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This study was conducted to establish the cultural techniques of the puddled-soil drill seeding of race (Oryza sativa L.), which is one of the efficient labor saving cultural methods, in the central part of Korea. Seoanbyeo was seeded at three times from April 10 to May 20 with the 20 day interval in 1994. The number of seedling stands per m2 at each seeding date were 50, 90, 130 and 170. The tillering characteristics, lodging characters, dry matter production, yield components and yield were investigated. The number of days to the maximum tillering stage was reduced at the later seeding date. It was 70, 55 and 25 days in seedings on April 10, April 30 and May 20, respectively. The critical effective tillering stage was also shortened at the delayed seeding. The higher the number of seedling stands was, the higher number of tillers, the shorter duration to the maximum tillering stage and the earlier critical effective tillering stage were resulted. The number of tillers was higher at the earlier seeding date. The number of tillers was increased in the order of 50, 90, 130 and 170 seedling stands per m2. The ratios of effective tillers were 53, 61 and 63% at seeding on April 10, April 30 and May 20, respectively. The ratios were not significantly different at April 10. But the ratios in seeding on April 30 and May 20 were reduced as the number of seedling stands was increased. The weight of stem base related to lodging was the highest with 2.01g/10 plants in the optimum seeding on April 30, while it was 1.59g/10 plants in the late seeding on May 20. It was also decreased as the number of seedling stands was increased. The dry weights at 30 days before the heading stage were increased at the later seeding, while the dry weight at the heading stage was the highest at seeding on April 30 which is considered as the adequate seeding time. The dry weights at 30 days before the heading stage were increased as the number of seedling stands was increased and they were increased up to 130 seedling stands per m2 at the heading stage. The length of panicle exsertion was shortened at the later seeding. The length of panicle exsertion was increased up to 130 seedling stands. but it was shorter at 170 seedling stands. The heading dates were later at seeding on April 30 and May 20 than at seeding on April 10. They were not remarkedly different among seeding dates at 50 seedling stands, it was earlier at the higher number of seedling stands over 90. The number of spikelets per panicle was decreased at the higher number of seedling stands. The ratio of ripened grains was higher at earlier seeding than at later seeding. It was not significantly different among the number of seedling stands at the same seeding time. Yields at seeding on April 30, April 10 and May 20 were 644, 624 and 551kg/10a, respectively. The seeding on April 30, the optimum seeding time, resulted the highest yield. Rice quality was decreased due to the increase of the green kerneled rice as the seeding date was delayed.
This experiment was carried out to obtain indispensable information to establish comprehensive cultural method of rice in direct seeding on dry paddy at Chungbuk Agricultural Research and Extension Services. Effect of seeding date on dry matter production, yield components and yield were studied. Seeding on May 5 ensured the highest maximum number of tillers, while transplanting on May 20 gave the highest rate of effective tillers. Number of effective tillers was greater in the order of Hwajinbyeo, Hwaseongbyeo, Daekwanbyeo. Lengths of upper three leaves were increased at later seeding, but leaf width was not affected by seeding date. Ratio of leaf blade weight was higher in earlier seeding during 30 days before heading but was higher in later seeding during 30 days after seeding, and was higher in the order of Hwajinbyeo, Hwaseongbyeo, Daekwanbyeo. CGR, RGR and NAR were not significantly different among seeding dates during 30 days before heading, but were lower in later seeding during 30 days after seeding. LAR was not affected by seeding date during 30 days before heading, but was higher at seeding on May 5 in heading date and during 30 days after heading. Dry weight of leaf blade, leaf sheath and culm, ear and total biomass during 30 days before heading and heading were highest in May 5 seeding. Daekwanbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo in May 5 seeding and Hwajinbyeo in April 20 seeding brought the highest yield with greater number of spikelets, higher ripening ratio and greater 1,000 grain weight, and harvest index and grain/straw ratio were Increased at earlier seeding. There were significantly positive correlations between number of panicles per m2 and LAI at 30 days before heading and heading, dry matter weight of leaf blade and total mass at heading. On the other hand, there were significantly negative correlations between seeding date and ripened grain ratio. 1,000 grain weight and yield, and between 1,000 grain weight and leaf length of 2nd, respectively.
This study was carried out to determine the optimum seeding date for the rice(Oryza sativa L.) cultivation of the puddled-soil drill seeding, which is one of the efficient labor saving cultural methods, at the central part of Korea. Namweonbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo were seeded on four dates from April 10 to May 25, 1994 with the 15 day interval in the paddy field. In order to examine the adequate seeding date, the growth characters, yield components and yields were investigated. The coleoptile emerged 1 or 2 days earlier in Namweonbyeo than in Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo, and later seeding resulted earlier coleoptile emergence. The number of seedling stands were higher in the order of Namweonbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo, was increased at the later seeding and was 81 to 88 seedlings on April 10 seeding. The plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers and dry weight at 50 days after seeding of all three cultivars were higher at later seeding. Leaf area index(LAI) were higher in the order of Ilpumbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Namweonbyeo. LAIs at the heading stage, at 30 days after heading and at 30 days before heading were higher in that order. The dry matter weight at the 30 days before heading was higher in sheath and stem than that in leaf blade, while, at heading stage, it was higher in the order of sheath and stem, leaf blade and panicle. On the other hand, at 30 days after heading, it was higher in the order of panicle, sheath and stem and leaf blade. The number of panicles per m2 was greater in the order of Ilpumbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Namweonbyeo. The ratio of ripened grain was reduced as the later seeding date. Its ratio was higher in Namweonbyeo than in Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo. Yield of Namweonbyeo was lower than those of Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo. Yield was decreased as the seeding date was delayed. Namweonbyeo showed the highest yield at seeding on May 10, while Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo showed at seeding on April 25. The seeding date was negatively correlated with the ratio of ripened grain. while the number of seedling stands was positively correlated with the number of panicle per m2.
In terms of the Safety, a risk of accident in construction industry is the most dangerous thing in any other industries. So, there have been many studies to improve the safety performance of construction projects. But, the most of them were dealt with controls in the job site and the contractor. For these reasons, the purpose of this study(Construction Safety Management) is two-part. : One is showing the basic items composed of prequalification in Construction Safety Management, and the other is improving the selection method to meet the owner's needs including a Contractor's Safety Management Performance.
This Study aims at looking into the use of oriental medical services in treating hypertension. The first objective to be explored through this study is the morbidity caused by the disease, classifying them by age, gender, and occupation. The second is to determine the regular use of anti-hypertensive medicine and their efficacy in controlling blood-pressure. The third is to investigate the use-rate and satisfaction of oriental medical service. 838 households across the country, were asked to answer questionnaires for the period of time from Apr. to Jun. 2005. The conclusion from the survey can be summarized as following. The age of which the first medical diagnosis of hypertension were made showed lower in males, those with higher education and income. The study showed females were more active in blood-pressure control, with their frequent monitoring of blood-pressure for the past year. With age, people in under 50 age group proved to be less active. The management of high blood pressure was more effective in group with regular dosage compared to group with irregular use of anti-hypertensive medication, but their difference was minimal. Also, group with no medication showed signs of blood-pressure control. The use of oriental medical service for the past year, were more frequent in groups with lower education, either low or high income, old age, females and occupations in agriculture, forestry and fishing industry. Results were similar in both general population and high blood-pressure patient group. Females, people over 51 years old and with lower education showed more intentions in utilizing oriental medical services in the future. Results were similar in both general population and high blood-pressure patient group. It is necessary to offer a more accurate information on oriental medical treatments. Also, a systematic reform to reduce the patient's share of the treatment cost, as well as, heightening public awareness on the infirmity of present blood-pressure management system is crucial.
In recent days the more use of CFRP composite is in the airplane, automobile, and sport goods , etc., the more necessity of research on it in this engineering. In this research, the CFRP composite specimen are fabricated by 48 CFRP plies with 6 stacking sequences, and the specimens are drilled with 4 tools. The results are analyzed with consideration of cutting force, type of tools and fabrication condition. The specimens with each drilling conditions are also investigated with SEM. The optimal drilling conditions such as drill types and cutting force with respect to the fabricating condition are studied.
CFRP composite has a lot of merits such as mechanical characteristic, light weight, and thermal resistance. For these merits CFRP is applied to so many industrial area. In this paper, the relationship between the stack thickness and drill diameter is examined from the drilling experiment, which is the drilling of 16, 32, 48plies specimen with the φ8, φ10, φ12mm cemented carbide drill. The results are analyzed with consideration of cutting force, stack thickness and drill diameter.
School illumination with full volume of light and adequate brightness is designed to help students better focus on their education and produce an optimum atmospnere where students can apply their utmost to learning. This paper present to study actual illumination environment of schools in order to figure out illumination prolems. Furthermore, it attempts to suggest an optimum design for schoolroom illumination through computer simulation to attain qualitative improvement effect in school illumination under the illumination plan which is based on illumination maintenance and uniformity ratio that K.S. illumination standard sets.