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The purpose of this study was to predict travelers` behavioral intention to visit the Muju Taekwondo Park, based on extended Theory of Planned Behavior(TPB). Tourists` motivation was newly included in determining their behavioral intention to visit the park along with existing three components of traditional Theory of Planned Behavior(attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control). To this end, a total of 241 Taekwondo masters was selected using a conveniently sampling method and responded to a survey questionnaire. The 206 usable questionnaires were utilized to the final data analyses. Statistical Package of PASW 15.0 was used for data analyses including descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows. Firstly, attitudes toward visiting the park had a significant impact on visiting the park Secondly, subjective norms had a significant influence on visiting the park. Thirdly, perceived behavioral control significantly affected behavioral intention to visit the park. Lastly, motivation was a significant predictor of subjects` visiting the park. Additionally, practical implications of the findings and suggestions were discussed.
The Golpum system was the unique form of the status system in the Silla dynasty in Korea. It was a typical ancient Korean society`s status system which has been investigated field in the academia. In particular, a kinship system, which is composed of Seong-gol and Jin-gol, is the most hottest issue in the Korean academic circles. However, there is a no point of agreement whether Seong-gol was the reality or not, and concerning about its management and times. This research has a purpose to investigate how the status system established and guaranteed in the society. The Buddism has attracted public attention as a theoretical basis of the status system. The Samkuksagi (The chronics of the three nations) described the Buddism as a state religion while it did not focus on the myths about the Buddism. We assume that the Buddism was the meaningful political controller in the Silla dynasty. Seong-gol was regarded as the royal familiy, and it was available when the King had the superiority over the nobility. The Kings of Sylla dynasty had been called the Great King with a qualifier ``saint`` when the Buddism instituted a state religion. It means that Seong-gol (the saunt family) was established based on the Buddism. Jin-gol also entered a field of history similar times to Seong-gol, and both two terminologies was established the same period in terms of the Buddism terminology. Seong-gol guaranteed a royal family`s prestige through the change of ennoble system Galmun King and the use of the Great King title. The King`s brother, who were Seong-gol, secured the superiority over the nobility by getting the title of ennoblement. The Kings also solidified their status through the ennoble system, and they monopolized political power because the kings restrained the right of succession only kings heirs. Jin-gol also guaranteed their political prestige after established Daedeung. The House of Lords in Silla dynasty limited the qualification only who had the title of Daedeung. Jin-gol class took the reins of the nobility through only Jin-gol getting the title of Daedeung.
Background p19arf, primarily known as a tumor suppressor, has also been reported to play an essential role in normal development of mouse eyes. Consistently, lack of p19arf has been associated with ocular defects, but the mixed background of the knockout (KO) mouse strain used raised a concern on the accuracy of the phenotypes observed in association with the targeted gene due to genetic heterogeneity. Object We carried out a study to investigate into the efect of genetic background on the manifestation of p19arf KO associated phenotypes. Methods We characterized the phenotypes of novel p19arf KO mouse lines generated in FVB/N and C57BL/6J using a transcription activator-like efector nuclease (TALEN) system in comparison to the reported phenotypes of three other p19arf-defcient mouse lines generated using homologous recombination. Results Ninety-fve percent of FVB/N-p19arf KO mice showed ocular opacity from week 4 after birth which worsened rapidly until week 6, while such abnormality was absent in C57BL/6J-p19arf KO mice up to the age of 26 weeks. Histopathological analysis revealed retrolental masses and dysplasia in the retinal layer in FVB/N-p19arf KO mice from week 4. Besides these, both strains developed normally from birth to week 26 without increased tumorigenesis except for a subcutaneous tumor found in a C57BL/6J-p19arf KO mouse. Conclusion Our fndings demonstrated surprisingly variable manifestation of p19arf-linked phenotypes between FVB/N and C57BL/6J mice, and furthermore between our mouse lines and the established lines, indicating a critical impact of genetic background on functional study of genes using gene targeting strategies in mice.
We reported a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm, involving pancreaticoduodenal artery, developed after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) with endoscopic sphinterotomy. A 54 year old woman was transferred to our hospital due to sustained hematochezia and hypovolemia. A week before admission, she underwent ERCP with endoscopic sphinterotomy for acute cholangitis in local clinics. She developed abdominal pain and hematochezia at 12 hours after the procedures. A post procedure contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm in inferior portion of pancreatic head. This was not present on the pre procedure contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and was thought to arise from the pancreaticoduodenal artery as a complication of the pre sphincterotomy. She was brought to our emergency room in a state of hypovolemia. A upper endoscopy showed active bleeding from ampula of vater. An celiac angiography demonstrated pancreatic pseudoaneurysm involving inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery and selective coil embolization of was performed.
Park*, Eui‐,Chul,Yoon, Jong‐,Bok,Seong*, Jin‐,Sil,Choi, Kyoung‐,Soo,Kong, Eung‐,Sik,Kim, Yun‐,Jeong,Park, Young‐,Mee,Park, Eun‐,Mi Taylor Francis 2006 Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology Vol.36 No.1
<P>Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by ionizing radiation, has been implicated in its effect on living tissues. We confirmed the changes in the oxidative stress markers upon irradiation. We characterized the changes in the proteome profile in rat liver after administering irradiation, and the affected proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The identified proteins represent diverse sets of proteins participating in the cellular metabolism. Our results demonstrated that proteomics analysis is a useful method for characterization of a global proteome change caused by ionizing radiation to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the cellular responses to ionizing radiation.</P>
Jin‑Kyung Jeon,Hyunseon Seo,Jimin Park,Soo Ji Son,Yeong Rim Kim,Eun Shil Kim,Jong Woong Park,Woong‑Gyo Jung,Hojeong Jeon,Yu‑Chan Kim,Hyun‑Kwang Seok,Jae Ho Shin,Myoung‑Ryul Ok 대한금속·재료학회 2019 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.25 No.4
The excessive initial corrosion rate of Mg is a critical limitation in the clinical application of biodegradable Mg implantsbecause the device loses its fi xation strength before the fractured bone heals. This study suggests a new approach to overcomethis hurdle by accelerating tissue regeneration instead of delaying the implant biodegradation. As angiogenesis is anessential process in early bone regeneration, a Mg implant coated with electrospun nanofi bers containing nitric oxide (NO),which physiologically promotes angiogenesis, is designed. The integrated device enables adjustable amounts of NO to bestored on the NO donor-conjugated nanofi ber coating, stably delivered, and released to the fractured bone tissue near theimplanted sites. An in vitro corrosion test reveals no adverse eff ect of the released NO on the corrosion behavior of the Mgimplant. Simultaneously, the optimal concentration level of NO released from the implant signifi cantly enhances tube networkformation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells without any cytotoxicity problem. This indicates that angiogenesis canbe accelerated by combining NO-releasing nanofi bers with a Mg implant. With its proven feasibility, the proposed approachcould be a novel solution for the initial stability problem of biodegradable Mg implants, leading to successful bone fi xation.
목적 : 2002년 말 중국에서 SARS가 발생한 이후 국내에서도 2003년 10월까지 총 3명의 추정환자, 17명의 의심환자가 보고되었다. 향후 추가적인 SARS의 유행이 우려되는 상황에서, 그간의 SARS 환자 진료에 있어서의 실질적인 준비사항, 진료 현황 등에 대한 조사를 통해 문제점을 파악하여, 향후 더 나은 대비가 될 수 있도록 개선점을 제시하고자 하였다. 재료 및 방법 : SARS로 의심되는 환자를 진료 경험이 있는 병원의료진을 대상으로 2003년 10월에 설문조사를 실시하였다. 설문에는 SARS 환자 진료 시의 실질적인 조치, 진료 현황, 병실, 응급실 및 외래에서의 격리 시설과 준비사항, 보건당국의 관리와 지원에 관한 사항을 포함하였다. 결과 : 대상이 되는 22개 병원 중 17개(17/22, 77.2%) 병원이 설문에 응하였다. SARS 환자를 위한 격리실은 응급실, 외래, 일반병실 및 중환자실에서 각각 9개(9/17, 52.9%), 5개(5/17, 29.4%), 15개(15/16, 93.7%), 4개(4/16, 25%) 병원에서 음압처리가 되어있지 않은 일인실 혹은 다인실이 사용되었고, 1개(1/16, 6.3%) 병원에서만 일반병실에서 음압격리실이 운영되었다. 입원환자의 진찰 시 개인보호구의 착용은 거의 모든 의료기관에서 이루어졌다. 보건당국에서 SARS지정병원의 시설 등을 사전에 확인한 곳은 1곳(1/12, 8.3%)이였고, 14개 병원(14/15, 93.3%)에서는 보건당국에 의뢰한 검사결과를 통하 받지 못하였다. 결론 : 의료기관에서 SARS 환자용 격리실뿐만 아니라 기존의 격리실 설비 등이 미흡하였으며, 특히 중환자실 및 외래의 준비가 더욱 부족하였다. 보건당국의 의료기관에 대한 종합적인 지원이 부족하였고, 병원과의 원활한 연계가 잘 이루어지지 않았다. SARS 만이 아닌 격리를 필요로 하는 질환의 적절한 진료를 위해 향후 병원 시설의 정비와 정부차원에서의 보다 구체적이고 실질적인 대책마련이 필요하다. Background : There was an worldwide outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) originated from China in late 2002. During that period three cases of suspected SARS and 17 cases of probable SARS were reported in Korea. With the concerns about the reemergence of SARS-coV transmission, it is important to be prepared for any possibility. So, this study is aimed to analysis the past measures in managing SARS and propose the amendatory plans to improve the preparedness. Materials & Methods : Questionnaires were collected among clinicians with any experience in managing the probable or suspected SARS cases in Oct. 2003. 17 out of 22 hospitals responded to the questionnaire. The contents in the questionnaire were practical activities, personal equipments, response plans, isolation facilities in emergency centers, outpatient clinics, general wards and intensive care units, and relationship with the public health department. Results : The dedicated isolation rooms in emergency centers, outpatient clinics, general wards, and intensive care units were prepared in 9 (9/17, 52.9%), 5 (5/17, 29.4%), 15 (15/16, 93.7%), and 4 (4/16, 25.0%) hospitals, respectively. Except for one hospital that newly made negative pressure room for SARS, single or multi-bed rooms without airborne infection control were used in all the other hospitals. The personal precaution principles were kept quite well in general wards. Before the designation of SARS hospital by the public health department prior evalution to see if the hospital was suitable for managing SARS was conducted in only 1 (1/12, 8.3%) hospital. The results of laboratory diagnosis were reported back in 1 (1/15, 6.6%) hospital. Conclusions : The isolation facilities which can control airborne infection were almost deficient not only for SARS but also for other respiratory transmissible diseases. For the infection control of transmissible diseases including SARS, more investment is needed on medical facilities and comprehensive support from the public health department required.
Renal papillary necrosis occurs most commonly in association with urinary tract infection, diabetes mellitus, sickle cell disease, vascular disease, and analgesic nephropathy. Clinical presentation may be related to symptoms of pyelonephritis such as flank pain, renal colic, hematuria, Proteinuria, recurrent fever. The necrotic tissue may be sloughed off, and the diagnosis can sometimes be made by finding piece of renal medullary tissue in the urine. Pyelography may demonstrate cavities and sinuses in the resion of papillae. Anuria & oliguria can lead to the acute renal failure, and especially prognosis and progress may be affect influenced by urinary infection. We report a case of renal papillary necrosis with ingestion of bear gallbladder. On pyelography, Persistent contrast is diagnostic clue of renal papillary necrosis. This case is not be related to urinary tract infection, but occurred acute renal failure. Expectant treatment was gone.
This paper aims to explore whether the “Campus Fence Afforestation Project”, which is one of the Seoul’s green strategies, has contributed to a qualitative and quantitative improvement in civic life. Therefore, this study defined these created places in this purpose as “Neighborhood Green Space”. In doing so, three main factors of “Neighborhood Green Space” were drawn and used as a measure to evaluate “Campus Fence Afforestation Project”. The physical characteristic of Campus Fence Afforestation Project was elaborated, while at the same time interviews and questionnaire were canvassed for the local aspiration. This combined analysis resulted in the importance of “Campus Fence Afforestation Project” located specially in Kangbuk area in Seoul due to a lack of neighborhood green space compared to Kangnam are. More over, it is essential to build an utilizable space as an agent of urban open space - which acts like a “functional park” rather than just a “green space” - for a revitalization.
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Three dimensional self-assembled graphene hydrogels were easily fabricated by electron beam irradiation (EBI) using an aqueous solution of wool/poly(vinyl alcohol) and graphene oxide (GO). After exposure to various levels of EBI radiation, the highly porous, self-assembled, wool-based graphene hydrogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; to determine the gel fraction, degree of swelling, gel strength, kinetics-of-swelling analyses and removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from the aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that EBI played a significantly important role in reducing GO to graphene. The adsorption equilibrium of Cr(VI) was reached within 80 min and the adsorption capacity was dramatically increased as the acidity of the initial solution was decreased from pH 5 to 2. Changes in ionic strength did not exert much effect on the adsorption behavior.