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In order to improve rice dough functionality, we cloned 4 kinds of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes from bread wheat, ‘Jokyeong'. Among them, we first examined Dx5 gene to generate marker-free transgenic rice for advanced quality processing of bread and noodles. The GluB1 promoter was inserted into binary vector for seed specific expression of the Dx5 gene. Two expression cassettes comprised of separate DNA fragments containing only the high-molecular-weight glutein subunit (HMW-GS) protein (Dx5) and hygromycin phosphotransferase II (HPTII) resistance genes were introduced separately to tumefaciens EHA105 strain for co-infection. Each EHA105 strain harboring Dx5 or HPTII was infected to rice calli at 3: 1 ratio of Dx5 and HPTII, respectively. Then among 66 hygromycin-resistant transformants, we obtained two transgenic lines inserted both with Dx5 and HPTII gene to rice genome. We reconfirmed integration of the Dx5 and HPTII genes into the rice genome by Southern blot analysis. Wheat Dx5 transcriptsin rice seeds was examined with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Finally, the marker-free plants containing only Dx5 gene were successfully screened at T1 generation. This result also provides that co-infection system with two expression cassettes could be efficient strategy to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants.
The current study was conducted in order to investigate bone formation using matrigel and angiogenic factors with HA and poly ε-caprolactone (HA/PCL) in a rat calvarial defect model. Calvarial defect formation was surgically created in Sprague Dawley rats (n=36). Rats in the control group (CD group, n=6) did not receive a graft. The HA/PCL scaffold was grafted with matrigel (M-HA/PCL group, n=6) or without matrigel (HA/PCL group, n=6); and 100 ng of vascular endothelial growth factor with HA/PCL scaffold containing matrigel (VEGF100 group, n=6), 100 ng (PDGF100 group, n=6) and 300 ng (PDGF300 group, n=6) of PDGF with HA/PCL scaffold containing matrigel were grafted in calvarial defects, respectively. Four weeks after surgery, bone formation was evaluated with micro computed tomography (micro CT) scanning, and histologically. According to the results, bone mineral density was significantly increased in the VEGF100, PDGF100, and PDGF300 groups compared to the HA/PCL group, in which angiogenic factors were not applied. In histological evaluation, more new bone formation around scaffolds was observed in the PDGF100 and the PDGF300 groups, compared with the VEGF100 group. Thus, the results indicate that HA/PCL containing matrigel with VEGF and PDGF is an effective grafting material for enhancement of bone formation in critical-sized bone defects. Especially, due to its price and capacity for bone formation, PDGF may be more effective than VEGF.
개인성과평가는 남녀간, 인종간 급여 차이에 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 즉, 평가과정에서 여성과 소수인종은 낮은 평가점수를 받거나, 보상과정에서 여성과 소수인종이 백인남성에 비해 낮은 보상을 받을 수 있는 것이다. 본 연구는 미국 연방정부 인사파일의 1% 샘플을 이용하여 두 가지 가능성에 대해 분석하였다. 분석결과 백인여성은 백인남성에 비해 높은 평가점수를 받는 반면 흑인남성은 백인남성에 비해 낮은 성과평가점수를 받았다. 보상과정에서는 집단간 뚜렷한 차이가 보이지 않았으며, 오히려 최고등급을 받았을 경우 히스패닉, 흑인 및 아시아인 여성의 급여인상과 승진가능성이 백인남성보다 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 성과급제도의 적극적인 활용이 미국 연방정부에서 지속되고 있는 남녀간, 인종간 급여 및 승진기회의 차별문제를 해결하는데 긍정적으로 작용할 수 있음을 시사한다. Racial or sexual discrimination in performance appraisals could potentially contribute to continuing race and gender gaps in pay in the federal service if (1) women and minorities receive lower performance ratings than comparable white males and/or (2) high performance ratings increase salaries and promotion probabilities less for women and minorities than for white men – what Castilla (2008) calls evaluation bias and rewards bias. Using a one percent sample of federal government personnel records, we test these two possibilities using OLS and logit analyses that control for individual and job-related factors. We find mixed evidence of evaluation bias: women receive equal or higher performance ratings than men and white women consistently receive higher ratings than white men, while black men tend to receive lower ratings than comparable white men. We find no evidence of rewards bias: outstanding ratings increase salaries and promotion chances as much for minority men as for white men, and increase them more for Hispanic, Asian and black women.
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<P> Long-term treatment of cultured bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin (BAMC) cells with arachidonic acid (100μM), angiotesnin II (100 nM), prostaglandin E<SUB>2</SUB> (PGE<SUB>2</SUB>; 10μM), veratridine (2μM) or KCl (55 mM) for 24 hrs increased both norepinephrine and epinephrine levels in the supernatant. Pretreatment with staurosporine (10 nM), a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, completely blocked increases of norepinephrine and epinephrine secretion induced by arachidonic acid, angiotensin II, PGE<SUB>2</SUB>, veratridine or KCl. In addition, K252a, another PKC inhibitor whose structure is similar to that of staurosporine, effectively attenuated both norepinephrine and epinephrine secretion induced by arachidonic acid. However, K252a did not affect the catecholamine secretion induced by angiotensin II, PGE<SUB>2</SUB>, veratridine or KCl. Our results suggest that staurosporine may inhibit long-term catecholamine secretion induced by various secretagogues in a mechanism other than inhibiting PKC signaling. Furthermore, long-term secretion of catecholamines induced by arachidonic acid may be dependent on PKC pathway.
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The benign cementoblastoma is a rare benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin which has an unlimited growth potential. The benign cementoblastoma is most common in males younger than age 25 and in slow growing and asymptomatic. The benign cementoblastoma is attached to the tooth root and seen mostly in mandibular molars and premolars Radiologically, it is a well circumscribed radiopague mass with a peripheral radiolucent zone. Histologically, it is characterized by a hard tissue with very many reversal lines and sheets of cementum-like tissue, especially at periphery. Because of the aggressive nature of the lesion, complete excision of the tumor with the involved tooth is recommended. The following case is presented because of the unusual location of the lesion, its apparent inception from the maxillary first molar and second premolar. A 22 year old man complained of a painful response to percussion of the left maxillary second premolar and first physical examination showed that he was well developed, well nourished. Intraoral examination revealed buccal bony expansion from the left maxillary second premolar to the first molar. A normal appearing mucosa covered the tumor mass. Radiographic exanination showed a well circumscribed radiopaque mass (2cm in diameter) associated with the roots of the maxillary second premolar and first molar. With the patient under local anesthesia surgical excision of the lesion with the involved teeth was accomplished. Primary mucoperiosteal closure was performed with 3-0 black silk. Pathologic examination demonstrated that the lesion consisted of a mass of white, firm tissue which was easily cut, glistening material of cartilageneous consistency. Microscopically, diffuse sheets of cementum like tissue were seen to emanate from cementum attached to a root fragment. Toward the center of the lesion, many resting and reversal lines were present with intervening fibrous stroma.
( Seong Soo Choi ), ( Eun Young Joo ), ( Beom Sang Hwang ), ( Jong Hyuk Lee ), ( Gunn Lee ), ( Jeong Hun Suh ), ( Jeong Gill Leem ), ( Jin Woo Shin ) 대한통증학회 2014 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.27 No.2
Epidural adhesions cause pain by interfering with the free movement of the spinal nerves and increasing neural sensitivity as a consequence of neural compression. To remove adhesions and deliver injected drugs to target sites, percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis (PEA) is performed in patients who are unresponsive to conservative treatments. We describe four patients who were treated with a newly developed inflatable balloon catheter for more effective PEA and relief of stenosis. In the present patients, treatments with repetitive epidural steroid injection and/or PEA with the Racz catheter or the NaviCath did not yield long-lasting effects or functional improvements. However, PEA and decompression with the inflatable balloon catheter led to maintenance of pain relief for more than seven months and improvements in the functional status with increases in the walking distance. The present case series suggests that the inflatable balloon catheter may be an effective alternative to performing PEA when conventional methods fail to remove adhesions or sufficiently relieve stenosis. (Korean J Pain 2014; 27: 178-185)
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Anther culture of heading Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis, was carried out with several cultivars for 3 years. Plants derived from microspores were investigated for pollen production, self-and cross-incompatibility and seed bearing ability. Genotypic specificity of the donor plant was obvious in microspore embryogenesis. Sixty five out of 103 anther-derived plants produced pollen and self-seeds. The low ability of self-seed setting in bud pollination at the first generation of anther-derived plants was greatly improved according to advancement of generation. The number of seeds per open flower pollination in cross-compatible combinations was greatly more than that per bud self. All of the lines derived from the anther of F₁ hybrids were so uniform in morphology that they could be used directly as the parental inbred of an F₁ hybrid.
The full-length cDNA of CaAbsi1 encodes a presumptive protein of 134 amino acid residues that has homology to a putative zinc finger protein in its C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence has 50% homology to Oryza sativa NP001049-274, the function of which is unknown. Expression of CaAbsi1 was reduced in response to inoculation of non-host pathogens. On the other hand it was induced one hour after exposure to high concentrations of NaCl or mannitol, and six hours after transfer to low temperature. Induction also occurred in response to oxidative stress, methyl viologen, hydrogen peroxide and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that CaAbsi1 plays a role in multiple responses to wounding and abiotic stresses.
Seong,Soo,Kang1*,,Se,Eun,Kim,,Ara,Go,,Kyung,Mi,Shim,,Chun,Sik,Bae,,Chang,Jong,Moon,,Sung-Ho,Kim,,Jong-Choon,Kim,,Jin-Cheol,Yoo,,Seung,Sik,Cho 충북대학교 동물의학연구소 2012 Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research Vol.13 No.3
Probiotics, enzymes, organic acids, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, and other functional materials are actively being explored as alternatives to antibiotics. Probiotics include live beneficial microorganisms that colonize the intestinal tract and competitively inhibit attachment and growth of harmful microbes. Probiotics also increase feed efficiency by assisting in nutrient absorption and digestion. The current study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of a new probiotic, CS-A, as a dietary supplement of a fermented product on growth performance, feed intake, and feed conversion efficiency in broiler chickens, and to evaluate its value as an alternative for antibiotics used as a feed additive. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of CS-A were investigated in vitro and the in vivo effects of a constant concentration of supplemented CS-A on growth rate and feed efficiency were evaluated. In addition, the safety of CS-A was assessed by examination of common symptoms and mortality. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration revealed an excellent antibacterial effect of CS-A. Cytotoxicity was low and anti-inflammatory effects were achieved at the effective concentration of CS-A. Supplementation with 0.1% CS-A resulted in a feed efficiency score of 1.84 in broilers, compared to 2.00 in the control group. There were no adverse clinical findings, necropsy findings, hematology, and altered serum biochemistry parameters, and no mortality. Thus, it is concluded that CS-A is safe and effective as a feed additive.