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      • KCI등재

        은행나무의 잎끝마름병에 미치는 SO2 의 영향

        이두형,배공영,박소홍,강연지 한국환경농학회 1999 한국환경농학회지 Vol.18 No.2

        대기오염과 병충해발생과의 관계를 규명하고자 은행나무에 SO₂가스를 처리한 후, 잎끝마름병균을 접종하여 식물의 생리·생화학적인 변화를 조사하였다. 0.1㎕/ℓ의 SO₂가스를 하루 8시간씩 7일간 은행나무에 처리한 결과 Chlorosis등의 가시피해는 나타나지 않았으나, 광합성이 대조구에 비해 40%가량 감소되고, CO₂이용효율과 수분이용효율이 감소되는 현상을 보였다. 가스처리 후 병원균을 상처접종시키고 42일 뒤 SI와 SFI의 발병도를 조사한 결과 SI가 SFI에 비해 3배 가량 빠르게 병이 진전되어 있었다. 병원균의 먹이가 되는 당의 함량은 대조구, SFI, SI간에 유의성을 보일 만큼의 차이는 보이지 않았으나, 광합성은 SI가 SFI에 비해 11%가량 저하되었다. 광합성이 저하되었음에도 불구하고 당의 함량이 유지되었으므로 탄소 고정관계를 알아본 결과 CO₂ 이용효율이 저하되지 않았음을 알 수 있었다. 이와 함께 수분이용효율이 SI에서 SFI에 비해 13.2% 증가되었다. 이상의 결과를 종합해 보면, 이온유출량 등으로 보아 SO₂가스처리로 인해 식물이 연약해져 병원균에 대한 저항력이 낮아졌고, 수분이용효율의 증가로 인해 탄소 고정이 활발하게 이루어짐으로써 당이 원활히 합성되는 한편 내부적인 변화로 인해 합성된 당의 전류가 억제되어 잎에 당이 축적되었기 때문에 SI의 발병도가 훨씬 높았던 것으로 생각된다. To examine the relationship between air pollution and occurrence of disease in plants, we investigated the alteration of physiology and biochemistry of Ginkgo biloba by inoculating with Coniothyrium sp. and fumigating with 0.1㎕/ℓSO_(-2) Visual damage did not appear but photosynthesis, CO₂use efficiency(CUE) and water use efficiency(WUE) were reduced when G. biloba was exposed to SO₂for 7days (8 hours a day). When inoculated with Coniothyrium sp., the seventies of damage in G. biloba showed a threefold difference between SO₂-treatment (SI) and SO₂-free treatment (SFI) at day 42 from initial inoculation. Little difference was observed in sugar contents that may be used pathogens feed, among control, SFI and SI. In spite of the reduction in photosynthetic rate, sugar contents and CUE were maintained. WUE was enhanced 13% more at SI than SFI. The CO₂fixation boosted because of enhanced WUE, and thus sugar synthesis was not affected. In addition, sugar transport seems to be retarded for some internal alteration. Consequently, the severity of SI was more serious than that of SFI because Coniothyrium sp. easily invades into the physical texture of G. biloba weakened by SO₂fumigation and because sugar was accumulated in leaves of G. biloba.

      • KCI등재

        상처받은 애착과 적대의 이동 : 김소진을 중심으로

        이소영 ( Lee So-young ) 민족문학사학회·민족문학사연구소 2021 민족문학사연구 Vol.- No.75

        이 글은 국가보안법이 분단문학에서 좌익2세 작가들이 아버지를 형상화하는 수준을 결정짓는 기율로서 기능해왔다는 전제 하에 87년 체제의 성립과 국가보안법의 개정이 문학(화)장에 야기한 파문을 살펴보고자 했다. 이는 분단문학에서 아버지와 아들 중심의 관계가 더 이상 의미있는 소재가 아니었음에도 불구하고 김소진이 「쥐잡기」를 통해 분단문학의 계보를 이어나갔다는 점에 주목하게끔 한다. 김소진에 이르러 분단문학은 비로소 ‘아버지는 누구인가?’라는 물음이 아니라 끊임없이 아버지를 재현하는 아들, 즉 ‘나는 누구인가?’라는 질문으로 전환되는 것이다. 이때 김소진이 86세대라는 사실은 그의 문학이 수행했던 기억/문학의 정치성이 정체성 정치와 연동되어 있음을 짐작하게끔 한다. 87년 체제를 단순히 경제적 · 법률적 · 이데올로기적 · 공식적 제도가 아니라 사회문화적 · 비공식적 · 사적인 제도, 관계, 정체성, 의미 관계 일체를 포함하는 시스템(system)으로 간주할 때, 87년 체제의 한 요소이자 분단문학의 기율인 국가보안법이 86세대의 정체성과 밀접한 관련을 맺으면서 특정한 기억/문학의 정치성을 발휘했던 양상은 그 자체로 87년 체제의 단면을 보여주는 역동적인 드라마라고 할 수 있다. 그리고 이러한 드라마는 ‘정동(affect)’의 차원에서 제대로 포착 가능하다. 김소진 소설에서 ‘나’는 주로 상처받은 운동권으로 그려지는데, 그는 사회주의 이데올로기라는 ‘적대(antagonism)’의 상실을 아버지에 대한 애착으로 보상받고자 한다. 그러나 아버지에 대한 애착은 아버지를 부정했던 상처를 환기하는 것이었다. 이러한 ‘상처받은 애착(wounded attachment)’은 그 대상이 명확하다는 점에서 아버지의 누구도 탓할 수 없는 ‘원한(ressentiment)’과 구별된다. ‘나’는 아버지의 원한에 의해 구조화된 정체성 정치의 무력함과 거리를 두고자 하지만, 종종 아버지에게 감정 이입하면서 아버지처럼 나보다 연약한 자에게 상처를 입히는 가해자가 되어버린다. 한편, 아버지는 동시에 법의 영역에서 초연한 존재로 그려지는데, 이는 더 이상 ‘적’이 아닌 아버지가 다시 분단문학의 서사에 기입되기 위해서 취해야 했던 전략을 드러낸다. 그것은 바로 문학적인 것에 대한 단념이었다. 결국 김소진의 상처받은 애착은 적대의 자리에 대한 것이었다. 그러나 흥미롭게도 그의 소설에서 정작 적대의 대상으로 그려지는 것은 여성의 섹슈얼리티이다. 이는 김소진의 의도와 무관하게 1990년대 문학(화)장에서 적대의 대상이 이동하고 있던 양상을 보여준다. 따라서 김소진의 텍스트는, 적대의 위치에 머무르고 싶었으나 이미 대결자로 편입된 아버지와 대결자가 되고 싶었으나 여전히 적대로서 여겨졌던 여성의 섹슈얼리티 사이의 쟁투를 축약해서 보여주는 장소이다. 사라진 적대에 대한 상처받은 애착이 적대와 경합의 엇갈린 공존을 만들어낸 것이다. This treatise attempts to examine the ripples created by the establishment of the system in 1987 and the revision of the Nation Security Act and their impact on the literature landscape, on the premise that the Nation Security Act has functioned as the order that determines the degree in which second generation left-wing writers embody their fathers in division literature. This draws attention to the fact that, even while the relationship between father and son was no longer a meaningful topic in division literature, Kim So-jin persisted with the genealogy of division literature through his “Catch a Rat.” It is with Kim So-jin’s arrival that divisional literature ultimately turns into the question of “who I am” as the son that continuously reproduces the father, not the question of “who the father is.” That being noted, the fact that Kim So-jin is a member of the 86 generation allows us to conjecture that the politics of memory and literature having been performed by his literary landscape is indeed linked to identity politics. When the system in 1987 is deemed to be the system encompassing the entirety of sociocultural, informal, and private institutions, relationships, identity, and semantic relationships, not merely an economic, legal, ideological, or formal institution; it is then that the aspect of the Nation Security Act―the constituent of the system in 1987 and the discipline of divisional literature―, which demonstrated the politics of specific memories and literature while being closely connected to the identity of the 86 generation, is rendered a dynamic drama showcasing a cross section of the system. Furthermore, the drama can be properly captured from the dimension of “affect.” In Kim So-jin’s novel, the protagonist “I” is mainly portrayed as a wounded activist, and he seeks to be compensated for the loss of “antagonism,” a socialist ideology, with his attachment to his father. However, his attachment would evoke the wounds that denied his father. His “wounded attachment,” being specifically directed toward his targets, is to be distinguished from “ressentiment” of his father who could not blame anyone. The protagonist “I” intends to distance himself from the powerlessness of identity politics structured by his father’s resentment, but he would often find himself sympathizing with his father to become the same perpetrator who wounds the weak. On another note, the father is simultaneously portrayed as an unprecedented being in the realm of law, and this is to reveal his strategy that he, who is no longer deemed an “enemy,” had to take in order to be re-written in the narrative of divisional literature―his renunciation of the literature. Ultimately, Kim So-jin’s wounded attachment is towards the position of antagonism. Interestingly, however, what is indeed portrayed as the object of antagonism in Kim So-jin’s novel is women’s sexuality, perhaps indicating the object of antagonism in the literary landscape in the 1990s trending toward elsewhere, regardless of his intention. Therefore, Kim So-jin’s text summarizes to illustrate the struggle between the father who had been incorporated as a confronter even while not seeking to give up the position of antagonism, and the sexuality of a woman who sought to become a confronter but still was regarded as antagonism. The wounded attachment to antagonism in absence engendered the mixed coexistence of antagonism and agonistic.

      • KCI등재

        논문 : 족도리풀속의 1신종: 연변족도리풀(Asarum yeonbyeonense M. Kim & S. So)

        소순구 ( Soon Ku So ),황용 ( Yong Hwang ),이정희 ( Chung Hee Lee ),김무열 ( Mu Yeol Kim ) 한국식물분류학회 2010 식물 분류학회지 Vol.40 No.4

        백두산 주변에서 족도리풀속의 1신종인 연변족도리풀(Asarum yeonbyeonense M. Kim & S. So)을 새로이 발견하여 기재하였다. 연변족도리풀은 엽병에 털이 있고 꽃받침 열편이 뒤로 젖혀져 서울족도리풀이나 만주족도리풀과 매우 유사하나, 꽃받침 열편이 두꺼우며 기부에 자색띠가 있어 뚜렷이 구별된다. 황록족도리풀 (A. sieboldii var. viridiluteolum Y. Lee)은 연변족도리풀과 아주 유사하나, 꽃받침 열편이 녹색이고 엽병에 털이 없어 학명은 A. yeonbyeonense var. viridiluteolum (Y. Lee) M. Kim & S. So로, 한글명은 녹연변족도리풀로 변경하였다. A new species, Asarum yeonbyeonense M. Kim & S. So, is named and described from Mt. Baekdu in Korea. This new species is distinctly different from the related species A. mandshuricum (Maxim.) M. Kim & S. So according to the purple band at the base of the calyx lobes and the thick calyx lobes. In addition, Asarum sieboldii var. viridiluteolum Y. Lee is closely related to A. yeonbyeonense M. Kim & S. So due to its reflexed calyx lobes; however, this variety has green calyx lobes and pubescent petioles. Therefore its scientific name was changed to Asarum yeonbyeonense var. viridiluteolum (Y. Lee) M. Kim & S. So, and its Korean name should be changed into Nokyeonbyeon-Jokdoripul.

      • KCI등재

        우리나라의 주요 도시별 대기중 SO2 및 NO2 오염도의 변화 특성

        이대성,소선섭,신홍렬 한국지구과학회 1996 韓國地球科學會誌 Vol.17 No.2

        SO₂ concentration in the air over the large cities, such as Seoul, Pusan and Daegu, was on the decrease in recent years. Although NO₂ concentration diminished temporarily from 1989 to 1991, it increased again from 1992. Maximum value of SO₂concentration throughout the year in Seoul was recorded in December to January (Winter), and minimum value of that in July to August (Summer). Annual variation of NO₂ concentration was smaller than that of SO₂ concentration. Maximum value of SO₂concentration in a day was shown at 8∼9 a.m. regardless of season, while minimum value was shown at 4-5 p.m.. Maximum value of NO₂ concentration was recorded at 10 a.m., which lagged 1-2 hours behind the peak time of SO₂ concentration. The concentrations of SO₂ and NO₂ in the air as well as the magnitude of the hourly variations were larger over Seoul than those over smaller cities. It was caused by the difference of the discharged amount and the large effect of Heat Island over a large city.

      • KCI우수등재

        김소월의 한시 국역 양상과 그 문학사적 의미 연구

        정소연(Chung, So-yeon) 국어국문학회 2017 국어국문학 Vol.0 No.178

        본고는 1920~30년대에 17제 27수의 중국 한시를 국역한 김소월의 경우가 20세기초의 다른 시인들의 국역 작업에 비해 가지는 두드러진 특징을 살피고 그 문학사적 의미를 탐색한 것이다. 김소월은 국역이 분명한 16제와 한시와의 상관성이 깊은 1제 11수 등 총 17제 27수의 한시 국역시를 남겼는데, 그 구체적 특징은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 이백, 두보 등의 유명 당시(唐詩)를 많이 국역하였지만, 악부 민가나 노래로 불리는 것에 대한 부제를 곳곳에 기록해두어 시와 노래에 대한 관심을 모두 보였다. 둘째, 원시(原詩)가 단연체인 것과 달리 여러 연으로 길게 국역하거나, 원시도 다연체로 재배열하는 등 한시의 함축적이고 간결한 특성보다는 동어 반복 등으로 장형화되는 국역의 특징이 보인다. 셋째, 중국의 지명을 한국화하고 특정 성별이나 인간관계를 ‘님’, ‘젊은이’, ‘우리’ 등으로 보편화할 뿐만 아니라, 다룬 작품의 내용도 이별과 사별, 고향을 떠나온 상황, 나라 잃은 상황 등으로 보편성을 지향하는 국역을 하였다. 넷째, 동어 반복, 감탄구, 의성어, 대화적 문체, 지시사 사용 등 구술적 특성이 강화될뿐만 아니라 이를 통해 현재 진행되고 있다는 생생한 현장감과 화자의 정서 표현이 강화되는 효과를 보인다. 이러한 국역의 특성은 단순한 번역에서 나아가 원시(原詩)를 수용한 수용자의 반응을 담아 표현하는 화답시적 성격을 가지는 것이다. 또한 근대시가 나아갈 방향이 기록성과 문자성 위주의 고급문학으로서의 시(詩)로서가 아니라 많은 사람의 공감을 얻을 수 있는 일상 구어로 된 노래[歌]를 포함한 시가(詩歌)를 추구하는 것이어야 함을 보여준다. 이로써 현재 위축된 시의 존재 기반을 넓히기 위해서는 시에서 시 · 가 · 요(詩 · 歌 · 謠)를 아우르는 시 의식을 회복해야 함을 김소월의 한시 국역 태도에서 찾을 수 있다. This study is on Kim, So-Woel’s translation into Korean language of Chinese traditional hansi in 1920~1930s. In the early of 20th century, many poets translated foreign poetry into Korean language. It is important that it is beginning time to use Korean language as a public national written language. And some poets translated Europe contemporary poetry but others Chinese ‘traditional’ poetry. Kim, So-Woel is the representative in this literary phenomenon. First, Kim, So-Woel translated Dang dynasty’s poetry including folk songs and showed his concern on also songs not only poetry. Second, Kim translated longer than original hansi by adding new contents or dividing into several stanzas. Third, He translated Chinese original names of place and person into universal names to adjust Korean situation. And the contents of hansi are farewell, longing for lover or hometown, it is applicable to our people of Japanese colonial era. Fourth, his translated Korean poetry have the characteristics of orality like onomatopoeia, repetition of same words, exclamatory phrases, conversational style, demonstrative words, etc. Through these thins, translated poetry have vivid sense of realism and speaker’s emotional expression is reinforced. It shows that Kim, So-Woel’s translation is not simply change of language, but responding to Chinese poetry. Hansi was the center and representative genre in the old times, but Kim, So-Woel tried to show new modern Korean poetry’s direction by translated poetry of Korean classical rhythm and orality. His poetry consciousness shows us the way forward that modern poetry should have both orality and literacy by meeting songs.

      • KCI등재

        SCL-90-R을 사용한 사상체질별 심리정신 특성 연구

        채한(Han Chae),이수진(Soo Jin Lee),박소정(So Jung Park),김병주(Byung Joo Kim),홍진우(Jin Woo Hong),황민우(Min Woo Hwang),이상남(Sang Nam Lee),한창현(Chang Hyun Han),권영규(Young Kyu Kwon) 한의병리학회 2010 동의생리병리학회지 Vol.24 No.4

        This study was to examine the neuroticism related to psychological characteristics of each Sasang types using SCL-90-R with 107 students from College of Oriental Medicine, Daeguhaani University. We did ANOVA analysis with seven neuroticism-related sub-scales and found significant differences in somatization (F=3.701, p=0.028) and hostility (F=4.396, p=0.015). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (23.17±8.95) has significantly (p=0.048, p=0.012) higher score than Tae-Eum (19.25±5.97) and So-Yang(19.25±5.76) type in somatization. In hostility, the So-yang type (11.31±3.98) has significantly (p=0.011, p=0.015) higher score than Tae-Eum (8.80±2.61) and So-Eum (9.44±3.35) type. The ANOVA analysis with female subjects found significant differences in anxiety (F=3.88, p=0.03) and hostility (F=5.04, p=0.01). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (20.36±5.44, 12.36±3.82) has significantly (p=0.043, p=0.015) higher score compared to the So-Eum type (15.46±3.36, 8.69±2.06) in anxiety and hostility. The profile analysis using seven neuroticism-related subscalesof SCL-90-R did not revealed significant differences (Flatness with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=202.347, p=0.0001), Parallelism with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=1.428, p=0.191)). We discussed the implications of neuroticism in Sasang typology and SCL-90-R somatization, anxiety and hostility scales. This study showed opposite results compared to the previous studies that So-Eum type has higher neuroticism compared to the So-Yang and Tae-Eum type. The reason for this discrepancy between this and previous studies, and differences between male and female should be examined thoroughly with larger and balanced sample.

      • 言語가 映像에 미치는 影響과 그 聽覺的 Rhythm에 關한 硏究

        金蘇東 漢陽大學校 1972 論文集 Vol.6 No.-

        Introduction 1. Preface 2. How language is related to image. (1) Gesture language. (Cinema language) (2) living language (Conversation) 3. How language is Connected with life environment. (1) Episode and it's background (2) Dialogue and it's expression 4. How language is related to rhythm. (1) Conscious expression and it's rhythm (2) Poetry and it's way of expression (3) Poetry and it's rhythmic structure 5. Dialogue and it's aural rhythm. (1) Internal rhythm (2) External rhythm 6. Conclusion (1) The relation between language and image (2) Dialogue and it's aural rhythm 1. Preface 1) To research how language (Conscious Voice) affects on the image (Visible form) is the most important study of film art because the sense organs of a man immediately rush in to the process of recognition when a human emotion and consciousness are communicated. 2) On the screen, action causes some kind of language just as every dialogus is connected directly with some type of action. 3) Language is a conception of recognition and at the same time it should be regarded as an individual human state. 4) Though so many theories about visual rhythm of image have been studied long since, the more important problem of aural rhythm in the conversation has been unsolved so far. 2. How language is related to image. 1) Under an illusive process of recognition, we feel a perfect real life from the presentation of images on the screen, but even if these excellent images present a living life, we can no more keep endurance to appreciate them without language because conversation is an important element of realism. 2) Cinema language Any of highly educated intelligent people of to-day do not desire to understand a theme of film by a suggestion, hint or judgement (by Cinema language) but want to comprehend things rapidly and exactly because he is living in the material civilization surounded with scientific ultra speed, variety of tempo and the complicated rhythm of the age. 3) Conversation An excellent charm of dialogues leads image to give a deep impression upon our mind, by the same way as an intellectual dialogue of modern language makes image to present a realistic emotional sensitivity of modern people. 3. How language is Connected with life environment. 1) Episode and it's back ground A. Sometimes, back ground expresses the more abundant emotion of episode than language. B. It should be remembered that a good piece of artistic film is not determined by how the fact of incident is communicated in detail but, by how it exactly expresses the truth in terms of the reality of background. 2) Dialogue and it's expression The sensuous quality and sharp expression of dialogue with an ability to present a keen state of reality can move our mind to-day 4. How language is related to rhythm. 1) Conscious expression and it's rhythm. A. The universe consists of numberless elements of rhythm and we live among them and are surounded by them. B. Mankind created a language at their will and imitated the rhythm of nature in their language. 2) Poetry and it's way of expression. A. We can find the worth and beauty of language in the visual rhythm (Sentence) of poetry and can hear the charm and music of language from it's aural rhythm. B. An internal rhythm of consciousness and an external rhythm of aural beauty make us not only feel the clear conception of emotion but receive wonderful images in our mind. 5. Dialogue and it's aural rhythm. 1) Internal rhythm. A. Dialogue stimulates the listener's mind psychologically and the listener replies with a stimulant dialogue to the speaker. Such a repetition of exciting dialogues forms a chain of spiritual rhythm. B. Aural rhythm also should be considered in terms of the theory of conflict just as Eisenstein explained his montage of shot as a conflict because the aural rhythm conflict with each other so that it may become an chain of stimulation and becomes a montage of dialogue by the aural rhythm. 2) External rhythm A. As a shot is one of continuous images so dialogue is a short piece of lasting consciousness to create real life. B. The harmonious melodies of 'La traviata formed by the emotional rhythm make us fall in to the sensuous impression, just as the splendid aural rhythm of dialogue does so. 6. Conclusion 1) Soviet theorists had so firm a belief to achieve a film montage by the creation of visual conception and they thought those principles of montage could communicate the whole contents of theme perfectly to the audience, but the montage of shots is still far from the full expression of real living. 2) French theorists wanted to extract a genie or a soul from the suggestion of images composed by the visual rhythm and they endeavored with their confidence to reproduce an human life by the presentation of spiritual photographs and visual rhythm of images, but they couldn't describe the reality of life. 3) Now, in the contemporary film, verbal consciousness has to complete the unity of meaning with the help of images and visual consciousness must be systematized by the supplement of languages for the comprehension of the exact intention of author. 4) The aural rhythm of dialogue is an indispensable element of film art to-day, so anyone hardly feels a real life or our age on the screen without it.

      • 林地利用에 따른 溪流水의 水質變化

        具瀟瑛,鄭源玉,金弘洙,朴晋源,麻鎬燮 경상대학교 농과대학 부속연습림 2001 演習林硏究報告 Vol.- No.11

        Table 2. Evaluation of stream water quality in three stands by Drinking water quality standard <원문참조> 임지이용에 따른 수질변화 및 오염정도를 구명하여 향후 비점오염원 관리를 위한 기초자료를 제공하고자 경남 진주시 정평리에 위치한 3개 임분(소나무, 밤나무Ⅰ, 반나무Ⅱ임분)에서 2000년 7월부터 9월까지 계류수의 수질변화를 분석하여 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 세 임분의 계류수 pH는 소나무 임분(pH6.59)>밤나무 Ⅱ임분(ph 6.53)>밤나무 Ⅰ임분(pH 6.47)계류수 순으로 나타났다. 2. 전기전도도는 밤나무 Ⅰ임분>소나무 임분>밤나무 Ⅱ임분 계류수의 순으로 높게 나타났다. 3. 양이온은 세 임분의 계류수 모두 Ca^2+, Na^+, Mg^2+, K^+, NH_^+의 순으로 높게 나타났다. 4. 음이온은 소나무 임분과 밤나무 Ⅱ임분 계류수에서는 SO_4^2, Cl, NO_3의 순으로 높게 나타났고, 밤나무 Ⅰ임분 계류수에서는 NO_3, SO_4^2, Cl 의 순으로 높게 나타나 차이를 보였다. 5. 소나무, 밤나무 Ⅱ임분 계류수는 pH, NH_4+, NO_3, Cl, SO_4^2이 먹는 물 수질기준 범위내에 있었다. 그러나 밤나무 Ⅰ임분 계류수에서 5항목 중 NO_3는 먹는 물 수질기준을 넘어서는 범위에 있어 임지이용에 따른 하류수질의 오염이 우려되었다. 따라서 이러한 상류지역에서 오염원 차단을 위한 수질정화시설 등의 대책이 마련되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. This study was carried out to clarify the change characteristics of stream water quality by land-use of forest from July to September, 2000 in three stands(Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata(Ⅰ), Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand) of Jeongpyeong-ri, Jinju-si, Gyeongnam. The mean pH of rainfall results in acid rain of 5.3. The pH of stream water in three stands was hugh in order of Pinus densiflora (pH 6.59), Castanea crenata(Ⅱ)(pH 6.53) and Castanea crenata(Ⅰ) stand(pH 6.47). The electrical conductivity of stream water was high in order of Castanea crenata(Ⅰ), Pinus densiflora and Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand. Cations of three stand in stream water high in order of Ca^2+, Na^+, Mg^2+, K^+ and NH_4^+. But anions of stream water in Pinus densiflora stand and Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand were high in order of SO_4^2, Cl and NO_3. In Castanea crenata(Ⅰ) stand cations of stream water were high in order of NO_3, SO_^2 and Cl. The level of pH, NH_4^+, NO_3, Cl and SO_4^2 of stream water in Pinus densiflora stand and Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand reached within the level of domestic use standard for drinking water But the level of NO_3 of stream water in Castanea crenata(Ⅰ) stand was higher than that of domestic use standard. Therefore, non-point sources like forest watersheds which are fertilizer application lands should be taken to the appropriate mitigation measures.

      • KCI등재

        가스상 대기오염물질에 의한 종이 기록물의 가속열화 특성 연구

        정소윤(So-Yoon Jeong),전수연(Soo-Yeon Jeon),백소라(So-Ra Baek),정현석(Hyun-Seok Jeong),이진희(Jin-Hee Lee),김형진(Hyoung-Jin Kim) 한국펄프·종이공학회 2015 펄프.종이技術 Vol.47 No.4

        Paper records were generally degraded by some factors from atmospheric environments, like temperature, relative humidity or air pollutants. In this study, the degradation behavior of paper records by single or mixed gases of NO₂, SO₂, HCHO and TVOC was evaluated. The mechanical, optical and chemical properties of 4 kinds of paper (acid and neutral-based printing paper, traditional Hanji, and filter paper) were directly and indirectly affected by gaseous harmful materials. The brightness and L<SUP>*</SUP> value in all papers were slightly increased by accelerated aging under gaseous HCHO and TVOCs, but highly decreased by conditions under gases NO₂ and SO₂. The optical properties of paper records were most vulnerable in acid-based paper and high stable in filter paper and traditional Hanji by air pollutant degradation. The aging treatments under mixed gas pollutants including NO₂ resulted in decrease of physical, mechanical and optical properties of paper, so it was supposed that the concentration of NO₂ gas would be strictly controlled for optimum indoor air quality management in domestic storage centers for paper records.

      • KCI등재

        아리랑 등재 후의 기(奇)현상

        이소라(Yi So-ra) 비교민속학회 2015 비교민속학 Vol.0 No.56

        비교민속학회가 <유네스코 무형문화유산 체제에 대한 비판적 검토>라는 담론으로 개최한 2014년 추계 학술대회에서의 발표문을 다시 다듬어 기술하였다. 문화재청이 등재 신청을 하며 제출한 “후렴구가 ‘아리랑, 아리랑, 아라리요’를 포함하는 일련의 노래군”을 살피고, 1894년까지의 아리랑 류엔 이러한 후렴구가 나타나지 않음을 언급했다. 유네스코의 등재조건인 ‘살아있는’ 전통문화, 끊임없이 ‘재창조 해 온’을 의식하여 특징있는 본문가사를 내 걸거나 또는 후렴구를 조금 손질하여 지역 이름을 붙이고는 ‘순수’아리랑이라 출범함은 가사 뿐만 아니라 가락의 변별성, 후렴구 내지 받음구의 유형 변별적 중요성, 오랜 전파성이 요청되는 ‘전통’문화 민(‘民’)요 유형의 바람직한 전승 방향이 아님을 서술하였다. 아리랑 공연에 있어서는 역사적으로 유형적 변별성이 있는 것은 <중원 아리랑> <괴산 아리랑> 등 지역 이름을 붙일 수 있지만, 그렇지 못한 것은 <예천 전승 아리랑> <공주 전승 아리랑> 등 ‘전승’이라는 어휘를 지역 이름 뒤에 넣음이 후 세대의 아리랑 이해를 위해 바람직하다. 민요의 현대적 수용에 있어서는 창작활동이 적극 요청된다. 그러나 작창자가 분명한 것은 이미 순수 민(‘民’)요는 아니다. 이러한 류의 공연은 <김소희 창 북간도 아리랑> <이걸재 아리랑> 등 작창자의 이름을 앞에다 붙여 창작 유형의 아리랑임을 표시함이 좋다. 이른바 ‘아리랑 정신’의 중요한 하나는 민족의 자주 정신인 만큼 그 지역에 수백 년간 전승되어왔으나 지금은 테입 속에 잠들어 있는 그 지역의 얼굴인 논매기소리 등 일노래를 배우고 익히며 전승을 위한 경연대회가 열리고 시군마다의 지정문화재로 보호한다든가, 합주곡 등 창작활동을 지원하는 지역마다의 새로운 붐이 일어나기를 기대하였다. So called, Bonjo Arirang was composed as the theme song for the movie Arirang, filmed by Mr. Na Wun-gyu in 1926. This movie and its theme song were enormously popular with the Korean people. The first half refrain of Bonjo Arirang (Film Arirang) is ‘Arirang Arirang Arariyo’. The first half refrain like this is found mainly among Arirang pieces of the early 20C, the Japanese ruling era. There are Gangwon-do Eoreori(Jeongseon Arari), Jajin Arari sung when planting rice, Jungwon Araseong(a rice-planting song of Chungju area, Chung-buk Province) and the Goisan type Arirang as the old Arirang pieces before 20C. Gangwon-do Eoreori is said to have been sung without a refrain in the old times. the first half refrain of Jajin Arari sung when planting rice is ‘Ariari Ariari Arariyo’. That of Jungwon Araseong is ‘Arariyo Arariyo’. That of the Goisan type Arirang is ‘Iya Iya Arariya’. Those of Jindo Arirang and Miryang Arirang are ‘Ariarirang Srisrirang Arariganatne’. Like these, the Arirang designated as a world heritage is fitting the focus not to the old Arirang but to the film Arirang. So nowadays, many Arirang pieces of the Japanese ruling era, which are not folksong of local community but come from individual, entry on the stage with the name of the area(city or the district). Yecheon Arirang is only traditional Jajin Arari. But it has several unique words of the solo part. Gongju Arirang is only traditional Sanaji piece(which is origin of Jindo Arirang), only traditional Yeoggeum Arirang(similar with Eoreori of Gangwon Province, but has a narrative part), and only traditional Jajin Arari(Arirang of 5 beats-rhythm) etc. And so, it’s good to call Yecheon Arirang is as <Yecheon Jeonseung Arirang>, and to call Gongju Arirang is as <Gongju Jeonseung Arirang>. Sangju Arirang with a individual composer (Mrs. Kim So-heoi) is good to call <Kim So-heoi Bukgando Arirang>. An Arirang mind is the spirit of independence. It’s more hopeful to hand down well the unique working song of the area like the songs of every town sung when weeding a rice paddy than to make newly the area Arirang because Arirang was designated as a World Heritage.

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