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Objectives : The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral and emotional problems associated with nocturnal enuresis in Korean children. Methods : Three hundred eighteen children with nocturnal enuresis, together with their parents, completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Disruptive Behavior Disorder Scale according to DSM-IV (DBDS), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSC). Ninety-three normal students were selected as the control group. Results : Compared to the normal control group, the mean scores with regard to the withdrawn, social problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems profiles were significantly higher in the nocturnal enuresis group according to the CBCL results. The nocturnal enuresis group also scored significantly higher in the ADHD and ODD profiles of the DBDS. The nocturnal enuresis group was more depressed and anxious than the control group according to the results of the CDI and STAI. The mean score of the PHCSC was significantly lower in the nocturnal enuresis group when compared to the normal control group. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that children with nocturnal enuresis in Korea have clinically relevant behavioral and emotional problems. The findings support the link between nocturnal enuresis and psychopathology in Korean children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of water extract of Patriniae Herba on the poliferation of human cancer cell-lines. The effects of Patriniae Herba on the poliferation of A43l, HeLa, MOLT-4, K562 cells, Balb/c 3T3 cells, mouse thymocytes, splenocytes and human lymphocytes were estimated by MTT colorimetric assay, The results were as follows; 1. Patriniae Herbs did not effect A43l, HeLa, MOLT-4, K562 cells. 2. The cytotoxicity of mitomycin C on MOLT-4 cells was increased by the combination of Patriniae Herba. 3. Patriniae Herba inhibited the proliferation of Balb/c 3T3 cells. 4. Patriniae Herba stimulated the proliferation of thymocytes. 5. Patriniae Herba stimulated the proliferation of splenocytes. 6. Patriniae Herba stimulated the proliferation of human lymphocytes.
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본 연구에서는 기존의 통합교육과정과 통합교과의 문제점을 분석하고, 주제중심 통합학습의 개념 및 모형, 선행연구를 고찰하여 주제단원 중심 통합학습과 통합수행평가를 설계하는데 그 목적이 있다. 특히, ‘주제단원 중심 통합학습과 통합수행평가’는 현행 통합교육과정의 문제점과 통합교과 특성의 한계를 극복할 수 있는 대안적 통합학습으로서의 가능성을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구의 결론은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 통합의 한 가지 방법으로서 설계한 ‘주제단원 중심 통합학습’은 학교 교육과정과 괴리되지 않고 교육 현장의 교사들이 직접 활용할 수 있도록 주제단원 중심통합학습과 관련된 다양한 연수 프로그램을 개발해야 한다. 둘째, 본 연구에서 개발된 ‘주제단원중심 통합학습’은 수업과 평가가 이원화되는 것이 아니라, 학교에서 교과 단위 시간에 평가하는 수행평가와 연계하여 통합된 수행평가를 실시함으로써 교육 목표와 교육 평가가 일치하는 교육과정을 운영할 수 있다. 그러나, ‘주제단원 중심 통합학습과 통합수행평가’를 좀 더 효과적으로 실시하기 위해서는 주제단원 중심 통합학습과 통합수행평가를 실시하는 교사의 전문성을 함양할 수 있도록 연수기회의 확대와 통합학습에 대한 다양한 프로그램 보급이 우선시 되어야 하고 주제단원 중심 통합학습과 통합수행평가의 일반화를 위하여 효과성을 검증하고, 수정·보완함으로써 보다 다양한 통합학습의 교수·학습 방법을 활용할 수 있어야 한다. This study sets out to analyze the problems with the old integrated curricula and subjects,consider theme-centric integrated learning in terms of concept, model, and previous studies, anddesign theme unit-centric integrated learning and integrated performance evaluation. The resultsreveal that “theme unit-centric integrated learning and integrated performance evaluation” hadthe potential as alternative integrated learning to overcome the problems with the currentintegrated curricula and the limitations of the characteristics of the integrated subjects. The conclusions of the study are as follows: first, “theme unit-centric integrated learning”designed as one of approaches towards integration was not separated from the school curricula. It's necessary to develop a range of in-service training programs related to theme unit-centric integrated learning so that the teachers can make use of it in person. Secondly, “theme unit-centric integrated performance evaluation” developed in the study was combined with the performance evaluation carried out during the subject's unit hours in school instead of separating lessons and evaluations, thus helping to run a curriculum in which the educational goals would match the educational evaluations. In order to implement “theme unit-centric integrated learning and integrated performance evaluation” in a more effective way, there should be more chances for in-service training to help the teachers increase their professionalism related to the areas, and more diverse programs should be distributed in respect to integrated learning. Instructors need to utilize more diverse teaching and learning methods of integrated learning by testing the effects of theme unit-centric integrated learning and integrated performance evaluation, and further revising and supplementing them.
The response spectrum is the best representation of earthquake for engineering purposes because it takes account of the natural frequencies of structures. In general PGA(Peak Ground Acceleration) is used to scale the standard response spectrum. But it is likely to lead to serious error, because the shapes of response spectra depend on magnitude, source distance and site conditions. Therefore, theoretical prediction called stochastic source models have been used for predicting ground motion and response spectrum by magnitude and distance in regions where strong ground motion data are sparse. The deterministic method that PGA scales the design spectrum is prescribed in Korea, so unexpected error can be occured. Therefore the stochastic simulation method is employed to predict ground motion and to estimate the response spectrum for comparison with the design spectrum in this study. Stochastic source model that the shape is controlled by two corner frequency is computed and verified by comparing with Gyeongju earthquake using site-amplification(Boor & Joyner, 1997) to consider site condition. And it is proved how much this difference has an effect on response of structure such as steel box girder bridge.
In this paper reliability analysis using stochastic finite element method is formulated, and with its result reliability analysis is accomplished. A displacement and member force of frame structure is acquired in SFEMP(Stochastic Finite Element Method Program) using perturbation method, and then DMCSP(Direct Monte Carlo Simulation Program) is used to verify and compare previous results. With the previous two results, approximate reliability analyses of the MFOSM(Mean First Order Second Moment), AFOSM(Advanced First Order Second Moment), and MCS(Monte Carlo Simulation) including a relatively simple limit state function have accomplished and base of a safety estimate could be acquired. Finally, When the reliability analysis of a complicated structure using stochastic finite element method is accomplished, time is efficiently reduced, and the safety of a structure can be easily evaluated. Hence SFEMP may be considered an efficient tool for evaluating the structural safety and reliability of frame structure.
This study investigates the performance of the reinforced concrete frame with the steel plate slit damper. The test was carried out to investigate the structural behavior between the reinforced concrete bare frame and the reinforced concrete frame with the steel plate slit damper. The test results showed that the energy absorption capacity of the damped-frame was several times larger than that of the bare frame. For the damage by the input energy is concentrated on the steel plate slit damper, the ductilities of the former structure were increased and the damaged frame can be reused after exchange the steel plate slit damper.
The inverted papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma are common neoplasia in the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx, but the incidence of these tumors are very low and the study on the oncogenesis or biological activity of the tumor cells are not well known. This study was designed to evaluate the oncogenic roles of the p53 gene and the proliferative activity of the tumor cells in the inflammatory polyp, inverted papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma. The experiment was carried by the immunohistochemical stains about the p53 protein, PCNA and Ki-67, histochemical stain about the AgNORs. and flow cytometric analysis about the DNA ploidy using the formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. The frequency of the expression of p53 protein was 0%(0/16 cases) in the inflammatory polyps, 18.8% (3/16 cases) in the inverted papillomas, and 87.5%(14/16 cases) in the squamous cell carcinomas. The labelling index(%) of the PCNA and Ki-67 was 5.3% and 3.3% in the inflammatoy polyps, 29.6% and 25.2% in the inverted papillomas, and 51.9% and 36.8% in the squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of the PCNA and Ki-67 was distributed in the periphery of the tumor islands of the inverted papilloma and was distributed in the both of center and periphery of the tumor islands of the squamous cell carcinoma. The number of nuclear AgNORs was increased in the order of inflammatory polyps (0.96), inverted papillomas(1.34) and squamous cell carcinoma(2.09). The frequency of the DNA aneuploidy was 0%(0/16 cases) in the inflammatory polyps, 18.8%(3/16 cases) in the inverted papillomas. and 12.5%(2/16 cases) in the squamous cell carcinomas. Above results indicates that the changes of the p53 gene and proliferative activity of the tumor cells are involved on the oncogenesis and the biological activity of the inverted papilloma or squamous cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx and sinonasa cavity.
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본 연구는 스캐폴딩 전략을 활용한 초등학교 체육과 책임감 모형(TPSR)의 수업 설계 방안을 탐색하고 수업에 적용해 봄으로써 현장 적용 가능성을 살펴보는데 있다. 본 연구는 D광역시 D교육대학교부설초등학교 3학년 1학급 32명을 대상으로 2009년 6월 3일부터 8월 31일까지 스캐폴딩 전략을 활용한 초등학교 체육과 책임감 모형(TPSR) 수업을 먼저 설계한 후, 9월 1일부터 10월 31일까지 설계한 스캐폴딩 전략을 활용한 초등학교 체육과 책임감 모형(TPSR) 수업 12차시를 학교 현장에 적용하였다. 특히, 본 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위해서 교사의 활동평가서와 수업일지, 학생의 심층 면담 및 수업 소감문 등의 자료 수집을 통해 질적인 자료 분석 방법으로 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결론을 제시하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 체육과 수업에서 다양한 유형의 스캐폴딩 전략을 사용하면 책임감 모형(TPSR)의 수업을 진행하는데 매우 효과적이다. 둘째, 학생들의 책임감 수준별로 책임감 모형(TPSR)의 수업 단계에 적합한 맞춤형 거시적․미시적 스캐폴딩 전략을 사용할 수 있다. 셋째, 학생들의 책임감 수준을 향상시키기 위해서는 체육 수업 시간 외에 다양한 활동장면에서 스캐폴딩 전략을 활용한 책임감 모형(TPSR) 수업을 적용시킬 필요가 있다. 지금까지 살펴본 연구 결과 및 결론을 토대로 다음과 같은 제언을 하고자 한다. 첫째, 초등학교뿐만 아니라, 중․고등학교에서도 적용할 수 있는 스캐폴딩 전략을 활용한 책임감 모형(TPSR) 수업을 설계할 필요성이 있다. 둘째, 본 연구에서 설계한 스캐폴딩 전략을 활용한 책임감 모형(TPSR) 수업을 초등학교 현장에 적용한 후 양적 연구를 통해서 효과성을 분석할 필요가 있다. The purpose of this research was to a take a look at on-site applicability by implementing teaching design plans for physical education of elementary school students; furthermore, the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR) using a scaffolding strategy was used. In order to carry out the study, an analysis of the collected data on a teacher's activity evaluation sheets, class diary, in-depth interview with students, and written impressions of class, etc. were examined using a qualitative data analysis method. The results and discussion of this research are as follows: First, through the physical education for elementary school and TPSR class using scaffolding strategies, the students who had once ignored others and had not kept order began to control themselves and respect others' rights and feelings; Second, the students who had been mischievous in class and had not participated in school activities began to positively and faithfully participate in activities after class; Third, the students who had not participated in activities haphazardly and cursorily came to voluntarily take part in school activities through their own practice plan after school; Fourth, the students who had been self-centered and inconsiderate of others began to help other friends and show sympathy toward others; Fifth, the students who had only participated in class activities began to positively partake in extra-curricular activities, thus showing the effects of TPSR outside of the physical education context. The results of the current study suggests that it is necessary to use the TPSR method with a scaffolding strategy in elementary as well as junior & senior high school classrooms.
A major defective welding pattern in the steel bridges is identified as the lack of welding area due to the insufficient welding penetration. In this study is fatigue behavior and fatigue life of steel bridge under flange of weld insufficient of butt weld joint. Fatigue behavior and fatigue life test is minor's law and fracture analysis and nowaday, finite element method is used to many times. By considering the welding defect in the above, structural analysis is conducted to evaluate butt weld joint influence due to welding defect on the safety of steel bridges. The results indicate that, due to the insufficient welding penetration, the stress obtained in the analysis is over the allowable fatigue stress level, and its influence on safety of the bridges is significant