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It was written at the Mao Shi prefaces (毛詩序) that Shi Jing was divided into two groups; the Zheng Poem and the Bian Poem. According to this, many scholars published various assertions on how to distinguish the Zheng Poem from the Bian Poem in Shi Jing. Conseguently, these assertions were classified into four sorts. 1) Classification by the chronological order according to the political rise and fall 2) Distinction between eulogy and satire 3) Distinction the Poem which was accompanied by music from the poem which was not accompanied by it, 4) Classification by the style of the poem My study on each assertion leads to the following conclusion: 1) Although those scholars who made the first assertion defined that Shi Jing was published by the chronological order and they distinguished the Zheng Poem from the Bian poem by the table of contents, it is proved that Shi Jing was not published by the chronological order. 2) Those scholars who made the second assertion concluded that Shi-Jing was distinguished between eulogy and satiry at every prologue in Mao Shi and that the Zheng poem and the Bian Poem could be divided into eulogy or satire accordingly. But it is proved herein that the distinction eulogy from satire in Mao Shi prefaces was possible by the country and chronology without the definite standard even though the contents of the poem were the same. 3) Those scholars who made the third assertion divided Shi Jing into two parts. One that was accompanied by music was called the Zheng Poem and the other that was accompanied by music was called the Bian Poem. But it is proved that all of Shi Jing were accompanied by music 4) Those who made the fourth assertion distinguished between the Zheng Poem and the Bian Poem by the style of the Poem. But looking into the style, it is proved that the distinction between the Zheng Poem and the Bian Poem is the style itself. Thus, the above classifications seem to be unreasonable so far. Then, why did these assertions come to rise? These assertions were due to the Han scholars who regarded the poem as a remonstration. They attempted to classify the Zheng Poem as the poem of admonition and the Bian poem as that of warning. But they did not succeed in it.
Purpose: To observe the effects of Nv Shi solid drink on thyroid hormone, sex hormones and cyclic nucleotide of kidney-yin deficiency hyperthyroid mice induced by levothyroxine sodium. Methods: ICR mice were randomly grouped into normal control group, model group, Nv Shi solid drink high dose group, the middle dose group and low dose group, male and female in half. The kidney-yin deficiency mice models were established by intragastric administration of levothyroxine sodium before intragastric administration of corresponding drugs once a day for 10 consecutive days. One day after the last administration, the effects were observed by measuring weight. And tetraiodothyronine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were tested by ELISA method. Results: Compared with the model group, the body weight increased significantly (p<0.05), T3 level decreased significantly in high and medium dose group (p<0.01, p<0.05), and serum T4 and cAMP decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05), TSH increased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05) in all dose groups, and cAMP/cGMP decreased in the low dose group (p<0.05). The expression of E2 in female decreased significantly in all does groups, the same as the ratio of E2/T in high dose group (p<0.05). There was no significant change in the expression of sex hormones in male in all dose groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Nv Shi solid drink may improve the kidney-yin deficiency syndrome by adjusting T3, T4, TSH, cAMP and E2 level in the endocrine system of the body and exert the function of nourishing yin and tonifying kidney. 目的: 观察女仕牌固体饮料对左甲状腺素钠致肾阴虚模型小鼠体内甲状腺激素、性激素及环核苷酸的影响。方 法: ICR小鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、女仕牌固体饮料大、中、小剂量组,雌雄各半,采用左甲状腺素钠片灌 胃造成小鼠肾阴虚模型,造模当天灌胃给予样品,每天1次,连续10天。末次给药后1天,观察小鼠体征及体 重,取血,采用Elisa方法检测血清中甲状腺素(thyroxine, T4)、三碘甲状原氨酸(triiodothyronine, T3)、 促甲状腺激素(thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH)、睾酮(testosterone, T)、雌二醇(estradiol, E2)、 环磷酸腺苷(cyclic Adenosine monophosphate, cAMP)、环磷酸鸟苷(cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cGMP)的表达。结果: 与模型组比较,女仕牌固体饮料大剂量组和中剂量组小鼠体重显著升高(p<0.05);大 剂量和中剂量组T3显著降低(p<0.01,p<0.05),各剂量组血清T4、cAMP均显著降低(p<0.01,p<0.05), TSH均显著升高(p<0.01,p<0.05),小剂量组cAMP/ cGMP比值降低(p<0.05),各剂量组雌鼠E2表达显著 降低,大剂量组雌鼠E2/T比值降低,各剂量组雄鼠性激素表达无显著改变(p>0.05)。结论: 女仕牌固体饮料 可能通过调整机体内神经分泌系统中T3、T4、TSH、cAMP、雌鼠E2这些共同的潜在物质基础,改善HPT轴和 HPG轴功能、平衡环核苷酸系统,从而改善肾阴虚证,发挥滋阴补肾功效。
Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang₃,Ching-Yung Lin⁴,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang²,Ching-Yung Lin³,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴.¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Blocking of Cell Proliferation, Cytokines Production and Genes Expression Following Administration of Cordyceps sinensis in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids Cells. Proceedings of international Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 44-64, 1999.-Cordyceps sinensis is a major parasitic fungus on larva of Lepidoptera. It is one of the well know fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma, lung and kideney diseases. Many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps have been demonstrated to produce natural products with various biological activities. Reported biological activities of genus cordyceps include:(a)inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis;(b)enhancement of cell differentiation;(c)restruction of cytoskeleton;(d)inhibition of protein kinase activity;(e)antitumor activity on bladder, colon, lung carcinoma as well as fibroblastoma;(f)inhibition of the infection and revers transciptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; and(g) inhibition of methylation of nucleic acid. Thus, it is suggested that the extracts of Cordyceps sp. Contain antitumor, antiviral, and many other biological activities. In our previous studies, we proved that C. sinensis contains the antitumor and immunomodulatory agents. In the present studies, effects of C. sinensis on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids(BAL)cells were demonstrated. The crude methanolic extracts of C. sinensis were fractionated into 15 fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Effects of various fraction on BAL cells proliferation and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulated interleukin-1β(IL-8),platelet activating factor(PAF), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),and interleukin-8(IL-8) production on BAL cells were determined. The result indicated that the CS-19-22 fraction suppressed BAL cells proliferation activated by LPS. The median inhibitory concentration(IC50) was 6㎍/ml. The CS-19-22 fraction also decreased IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-αand IL-8 production.The results of revers transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) demonstrated that the CS-19-22 fraction did not affect IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-α,and IL-8 mRNAs expression in BAL cells activated by LPS. By contrast, it inhibited the IL-10 mRNA expression but enhanced IFN-γand IL-12 mRNAs expression in activated BAL cells. Moreover, the CS-19-22 fraction blocked PAF-induced platelet aggregation. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved. Because no cell deths were observable. We hypothesize that inhibitory mechanisms of CS-19-22 on BAL cells proliferation may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in BAL cells. The explanation of C. sinensis antiasthma function may involved the following(1)C.sinenesis contained immunomodulatory agents that stimulated IFN-γand IL-12 expression in TH1cells.(2)Enhanced secretion of IFN-γand IL-12 will inhibit the Tγcells immune responses Ex. Decreasing of IL-6 and IL-10 production.(3) The impairments of cytokines production in TH2 cells suppressed th BAL cells proliferation then more cytokines production Ex.IL-1β,PAF,IL-6,TNF-αand IL-8 in activated BAL cells were decreased. (4)The suppression of TH2cells immune responses will inhibit the growth and differentiation of B cells then IgE production will be decreased. (5)Reduced production of IgE will decreased asthma attack occurring in individuals. However, the results of the present study suggested that C. sinensis may also have acted to treat asthma in part by inhibiting BAL cells proliferation and cytokine gene expression and production. Future, experiments with treatment of animals with asthma with C. sinensis will be necessary to defined whether C. sinensis can reduce asthma injury. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure principal growth inhibitors and their mechanisms of action are subjected for further study.
The single crystal diamond chisel-edge tool is used to machine the 79 g/mm echelle diffraction grating, which is used as the research background. DEFORM-3D finite element software is used to simulate the mechanical ruling grating processing, and the influence of the parameters of the ruling tool on the squeezing force of aluminum film material is obtained. By analyzing the flow law of several sampling points in the groove-shaped over-squeezing region, the slip deformation characteristics of the aluminum film during the groove-shaped over-squeezing are clarified. Moreover, the velocity and stress field of aluminum film are analyzed under groove over-squeezing phenomenon. Therefore, it provides a basis for predicting the phenomenon of groove-shaped over-squeezing in the mechanical ruling grating processing.
본 연구는 중국 영남지방의 4대 명원 가운데 하나인 여음산방에 대해 현지조사와 시문 분석 등을 수행한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. 첫째, 여음산방의 조영자는 우빈(鄔彬 1824~1897)이며, 원림 면적은 1,598㎡이다. 우빈은 원림의 이름을 ‘여음(餘蔭)'이라고 하였는데 그 뜻은 조상의 음덕을 의미하였다. 둘째, 조영자가 쓴 시문을 분석해 보면, 미래 이상세계를 표현한 시문, 가문에 대한 오복사상을 표현한 시문, 그리고 풍류사상에 대한 시문으로 분류할 수 있었다. 셋째, 여음산방의 건축물의 배치와 공간구성의 특징을 분석해 본 결과, 부지 한가운데 사당건물(善言鄔公)을 중심으로 남쪽에 펼쳐진 공간은 주로 거주하는 공간이며, 북쪽에 펼쳐진 공간은 주로 제사와 관련된 공간이었다. 넷째, 여음산방의 공간구성요소를 분석해 본 결과이다. 정자부분은 원림에 지정(池亭)인 한취정(閒趣亭), 후화원(後花園)에 유상곡수연을 표현한 계상정(禊賞亭), 독특한 반정(半亭) 형태인 내훈정(來熹亭) 등을 조영한 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 여음산방에는 형태가 매우 다양한 연못을 5개소 조성하였으며 기학적인 경계선을 가지는 것은 특징이다. 여섯째, 여음산방의 석가산은 괘방청산(掛榜靑山)이라고 하였는데, 과거시험에 합격한 사람의 이름을 적어서 붙이는(괘방) 곳이 곧, 이 석가산(청산)이라는 의미를 갖고 있다. 일곱째, 여음산방의 화창은 나무로 만든 문격창(紋格窓)과 격단창(隔斷窓) 등이 특징이며, 색채유리창(色彩玻璃窓)은 쑤저우 원림과 또 다른 차이점을 보이고 있다. 여덟째, 동문 양식은 쑤저우 고전원림의 동문 양식에 비해 다양하지 않은 편이지만, 동문 전면(前面)에 적혀있는 시문 장식물의 다양한 형태와 화려한 색채가 특징이다. 아홉째, 여음산방 원림에 설치된 건물장식용 조각예술품들이 표현된 주제를 분류해 보면 길상, 문자, 도교 팔선, 동식물, 설화와 기타 등으로 분류할 수 있다. 마지막으로 여음산방에 식재된 수목들은 주로 아열대식물이고 이중에 상징적 의미를 가진 수목도 있으며, 날씨가 좋기 때문에 과일나무를 많이 심었다. In this study, we conducted an analysis on the actual field materials and the ancient text of January 2017. First, Yuyin ShanFang is one of the famous garden in the Lingnan Region, and its total area is 1598㎡. Wobin called the name ‘Yuyin(餘蔭)' meaning the virtues of his ancestors. Second, if we analyze the poem written by Wobin, we can classify it as a phrase expressing the world beyond the future, a poem expressing the ideas of family and romantic ideas. Third, the space spread to the south around the shrine building in the middle of the site was largely a residential space, according to the analysis of the site's layout and spatial composition. Fourth, the spatial component of the hydronic acid is analyzed. The pavilion area is the Hanchwi-Pavilion, which is designated in the Wongrim, and Gyesang-Pavilion, which is a unique range that describes the peak of the garden. Fifth, Yuyin ShanFang has five ponds that are very diverse in shape. It is characteristic of us to stand on a technical boundary. Sixth, Seokgasan was referred to as Gyeongbansan, which was named after The builder Wobin and his descendants who passed it. Seventh, Hwachang is characterized by a wooden bull window and a compound glass. Eighth, the alumni style is not as diverse as the alumni style of the Suzhou traditional garden, but it features various forms and colorful pictures on the front of the alumni. Ninth, the one-piece sculptures of the interior of a building are expressed themes such as Gilsang, Sukjeong, Daoism, Palseom, and others. Finally, Trees planted in Yuyin ShanFang are mostly tropical plants, and some of them have symbolic meaning. Because the weather here is good for growing fruit, so planted a lot of fruit trees.
Shi,,Yin,Tan,,Shi-Hao,Ng,,Shukie,Zhou,,Jing,Yang,,Na-Di,Koo,,Gi-Bang,McMahon,,Kerrie-Ann,Parton,,Robert,G,Hill,,Michelle,M,del,Pozo,,Miguel,A,Kim,,You-Sun,Shen,,Han-Ming LANDES BIOSCIENCE 2015 AUTOPHAGY Vol.11 No.5
Shi,,Yuejiang,Chen,,Zhongyong,Yang,,Zhoujun,Shi,,Peng,Zhao,,Kaijun,Diamond,,Patrick,H.,Kwon,,JaeMin,Yan,,Wei,Zhou,,Hao,Pan,,Xiaoming,Cheng,,Zhifeng,Chen,,Zhiping,Yang,,SeongMoo,Zhang,,Chi,Li,,Da,Dong, IOP 2018 Nuclear fusion. Fusion nucléaire. &n.Illiga Vol.58 No.4
<P>In cold pulse experiments in J-TEXT, not only are rapid electron temperature increases in the core observed, but also steep rises in the inner density are found. Moreover, some evidence of acceleration of the core toroidal rotation is also observed during the non-local transport process of electron temperature. These new findings of cold pulse experiments in J-TEXT suggest that turbulence spreading is a possible mechanism for the non-local transport dynamics.</P>