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This paper presents the effect of the internal parameter for the number of the parallel of battery packs. Battery packs are consisted of high-power INR-18650 25R cells. Internal parameters are extracted by discharge capacity experiments and open circuit voltage (OCV) - hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) experiments, which are electrical characteristics experiments. Internal parameters such as OCV, voltage deviation, temperature and internal parameters are compared according to parallel connection. This paper proposes a series/parallel-equivalent circuit model made by cell extension and compares the actual battery pack model with the extended battery pack model at a cell. A comparison of the actual battery pack and extended cell model shows analysis of changes in the parallel connection of the battery pack correlated with the safety of battery packs.
본 논문은 고압 커패시터의 고장분석과 신뢰성 예측 결과를 다루고 있다. 부품의 수명과 고장률을 예측하기 위해서 두 가지 방법으로 고장 모드와 고장 메커니즘을 연구하였다. 에폭시 수지로 성형된 고압 커패시터가 절연내압 시험 하에서 저항이 제로로 되는 고장에 대하여, 근본원인 고장분석 체계를 효과적으로 수립함으로써 고장 메커니즘의 원인을 분석하였다. 특히 세라믹-에폭시 계면에서의 절연파괴 고장 현상이 강조되었으며, 본 연구에서 얻어진 결과의 타당성은 마그네트론에 장착된 고압 커패시터의 열사이클 시험 수행에 의한 가속시험 결과로부터 입증되었다. 시험 결과들은 결함이 있는 로트를 신속히 규명하고 B10수명을 결정하는데 유용하게 사용할 수 있다. 또한, 유전체의 절연파괴에 대해서 부하-강도 간섭모델을 이용하여 고장률을 예측하였다. This paper presents a result of failure analysis and reliability evaluation for high voltage ceramic capacitors. The failure modes and failure mechanisms were studied in two ways in order to estimate component life and failure rate. The causes of failure mechanisms for zero resistance phenomena under withstanding voltage test in high voltage ceramic capacitors molded by epoxy resin were studied y establishing an effective root cause failure analysis. Particular emphasis was placed on breakdown phenomena at the ceramic-epoxy interface. The validity of the results in this study was confirmed by the results of accelerated testing. Thermal cycling test for high voltage ceramic capacitor mounted on a magnetron were implemented. Delamination between ceramic and epoxy, which might cause electrical short in underlying circuitry, can occur during curing or thermal cycle. The results can be conveniently used to quickly identify defective lots, determine B10 life estimation each lot at the level of inspection, and detect major changes in the vendors processes. Also, thd condition for dielectric breakdown was investigated for the estimation of failure rate with load-strength interference model.
In recent years, gonorrhea has been pandemic and remains one of the most common STDs in the world, especially in developing countries. For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of Penicillinase Producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG), we have been trying to study the patients who have visited the Venereal Disease Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by menas of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. In 1998, 93 strians of N. genorrhoeae were isolated, among which 60(64.5%) were PPNG. The prevalence of PPNG in Seoul, which had been decreased to 39% in 1996 after a peak of 74.3% in 1993, is increased to 64.5% in 1998.
We have investigated a performance of bio-electrode reactor for removal of nutrient like a nitrogen, phosphorus and organic substrate. Lab scale of bio-electrode reactor was operated with synthetic and tannery wastewater. Iron bar and stainless steel used for anode and cathode respectively. In experiment with synthetic wastewater, we were able to obtain the optimal current density range of 2.4-40 mA/dm² after 48 hrs operating time. And in that experiment, about 70~73% of ammonia nitrogen and 54~64% of phosphorus were removed. In experiment with tannery wastewater at 2.4-4.0 mA/dm², the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus and organic substract were about 62-69%, 45~59% and beyond 79% respectively.
This paper described a collaborative exercise intended to see what kinds of short tandem repeat (STR) loci are used in different DNA typing laboratories in Korea and to compare their results for the demonstration whether uniformity of DNA profiling results from different laboratory could be achieved in Korea Laboratories were asked to test five tissue DNAs using methods routinely used in each laboratory and to report the results to the coordinating laboratory. The exercise demonstrated that each laboratory was using different STR loci for the typing with different STR numbers,2 VNTRS,36 STRs and amelogenin in total, and the direct comparison of the results from all the laboratory for the 18 loci could not be done as only one laboratory submitted typing results. Among 21 loci for which several laboratories submitted typing results, results for 14 loci were the same and results for the other 7 loci were different depending on the participating laboratory. D1S80, F13A01, D16S539, D21S11, D18S51, D3S1744 were the loci with different typing results. Even in the cases where commercial kits were used, the results were not the same depending on the machines used, that is the capillary electrophoresis or the gel based electrophoresis. The reason for the different results, points about the standardization of the methods arid the profiling data were described.
The diagnostic requirements were suggested and explained regarding the systems of differentiation of symptoms and signs in the second year study of standardization and unification of the terms and conditions used for diagnosis in oriental medicine. The systems were as follows; - differential diagnosis according to condition of body fluid, differentiation of syndromes according to the state of qi and blood, differential diagnosis according to relative excessiveness or deficiency of yin and yang(氣血陰陽津液辨證) - differentiation of diseases according to pathological changes of the viscera and their interrelation - analyzing and differentiating of febrile diseases in accordance with the theory of the six channels(傷寒辨證) The individual diagnosis pattern was arranged by the diagnostic requirements in the following order : another name(異名), notion of diagnosis pattern, index of differentiation of symptoms and signs(辨證指標), the main point of diagnosis, analysis of diagnosis pattern(證候分析), discrimination of diagnosis pattern(證候鑑別), a way of curing a diseases(治法), prescription(處方), herb in common use(常用藥物), diseases appearing the diagnosis pattern(常見疾病), documents(文獻調査). This study was carried out on the basis of the Chinese documents and references.
The diagnostic requirements were suggested and explained regarding the systems of differentiation of symptoms and signs in the third year study of standardization and unification of the terms and conditions used for diagnosis in oriental medicine. The systems were as follows : - analyzing and differentiating of epidemic febrile disease - analyzing and differentiating in accordance with the Sasang constitution medicine based on four-type recognition - differentiation of disease according to pathological changes of Chong and Ren channels - standards for diagnosis of women's disease - standards for diagnosis of children's disease - standards for diagnosis of motor and sensor disturbance (-muscle. born, joint, etc.) - standards for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disease - standards for diagnosis of five sense organ disease - standards for diagnosis of external disease The indivisual diagnosis pattern was arranged by the diagnostic requirements in the following order : another name, notion of diagnosis pattern, index of differentiation of symptoms and signs, the main point of diagnosis, analysis of diagnosis pattern, discrimination of diagnosis pattern, prognosis, a way of curing a disease, prescription, herbs in common use, disease appearing the diagnosis pattern, documents. The standards for diagnosis of each disease was arranged by the diagnostic requirements in the following order : another name, notion of disease, the main point of diagnosis, analyzing and differentiating of disease, analysis of disease, discrimination of disease, prognosis, a way of curing and prescription of disease, disease in western medicine appearing the disease in oriental medicine, documents.
데이터관리시스템은 문헌 정보들에 대한 정보 검색 및 관리를 효율적으로 지원하기 위한 시스템이다. 이러한 데이터 관리시스템은 하나의 테이블만으로 정보들을 관리하기 때문에 기존 데이터베이스 관리시스템에서 사용되는 조인 연산과 뷰 연산 등 많은 비용이 소요되는 연산을 제공할 필요가 없다. 본 논문은 데이터관리시스템에서 자료의 주고 정의, 처리 등을표현할 수 있는 효과적인 데이터 언어를 정의하고, 정의된 데이터 언어로 작성된 질의를 효율적으로 처리하기 위한 질의 처리기를 설계하고 구현한다. 구현된 데이터관리시스템을 위한 질의처리기는 기존 관계형 데이터 베이스 관리시스템의 질의처리기를 데이터관리시스템의 질의처리기로 사용할 때 나타나는 성능저하 문제점을 해결한다. Data management System(DMS) is a system that retrieves and manages documents efficiently. Since DMS manages the information using only one table, it does not need to provide join and view operations on DBMS that spend high cost. In this paper we define a data language that represents the structure definition and process of data in the DMS. We also design and implement a query processor to process the query processors of relational DBMS are used as a query processor of DMS, they degrade the whole system performance. The proposed query processor overcomes such a problem.
Plant regeneration from cultured hypocotyls may provide means for overcoming breeding barriers caused by heterostylic cross-incompatibility in interspecific crosses of common buckwheat(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Hypocotyles were excised from seed embryos of common buckwheat(cv. Miyazakizairai) and wild annual buckwheat(F. homotropicum Ohnishi) and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0∼2.0 mg/l IAA and 0~2.0 mg/l BAP. Shoot was induced only on the medium containing 1.0 mg/l NAA and 1.0 mg/l BAP, shoot induction was promoted by 2.4-D and the frequency was lower in wild annual buckwheat than in common buckwheat. Roots were developed on White's medium containing 1.0 mg/l IBA. Whole plantlets were obtained following the production of adventitious roots from the shoots. When transferred from sterile culture condition to peat and soil medium, most plantlets were able to survive and grew to have flowers. Key words : Common buckwheat(Fagopyrum esculentum), F. homotropicum Ohnishi, hypocotyle explants, tissue culture, plant regeneration