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Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang₃,Ching-Yung Lin⁴,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang²,Ching-Yung Lin³,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴.¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Blocking of Cell Proliferation, Cytokines Production and Genes Expression Following Administration of Cordyceps sinensis in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids Cells. Proceedings of international Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 44-64, 1999.-Cordyceps sinensis is a major parasitic fungus on larva of Lepidoptera. It is one of the well know fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma, lung and kideney diseases. Many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps have been demonstrated to produce natural products with various biological activities. Reported biological activities of genus cordyceps include:(a)inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis;(b)enhancement of cell differentiation;(c)restruction of cytoskeleton;(d)inhibition of protein kinase activity;(e)antitumor activity on bladder, colon, lung carcinoma as well as fibroblastoma;(f)inhibition of the infection and revers transciptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; and(g) inhibition of methylation of nucleic acid. Thus, it is suggested that the extracts of Cordyceps sp. Contain antitumor, antiviral, and many other biological activities. In our previous studies, we proved that C. sinensis contains the antitumor and immunomodulatory agents. In the present studies, effects of C. sinensis on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids(BAL)cells were demonstrated. The crude methanolic extracts of C. sinensis were fractionated into 15 fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Effects of various fraction on BAL cells proliferation and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulated interleukin-1β(IL-8),platelet activating factor(PAF), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),and interleukin-8(IL-8) production on BAL cells were determined. The result indicated that the CS-19-22 fraction suppressed BAL cells proliferation activated by LPS. The median inhibitory concentration(IC50) was 6㎍/ml. The CS-19-22 fraction also decreased IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-αand IL-8 production.The results of revers transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) demonstrated that the CS-19-22 fraction did not affect IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-α,and IL-8 mRNAs expression in BAL cells activated by LPS. By contrast, it inhibited the IL-10 mRNA expression but enhanced IFN-γand IL-12 mRNAs expression in activated BAL cells. Moreover, the CS-19-22 fraction blocked PAF-induced platelet aggregation. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved. Because no cell deths were observable. We hypothesize that inhibitory mechanisms of CS-19-22 on BAL cells proliferation may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in BAL cells. The explanation of C. sinensis antiasthma function may involved the following(1)C.sinenesis contained immunomodulatory agents that stimulated IFN-γand IL-12 expression in TH1cells.(2)Enhanced secretion of IFN-γand IL-12 will inhibit the Tγcells immune responses Ex. Decreasing of IL-6 and IL-10 production.(3) The impairments of cytokines production in TH2 cells suppressed th BAL cells proliferation then more cytokines production Ex.IL-1β,PAF,IL-6,TNF-αand IL-8 in activated BAL cells were decreased. (4)The suppression of TH2cells immune responses will inhibit the growth and differentiation of B cells then IgE production will be decreased. (5)Reduced production of IgE will decreased asthma attack occurring in individuals. However, the results of the present study suggested that C. sinensis may also have acted to treat asthma in part by inhibiting BAL cells proliferation and cytokine gene expression and production. Future, experiments with treatment of animals with asthma with C. sinensis will be necessary to defined whether C. sinensis can reduce asthma injury. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure principal growth inhibitors and their mechanisms of action are subjected for further study.
To co-fire with commercial LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic) materials at , different contents of were added to the (BZN) ceramics. According to the test results, the cubic phase of BZN was transformed into orthorhombic in all the test materials. phase was formed in test materials with of addition. The phase transformation of cubic BZN was controlled during the synthesis process with excess ZnO content. The Cubic and orthorhombic phases of BZN could coexist and be sintered densely at .
Objectives: Corticorsterone has been shown to inhibit luteinizing hormone production and the receptors had been found in the follicles. Ovarian follicles represent the basic functional unit of the ovary. In the study we had evaluated the effect of synthetic glucocorticoids dexamethasone (DEX) on the growth (the increase in size), differentiation and connexin 43 of intact preantral follicles in a serum-free culture system. Materials and methods: Preantral follicles with two layer granulosa cells and intact membrane were dissected mechanically from the ovaries of 24-day-old rats and cultured for 72 hours with or without recombinant human follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of glucocorticoids. To assess growth rates, follicles were cultured for 72 hours and analyzed for follicle diameter and follicle cell numbers changes. After 72 hours, the follicles were collected and their connexin 43 and inhibin-α contents were determined. Results: Follicles cultured in the absence of FSH grew slowly (around 10% in diameter). Treatment of the follicles with FSH induced an increase in both of follicle size, follicular cell number, and follicle cell differentiation based on increased inhibin-α synthesis. When follicles were cultured with a constant dose of FSH (100 mIU/ml) and increasing doses of dexamethasone (DEX) (0.001-1 μg/ml), the growth rate was reduced by 18-83%. The inhibitory effect by DEX was concentration dependent. The addition of DEX (0.1 μg/ml) decreased FSH-induced follicle cell number. This decrease was associated with decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and inhibin-α, a differential marker of preantral follicle. The DEX-induced decrease in the inhibin-α content was also associated with decreased expression of the connexin 43. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that DEX is able to attenuate the FSH-stimulated preantral follicle development.
Background: This study aimed to explore the relationship between fruit intake, changes in fruit intake, and changes in cardiometabolic factors in people with obesity. Methods: A total of 21,270 subjects (8,718 men, 12,552 women) aged 40 years and over, from the Korean-based Genome and Epidemiology Study, were followed up for an average of 4.4 years. Fruit intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and the second follow-up. The beta coefficient and confidence intervals for changes in cardiometabolic risk factors according to fruit consumption were calculated using a linear regression model. Results: In men, the abdominal circumference decreased with changes in fruit intake (P=0.029). Fruit intake and increased fruit intake in men were associated with a lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.012 and P=0.02, respectively) and lower triglyceride levels (P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively). In women, abdominal circumference decreased with both fruit intake and increased fruit intake (P<0.001 and P=0.013, respectively). Systolic blood pressure and triglycerides tended to decrease only with fruit intake (P=0.048 and P<0.001, respectively). Unlike in men, fasting blood glucose tended to decrease in women with both fruit intake and increased fruit intake (P=0.011 and P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Fruit intake and increased fruit intake may have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals who are obese.
Variable valve timing (VVT) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) are promising methods in reducing fuel consumption and emission at part load in SI engines. An SI engine which uses electromagnetic valvetrain (EMV) will eliminate flow restriction from the throttle valve and produce higher indicated mean efficiency pressure (IMEP) due to the disabling of some of the working cylinders at part load. Therefore, pumping loss can be significantly reduced at part-load conditions. In addition, duration and timing of valve events are variably controlled at different operating conditions. This contributes to the improvement of engine efficiency. In this study, a dynamic model of an unthrottled SI engine has been developed to simulate the engine cycle. The model uses an EMV system that allows valvetrain control and cylinder deactivation techniques to be carried out in simulation flexibly. The simulated results find the optimal valve timing for different engine speeds. The optimal timing of intake valve closing depends on engine speed linearly, while the intake valve opening insignificantly influences engine performance. Additionally, this study also shows that cylinder deactivation modes can be successfully applied in improving engine efficiency at different engine loads. Different cylinder deactivation strategies have been applied for the full range of engine loads. It is concluded that the two-cylinder deactivation mode (50% CDA) considerably improves fuel consumption at low engine load. Meanwhile, one-cylinder deactivation (25% CDA) is an optimal fuel economy mode at medium engine load. With proper uses of VVT and CDA strategies, the efficiency of an SI engine can be increased more than 30% at low engine load and 11.7 % at medium engine load.
It was proven that variable valve timing used in the SI engines could have obvious benefits on high fuel economy, low exhaust emission, and good engine performance. Electromagnetic valve (EMV) offers very high flexibility in valve timing. With EMV system in an SI engine, the valve timing can then be adjusted adaptively according to any engine operating situations, and each cylinder can have different settings for valve timing. Since the EMV runs very fast, there are problems of vibration and noise due to the impact between valve and valve seat. To improve these problems this paper presents two control methods to perform soft-land control. One is a fuzzy logic controller to control the movement of EMV. The other one is a novel 3-stage voltage control method which aims to get optimal real-time control for EMV. Simulation results show the fuzzy logic controller provides lower impact velocity (0.4m/s), while the optimized 3-stage voltage controller offers simple control and acceptable performance.
Both positive and negative interactions among bacteria take place in the environment. We hypothesize that the complexity of the substrate affects the way bacteria interact with greater cooperation in the presence of recalcitrant substrate. We isolated lignocellulolytic bacteria from salt marsh detritus and compared the growth, metabolic activity and enzyme production of pure cultures to those of three-species mixed cultures in lignocellulose and glucose media. Synergistic growth was common in lignocellulose medium containing carboxyl methyl cellulose, xylan and lignin but absent in glucose medium. Bacterial synergism promoted metabolic activity in synergistic mixed cultures but not the maximal growth rate (μ). Bacterial synergism also promoted the production of β- 1,4-glucosidase but not the production of cellobiohydrolase or β-1,4-xylosidase. Our results suggest that the chemical complexity of the substrate affects the way bacteria interact. While a complex substrate such as lignocellulose promotes positive interactions and synergistic growth, a labile substrate such as glucose promotes negative interactions and competition. Synergistic interactions among indigenous bacteria are suggested to be important in promoting lignocellulose degradation in the environment.