수준과 월수입이 높음에 따라 인공영양수유와 상관이 있었다. (4) 정상분만은 농어촌이 높은 비율이었고, 분만장소는 도시에서 병원분만이 농어촌에 비해 높았다. (5) 수유형태는 농어촌이 도시에 비해 모유수유의 비율이 높았다. (6) 수유형태의 권장도는 도시와 농어촌 모두 모유의 권장도가 높았으나 도시 모성의 모유권장도 76.0%에 비해 실천은 36.0%로서 도시모성의 모유수유의 실천이 뒤떨어졌다. The purpose of this research is to compare and analyze the actual conditions between urban areasand farming, fishing villages. We asked eighty mothers who were growing their babies and Infantliving in a city(Daegue), farming area(Am-gok) and fishing villages(Goo-ryong-po) and got the resu-lts as follows; 1. An object was babies and infants who were within 30 months old(O~3O months) and 51.3% of them was males and 48.8% of them was females. 2. There was much distribution of mothers who belonged between 26 and 30 years old and it occu-pied 62.O% in averaging city, farming and fishing villages. Their first childbirth was mainly from 21years old to 26 years old. 3. In the point of the level of education and monthly income, the rural area was much higher thanthose of farming and fishing areas and therefore the fact was related with the artificial nutrition fee-ding(cow-milk feeding). 4, The normal childbirth in faming and fishing arears was highter than that of urban area andthe mothers living in urban areas used much more hospitals as their childbirth places than thoseliving in farming and fishing areas. 5. In the milk feeding from, the proportion of mother's milk was higher in farming and fishingareas comparing with that of urban areas. 6. The recommendation form of milk feeding was higher than any others both in rural area andfarming, fishing areas but mothers living in cities practiced only 36.0% while .recommending 76.0%in mothers milk and therefore the actual performance of mother's milk feeding, living in urban areaswas lower than in farming and fishing areas.
Various bacterial strains were isolated from rice field ditch water, and their seaweed degrading activities were investigated. They were incubated in a liquid medium of sea tangle (Laminaria juponica) and sea mustard (Unduria pinnatifida) powder for 3 weeks. Ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar of the liquid medium were measured once a week. Ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar of 27A311, 27C221, 27A111 and 27B121 strains were highest. Accordingly, these four strains were incubated in 3 different liquid media of sodium alginate, sea tangle powder, and sea mustard powder for 3 or 4 weeks. The ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar and cell growth were measured once a week. Cell growth was higher in 27Alll and 27C221. Ratios of reduced sugar to total sugar was higher for 27C221 in the liquid mediums with sodium alginate and sea mustard powder, and for 27A111 in the liquid medium with sea tangle powder.