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The current design codes discuss the effective compressive strengths of columns, which reflect a decrease in load transfer performance that can occur when columns and slabs have different concrete compressive strengths. The effective compressive strength of a column increases as it is confined by the slab, and the design codes mandate three different effective compressive strengths for interior columns (confinement on four sides), exterior columns (confinement on three sides), and corner columns (confinement on two sides). For both corner and exterior columns, the confinement effect of the slab is significantly smaller than that for the interior column, and there is a more marked decrease in load transfer performance. However, there is still a lack of theoretical studies investigating the effective compressive strengths of the corner and exterior columns. Therefore, based on the analysis model established in previous research, this study has proposed an equation for calculating the effective compressive strengths of the corner, exterior and isolated columns without any confinement effects of the slab. In addition, axial loading tests of isolated columns were conducted and the proposed equation was verified.
Seung-Joon Oh, In-Kyung Jeong, Young-Seol Kim, Young-Kil Choi, Jeong-Ryung Paeng¹, Jung-Hwan Bae and Hyun-Dae Shin²Department of internal Medicine, College Medicine, Endocrine Research Institute¹. Department of Rehabilitation, College of Oriental Medicine², Seoul, korea. Bady Fat Reduction Effects of Red Ginseng Compound Preparation on the Patients with Obesity. Proceedings of International Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 244-254, 1999.-Obesity can be defined as a metabolic disease due to an increased state of fat tissues caused by an imbalance of calorie intake and use. Recently, in Korea by improvement and westernization of food intake, along with decrease in exercise activities, the prevalence of obesity has increased greatly. Our objectives were to study stability and effects of decrease in body fat by administering red ginseng compound preparation (known to have body fat decreasing effects in laboratory animals) to obesity patients on low calorie diets. Changes in weight and body fat were measured while carrying out calorie-restricted diets on patients for 4 weeks, then administering red ginseng compound preparation for another 4 weeks. The patients were 20 people whose BMI were 25kg/㎡ or over and whose percent body fat was also 30% or over when tested by bioelectrical conductivity. 1. Changes in weight were from 70.04kg(base line) to 67.43kg(after taking red ginseng compound preparation). 2. In similar sense, BMI decreased from 27.12kg/㎡(base line) to 26.56kg/㎡(after dieting), and further to 26.01kg/㎡ (after taking red ginseng compound preparation). The BMI seemed to decrease significantly compared to the baseline after the use of red ginseng compound. 3. Waist hip ratio was changed from 0.8858(base line) to 0.8728, but it was statistically insignificant. 4. The percent body fat was 35,16%(base line), 33.87%(after dieting), and 31.68%(after taking red ginseng compound preparation). 5. Complete blood cell count and blood chemisrty remained unaffected by the administration. 6. In concern to endocrinologic studies, T3 decreased from 118.7 to 98.2ng/dL, and T4 increased from 8.8 to 9.2㎕/ dL. Epinephrine showed a tendency to decreased from 0.27 to 0.25 ng/mL, and norepinephrine increased from 0.39 to 0.44ng/mL. 7. Leptin was not changed. 8. Some patients complained adverse effects; constipation(5 patients, may be due to diet therapy), fatigue (2 patients), pruritus(2 patients), flushing(s patients), dizziness(3 patients) and epigastric discomfort(2 patients). However their symptoms were mild, so medication did not stopped. In conclusion, loss of weight without significant side effects was observed during low calorie diet and red ginseng compound preparation administration. This is thought to be in relation to sympathetic nerve system rather than adrenal gland. Also, further long0term studies should be required, since the observed results were based on short-term changes in weight.
Ha Yoo-sang’s drama in 1950’s is well know that they displayed the generational conflict, but Jeolmeun sedaeui baekseo is unlike other works. Ha yoo-sang said that Jeolmeun sedaeui baekseo is human problem related to ‘the illusion’, so it should be is read in other way, not the generational conflict. After Korean war, South Korea is influenced by the Capitalism and the American Culture; English, translations, western clothes, dances and so on. These influences can be checked in Jeolmeun sedaeui baekseo with western style house and Christmas day. These western life styles are understand as the symbol of freedom. On the other hand, characters are affected by negative aspects of the capitalism, so they fell into values of mammonism. These elements are a kind of the influence of the Capitalism and the American culture at that time. Ha Yoo-sang showed negative aspects of the capitalism by defeating the negative characters, Yungisa and Hyeonsu, but Gyeonghui get parents’ permission to get married in spite of a negative character. Moveover, Ha Yoo-sang used English words in Jeolmeun sedaeui baekseo. Ha Yoo-sang knew changes and influences by the Capitalism and the American culture in late 1950’s, so he displayed these social phenomena. However he fell into the ambivalence of the Capitalism and the American culture because he had a popular tendency.
Background : Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) has been thought to play a major role in neurological injury during global brain ischemia and subsequent reperfusion following resuscitation in cardiac arrest. So, we hypothesized that the elevation in TNF-α was dependent upon the duration of the global brain ischemia, and related to delayed neuronal damage. Methods : Fourteen rats were divided two groups ; 1 minute-cardiac arrest group(n=7) and 3 minute-cardiac arrest group(n=7). we induced cardiac arrest by chest compression and clamping of tracheal tube for 1 minute and 3 minutes respectively. And then, resuscitation was initiated. To measure the plasma activity of TNF-α, blood samples were drawn before and at the end of cardiac arrest, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after initiation reperfusion. At 72 hours after resuscitation, the ND(neurologic deficit) score was determined and the histopathologic outcome of hippocampal CA1 neuron was observed by the percent dead hippocampal CA1 neurons. Results : 1. TNF-α level during the early reperfusion period(<2h) was significantly increased in 3 min-cardiac arrest group compared with 1 min-cardiac arrest group(p=0.0001). 2. There was a no significant difference of neurologic deficit score between 1 min-and 3 min-cardiac arrest. 3. Percent dead hippocampal neurons were significantly increased in 3 min-cardiac arrest group compared with 1 min-cardiac arrest group(9.1±1.2% vs 1.2±0.9%, p<0.05). Conclusions : The results suggest that longer duration of global brain ischemia causes a more profound increase in plasma TNF-α level during the early reperfusion period(<2h) and more delayed neuronal damage than lessor duration of global brain ischemia, and that increase in TNF-α level during the early reperfusion period(<2h) is related to delayed neuronal damage.
The aims of this paper are to review Mr. Choi Hyun Sik``s business activities and analysis of his management thoughts. Mr. Choi Hyun Sik is now a general advisor of Galxo Smith Cline(GSK) Korea, one of the biggest pharmatical company in the world. And he is one of the toppest chief executive officer in Korea. He was passed as a semi-salesman, one of 3D jobs at that time, by the Choong Wae Pharamatical Corporation in 1966 and he met Mr. Lee Chong Ho who was a section chief of planning and management section anf he is now chairman of the corporation. He worked hard with chairman Lee. At last he promoted as a CEO of Choong Wae Pharmatical Corporation in 1998 and Vice Chairman of the Company in 2004. After 38 years services, he resigned from CW in 2004. At the same time, He was selected as a general advisor of GSK Korea(President Mr. Kim Jin Ho) on April 2004. As a GA of GSK Korea, As a matter of fact, Mr. Choi concertrate into his best efforts as the fellowing points; ● Focus an execution of plan. ● Develop new strategic business opportunities ● Strengthen partnership with external stakeholders. ● Optimize commercial structure and capability ● Improve working capital management & operational excellence ● Build organizational capabilities to support growth. ● Develop people pipeline, and etc. And last, his management thoughts and stratagies are 5S and 5C. That is, 5S means Speed, System, Simplicity, Strategy and Spurt. On the other hand, 5C are Creation, Credit, Competition, Customer and Communication.
In this paper, we propose a bidirectional mobile Ad Hoc routing protocol based on AODV(ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing) with QoS(quality of service) support. At presence, wireless mobile communication focuses on how to efficiently support mobility of users more than QoS guarantee. However, in order to satisfy requirement of various applications which have been or will be served, QoS guarantee between end points is a very important issue. The existing AODV routing protocol is implemented to use only BE (Best Effort) service. However, actual wireless mobile environment requires to reduce a waste of communication resources and meet with the real-time change of data paths by setting up routes with QoS support, considering available communication resources at each node in advance. Therefore, in this thesis, we propose an adaptive QoS support method using hello message in order to rapidly meet with the change of available communication resources and to smoothly perform route maintenance. For performance evaluation, we analyzed the average data reception rate. At that time, we used evaluation parameters such as node's mobility-stop time, hello message period, and packet priority, considering the node's mobility and the number of best effort/QoS data flows. As results, we found that with our proposed method the average data reception rate was increased 16.293%, 15.914%, 17.238% for 300 mobility-stop second case and 4.809%, 4.264%, 2.956% for 300 mobility-stop second case.
The purpose of this study was to inquire into whether characteristics of sports stars` images have positive effects on brand attitude, brand image and brand royalty, and to analyze their images which can be possessed by college students actively participating in sports activities, compared to other age-groups, corporate brand characteristics using sports stars and their correlation. In order to give basic information of sports stars` images and brand attitude, image and royalty to domestic preferred by college students, this research came to the fol-lowing conclusions by analyzing data from 393 Students of 3 colleges in “D” city and “G” province by applying descriptive analysis, factor, reliability analysis, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA with SPSS Win-dows 12.0. First, for appearance images of sports stars, male college students with the higher number in sports participation and higher average participation time showed high awareness of Park Tae-hwan, Lee Seung-yeop and Chu Seong-hun. Second, for their evaluation images, male junior and senior college students with the higher number of sports participation and the higher average participation time showed higher awareness of Lee Seung-yeop and Chu Seong-hun. Third, images of sports stars preferred by college students had posi-tive effects on brand characteristics, i.e., brand attitude, brand image and brand loyalty.
이 글은 오장환의 장시 「전쟁」을 대상으로 하여, 장시로서 「전쟁」이 가지는 전체적인 짜임과 얼개를 살피고, 그 알레고리적 특색을 분석하였다. 600행이 넘는 긴 시임에도 불구하고 「전쟁」에는 중심적인 서사가 없다. 근대 자본주의와 첨단 기술주의, 저널리즘을 전쟁의 알레고리로 제시하며, 이는 곧 근대적인 삶의 비극적 구조에 대한 고발이었다. 서사의 배제는 「전쟁」을 파편적인 몽타주에 몰입하여 하는 결과를 낳았으며, 이러한 몽타주는 페터 뷔르거의 아방가르드 미학의 일반적인 특징과 부합하는 형식적 특성으로 보인다. 지금까지의 「전쟁」연구는 오장환 시 전체의 연구 맥락 속에서 단평에 그치거나, 이 시가 가지고 있는 아방가르드적 요소만을 언급하는데 그쳤을 뿐이다. 곽명숙이 제기한 「전쟁」의 알레고리적 특성이나, 박현수에 의해 제시된 아방가르드 시의 특성들이 「전쟁」의 시적 특성과 의미를 밝힌 중요한 성과라고 할 수 있다. 그러나 전체적인 짜임을 밝히기 않아 장시로서의 「전쟁」의 의미를 밝히는 데 여전한 어려움이 남았다. 이는 나무나 숲 어느 하나만을 보지 않는 균형잡힌 접근이 필요하다는 의미이다. 「전쟁」은 주로 장면이나 이미지의 제시에 주력하고 있으며, 그러한 이미지를 병렬적으로 배치함으로써 일종의 몽타주적 성격을 지닌다. 몽타주 기법은 전체로 완벽하게 흡수되지 않는 부분들의 독립적 특성을 고려한 기법이다. 그러나 600행이 넘는 장시가 하나의 작품이 되기 위한 최소한의 얼개는 불가피하며, 바로 이러한 이유에서 요청된 것이 '전쟁'이라는 알레고리이다. 벤야민은 바로크시대 독인 비애극의 한 특성으로서 '알레고리'에 주목하였는데, 무엇보다 이 알레고리의 미학적 특성은 부분적 독립성에 있다. 중심 서사를 갖지 않는 「전쟁」은 누군가의 전쟁체험이 아니라, 전쟁에 대한 시적 형상화 내지는 삶에 대한 전쟁의 은유라는 특성을 가지게 되었다. 이는 곧 「전쟁」의 알레고리적 성격을 의미한다. 또한 이 시는 전쟁이라는 주된 이미지를 중심에 놓고, 인간이 파괴되는 각각의 주변적 이미지로 저널리즘의 비인간성과 허위, 기술주의의 파괴적 성격, 자본주의의 인간 소외적 상상력을 결합시키고 있다. 곧 자본주의와 기술주의와 저널리즘은 각각 전쟁의 세부적 방법이자, 그 자체가 전쟁의 다른 은유로 기능하고 있는 셈이다. This article is aimed to illuminate the characteristics of a long poem Jeonjaeng(war) that Oh Jangwhan wrote. In this poem, allegory and montage are the principle of arrangement, and art of writing. eventhough this poem has more 600 lines, this poem has not central narration. so, Jeonjaeng(war) is not anyone's warstory. Rather, this poem want to draw the characteristics of war, as aspect of misery of modern life. It contained the capitalism, journalism, and technicism. By these content, it shows complaint about the structure of the tragedy of modern life. The exclusion of narrative resulted in increasing of independence of images. This aesthetic characteristics of Jeonjaeng(war) are in accord with the vanguard aesthetics insisted by Peter Bürger. Previous studies for Jeonjaeng(war) are ceased on a short commenting in focused the whole chronicle of Oh Jangwhan. Some attempt has stopped referring to partial characteristics. Kwak Myoung-suk raise the fact which poem was builted on the principal of allegory. and the opinion that Jeonjaeng(war) are constructed by vanguard aesthetics, furthermore semiotics is needed for analize of Jeonjaeng(war) raised by Park Hyun-soo. And both of them are to look at meaningful assess about Jeonjaean(war) study. But, therefore, they concentrated only to part, they miss the overall framework, that is a arrangement of images. In this study, 'exclusion of narrative' is same word of 'the metaphor of war'. capitalism, journalism, and technicism are the metaphor of war, and war-imagination. To embody the miserable, painful life, Oh Jangwhan make a poem Jeonjaeng(war) by images of war-investors, capitatists, prostitutes, modem weapons, journalist as a base fellow, all perversive human beings.
<B>Graphic Abstract</B> <P>The cover shows a schematic illustration of patterned colloidal photonic crystals with different bandgap positions. When an unknown light source impinges on the patterned photonic crystals, the light information can be identified from the reflection intensity profile of the constituent photonic crystals. The two optical microscopy images and background image display integrated photonic crystals with 20 different bandgaps spanning the entire visible range, and the SEM image shows the cross-section of the photonic crystal stripes, as reported by Shin-Hyun Kim, Seung-Man Yang, and co-workers on p. 946. <img src='wiley_img_2010/09359648-2010-22-9-ADMA201090022-content.gif' alt='wiley_img_2010/09359648-2010-22-9-ADMA201090022-content'> </P>
Lee Young-chan is well known by his drama Gajok(the Family). He focused on a family and it’s difficulties. He believed that family’s difficulties could are solved by family’s affection. However, his idea of family has a huge problem. It is that his concept of family is based on the patriarchy and the anti-communism. Due to the patriarchy, women who have become others appear from his dramas, so Lee Young-chan’s idea of family can not be completed perfectly. Futhermore, his idea of family is linked with idea of nation and people. Lee Young-chan said that people work for nation not only their families. This his idea is involved in the anti-communism. In the 1950s, the anti-communism is ideology of nation in Korean. At that time, the president Lee Seung-man used the anti-communism to catch state authority. Consequently, Lee Young-chan did not have the different author consciousness from old generation authors. Therefore, his formal experiments from Gajok, Giro, and Pineun Bamedo Jaji Anneunda have limited value. His formal experiments can not express the new generation consciousness, but they can be utilized to overcome the limits of Realism’s time and space.