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This is a clinical and retrospective study who sustained a total of 306 maxillofacial bone fracture and who were treated in our department between 1990-1994. This results were obtained as follows : 1. The ratio of men to women was 3.2 : 1. 2. The age frequency was the highest in the third decade(35%). That of man was the highest in the third decade but that of women in the fourth decade. 3. In respect of incidence, the number of patients has not been increased year after year. There were the highest frequency in September and the lowest frequency in January. 4. The most frequent cause of facial bone fracture was fall down(40.2%), traffic accident(28.1%), fist blow(20.9%), industrial accident(6.2%) and others in order. 5. The most common location of facial bone fracture was mandible(69%), maxillar with zygoma and zygoma in order of frequency. 6. The age frequency of mandible was the third decade(36.5%), the fourth decade(23.2%) and the fourth decade(22.2%) and the fifth decade(15.6%) in order. 7. In respect of incidence of associated injuries, the ratio of absence to presence was 0.7 : 1. 8. In 306 patients of facial bone fracture, the frequency of associated injuries was laceration, extrimities, chest in order.
카드뮴은 도금, 플라스틱, 유리, 합금, 전기소재 등의 제조에 널리 사용되고 있으며 이로 인한중독은 요세관 장애, 폐기종, 폐암, 골연화증, 요로결석 등을 일으킨다. 제련업, 배터리 제조업 등카드뮴 관련 산업이 많은 국내에서 카드뮴 중독증에 대한 체계적인 연구는 아직 없는 실정이다. 이에 저자들은 한국산업안전공단 산업보건연구원과 공동으로 카드뮴 중독이 진단된 5예에 대한요검사, 혈액검사, 신장조직 검사, 골밀도검사, 폐기능 검사 등을 실시하여 결과를 보고한다. 요중 카드뮴 농도가 5예 모두 1회 이상 5 μg/g creatinine 이상으로 측정[1차 38.51±42.68(7.27-101.07) μg/g creatinine, 2차 10.70±7.16(3.88-21.05) μg/g creatinine]되어 카드뮴 중독으로 진단하였다. 요중 N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase(NAG)는 9.19±2.21(7.25-12.79)U/g creatinine[기준치 4.5U/g creatinine]로 증가되어 있었다. 요중 β2-microglobulin, Metallothionein(MT), 24시간요 단백량, 24시간요 칼슘량 모두 정상이었다. 요중 카드뮴 농도와 요중 NAG 배설량과는 양의 상관관계(r=0.912, p=0.031)를 보였다. 사구체 여과율은 109.8±8.9(96.5-118) mL/min로 정상이었다. 혈액 검사, 간기능검사, 신기능검사, 전해질 검사는 모두 정상이었다. 요검사에서 1예의 단백뇨 및 혈뇨(조직검사에서 IgA 신증으로 진단)를 제외하곤 모두정상 이었다. 병리조직검사에서는 전예 모두 간질의 경한 섬유화를 보였으나 염증세포의 침윤은 없었다. IgA 신증이 1예에서 동반되었다. 1예에서 골다공증 및 폐쇄성 폐질환이 동반되었다. Cadmium-containing compounds are widely used in the manufacturing of pigments, plastics, glass, metal alloys, and electrical equipment. Chronic low exposure of cadmium causes renal tubular dysfunction, emphysema, bronchial cancer, osteomalasia, multiple fracture or urethral stone. Occupations exposed to cadmium are increasing in industsralized country such as Korea, but there is a few systemic study on cadmium intoxication until nowadays. We studied the effects of cadmium on renal function, pulmonary function and bone mineral density in 5 workers exposed to cadmium. Cadmium in urine were increased [38.51±42.68 (7.27-101.07) μg/g creatinine(1 st exam), 0.70±7.16 (3.88-21.05) μg/g creatinine(2 nd exam)], respectively. Urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase(NAG) excretion rates[9.19±2.21(7.25-12.79) U/g creatinine] were increased, but urinary β2-microglobulin(β2- MG), urinary methalothionein(MT) excretion, 24 hour urinary protein, calcium excretions were not increased. Cadmium in urine was correlated with urine NAG(r=0.912, p=0.031) but no relationship with others. Glomerular filtration rate were all within normal limits. Complete blood counts, liver function, renal function, electrolytes were all within normal limits. In urinalysis and sediment examination, 4 cases showed no abnormalities, but 1 case showed proteinuria(30 mg/dL) and hematuria with dysmorphic RBC dominance(This case was diagnosed accompanying IgA nephropathy). In pathologic examination, all biopsy specimens showed mild interstitial fibrosis without inflammatory cell infiltration. Osteoporosis and obstructive lung defect were diagnosed in one case. We found urinary NAG excretion were increased and mild interstitial fibrosis at biopsy specimen were seen in all cases. It is necessary to follow- up for detection of proteinuria and decrement of GFR in each patients.
This study was conducted to establish the cultural techniques of the puddled-soil drill seeding of race (Oryza sativa L.), which is one of the efficient labor saving cultural methods, in the central part of Korea. Seoanbyeo was seeded at three times from April 10 to May 20 with the 20 day interval in 1994. The number of seedling stands per m2 at each seeding date were 50, 90, 130 and 170. The tillering characteristics, lodging characters, dry matter production, yield components and yield were investigated. The number of days to the maximum tillering stage was reduced at the later seeding date. It was 70, 55 and 25 days in seedings on April 10, April 30 and May 20, respectively. The critical effective tillering stage was also shortened at the delayed seeding. The higher the number of seedling stands was, the higher number of tillers, the shorter duration to the maximum tillering stage and the earlier critical effective tillering stage were resulted. The number of tillers was higher at the earlier seeding date. The number of tillers was increased in the order of 50, 90, 130 and 170 seedling stands per m2. The ratios of effective tillers were 53, 61 and 63% at seeding on April 10, April 30 and May 20, respectively. The ratios were not significantly different at April 10. But the ratios in seeding on April 30 and May 20 were reduced as the number of seedling stands was increased. The weight of stem base related to lodging was the highest with 2.01g/10 plants in the optimum seeding on April 30, while it was 1.59g/10 plants in the late seeding on May 20. It was also decreased as the number of seedling stands was increased. The dry weights at 30 days before the heading stage were increased at the later seeding, while the dry weight at the heading stage was the highest at seeding on April 30 which is considered as the adequate seeding time. The dry weights at 30 days before the heading stage were increased as the number of seedling stands was increased and they were increased up to 130 seedling stands per m2 at the heading stage. The length of panicle exsertion was shortened at the later seeding. The length of panicle exsertion was increased up to 130 seedling stands. but it was shorter at 170 seedling stands. The heading dates were later at seeding on April 30 and May 20 than at seeding on April 10. They were not remarkedly different among seeding dates at 50 seedling stands, it was earlier at the higher number of seedling stands over 90. The number of spikelets per panicle was decreased at the higher number of seedling stands. The ratio of ripened grains was higher at earlier seeding than at later seeding. It was not significantly different among the number of seedling stands at the same seeding time. Yields at seeding on April 30, April 10 and May 20 were 644, 624 and 551kg/10a, respectively. The seeding on April 30, the optimum seeding time, resulted the highest yield. Rice quality was decreased due to the increase of the green kerneled rice as the seeding date was delayed.
This experiment was carried out to obtain indispensable information to establish comprehensive cultural method of rice in direct seeding on dry paddy at Chungbuk Agricultural Research and Extension Services. Effect of seeding date on dry matter production, yield components and yield were studied. Seeding on May 5 ensured the highest maximum number of tillers, while transplanting on May 20 gave the highest rate of effective tillers. Number of effective tillers was greater in the order of Hwajinbyeo, Hwaseongbyeo, Daekwanbyeo. Lengths of upper three leaves were increased at later seeding, but leaf width was not affected by seeding date. Ratio of leaf blade weight was higher in earlier seeding during 30 days before heading but was higher in later seeding during 30 days after seeding, and was higher in the order of Hwajinbyeo, Hwaseongbyeo, Daekwanbyeo. CGR, RGR and NAR were not significantly different among seeding dates during 30 days before heading, but were lower in later seeding during 30 days after seeding. LAR was not affected by seeding date during 30 days before heading, but was higher at seeding on May 5 in heading date and during 30 days after heading. Dry weight of leaf blade, leaf sheath and culm, ear and total biomass during 30 days before heading and heading were highest in May 5 seeding. Daekwanbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo in May 5 seeding and Hwajinbyeo in April 20 seeding brought the highest yield with greater number of spikelets, higher ripening ratio and greater 1,000 grain weight, and harvest index and grain/straw ratio were Increased at earlier seeding. There were significantly positive correlations between number of panicles per m2 and LAI at 30 days before heading and heading, dry matter weight of leaf blade and total mass at heading. On the other hand, there were significantly negative correlations between seeding date and ripened grain ratio. 1,000 grain weight and yield, and between 1,000 grain weight and leaf length of 2nd, respectively.
Modern Comedy in Korea informed in 1920'2. Representative writers are Kim, Chung Jin, Kim, Wo Jin, and Park, Seong Hee. Fifteen minute by Kim, Chung Jin is social problem comedy, and disilusion of a fake poet by Kim, Wo Jin is domestic problem comedy, and Bad high officer by park, Seong Hee is high farce. This inclination was due to insistent idea that Kim, Chung Jin was reporter, and Kim Wo Jin loved Yun, Sim Deok, actress, as a married man. But though Park, Seong Hee mondernized, Romance Bebijangjon, the reason that he prodeced with farce is due to popularity, public performance of Towolhwe.
최근 국내에서도 사회 주체(주민, 사용자 등) 주도형 혁신모델이자 지역·현장기반형 혁신의 장으로서 리빙랩이 도입·적용되고 있다. 본 연구는 지역사회문제 해결을 위한 실험으로 ‘리빙랩’을 명시하고 추진된 북촌 리빙랩, 성대골 리빙랩, 건너유 프로젝트 3개 사례를 분석하였다. 각 사례의 지역문제, 문제해결 목표, 참여주체 및 주체별 역할, 리빙랩 추진체계, 의의를 분석하고 리빙랩의 유형·특성을 도출했으며, 향후 발전 방안을 모색하였다. 분석 결과 각 사례는 기술 활용 방식과 사용되는 기술의 특성은 차이가 있으나 과학기술·ICT와 지역문제 해결을 연계하고자 했으며 지역주민이 문제 발굴부터 기술 실험 및 확산·적용까지 리빙랩 전반에서 주도적인 역할을 수행하였다. 또한 공통적으로 중간지원조직의 역할이 리빙랩 운영에 중요한 요인으로 작용하였다. 각 사례는 서로 다른 리빙랩 유형을 보이고 있는데, 북촌 IoT 리빙랩은 정부/지자체가 리빙랩 활동기반 조성 또는 행위자 활동을 지원하고 프로젝트 형태로 운영된 반면, 성대골 에너지전환 리빙랩과 건너유 프로젝트는 시민사회 스스로 지역문제를 해결하기 위해 문제를 정의하고 기술을 탐색하는 형태로 진행되었다. Living Lab is being introduced and applied as an innovation model driven by social entities (residents, users, etc.) and as an innovation place based on local and field. This study analyzed three living lab cases of Bukchon IoT living lab, Seong-Daegol energy transition living lab, and Daejeon Geonneoyu project, which were designated as "Living Lab" to solve local problems. We analyzed the local problem, the problem solving goal, the role of each participant and the subject, the living lab promotion system, the significance in each case. In addition, the types and characteristics of living labs were elucidated and future development plans were discussed. The result is as follow. First, each case has a tendency to link science technology and ICT with local problem solving though there is a difference between the technologies used. Second, local residents played a leading role in the whole living lab process from problem identification to technical experimentation, diffusion and application. Third, the role of the intermediaries commonly played an important role in the operation of the living lab. Last but not least, each case has different types of living lab. Bukchon IoT living lab being operated as a project by the government / municipality to create a living lab activity-base or to support actors’ activities. On the other hand, the Seong-Daegol energy transition living lab and Daejeon Geonneoyu project were conducted by the civil society itself to define problems and explore technologies in order to solve local problems.
Amidst increasingly growing demand for large concrete structure or high strength / high durability concrete in line with economic development, the risk of ydrothermal cracking resulting from hydration heat and drying shrinkage has been on the rise, In fact, thermal stress caused by hydration heat or contraction stress due to drying shrinkage has considerable effect on design or construction of the structure. The cracks in concrete structure spoils the aesthetic aspect of the structure as well as deteriorates the load bearing capacity of the structure, thereby worsening the usability and safety and reducing the service life of the structure eventually. Moreover harmful substances penetrated into the crack causes the rebar to be corroded more rapidly and other numerous problem. In this study, inspection of the urban railway pier structure was performed to check the cracks and in a bid to identify the cause of the cracks, modelling to simulate the field condition was implemented and the temperature distribution and thermal stress variat ion occurred inside and outside the members were estimated using 3D finite element analysis program, MIDAS/FEA and the thermal cracking index was calculated and analyzed.
This study was carried out to determine the optimum seeding date for the rice(Oryza sativa L.) cultivation of the puddled-soil drill seeding, which is one of the efficient labor saving cultural methods, at the central part of Korea. Namweonbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo were seeded on four dates from April 10 to May 25, 1994 with the 15 day interval in the paddy field. In order to examine the adequate seeding date, the growth characters, yield components and yields were investigated. The coleoptile emerged 1 or 2 days earlier in Namweonbyeo than in Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo, and later seeding resulted earlier coleoptile emergence. The number of seedling stands were higher in the order of Namweonbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo, was increased at the later seeding and was 81 to 88 seedlings on April 10 seeding. The plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers and dry weight at 50 days after seeding of all three cultivars were higher at later seeding. Leaf area index(LAI) were higher in the order of Ilpumbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Namweonbyeo. LAIs at the heading stage, at 30 days after heading and at 30 days before heading were higher in that order. The dry matter weight at the 30 days before heading was higher in sheath and stem than that in leaf blade, while, at heading stage, it was higher in the order of sheath and stem, leaf blade and panicle. On the other hand, at 30 days after heading, it was higher in the order of panicle, sheath and stem and leaf blade. The number of panicles per m2 was greater in the order of Ilpumbyeo, Anjungbyeo and Namweonbyeo. The ratio of ripened grain was reduced as the later seeding date. Its ratio was higher in Namweonbyeo than in Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo. Yield of Namweonbyeo was lower than those of Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo. Yield was decreased as the seeding date was delayed. Namweonbyeo showed the highest yield at seeding on May 10, while Anjungbyeo and Ilpumbyeo showed at seeding on April 25. The seeding date was negatively correlated with the ratio of ripened grain. while the number of seedling stands was positively correlated with the number of panicle per m2.
기존의 특수건강진단과 작업환경측정을 통한 직업병 관리가 진폐증, 소음성난청 등의 소수 특정질환에 국한되고 실제 직업병 발생 규모 파악이나 신종 직업병의 발견에 한계를 보인다는 사실은 산업의학전문가들 사이에서도 공감을 이루고 있다. 미국과 영국 등에서의 직업성질환 감시체계에 대한 경험은 우리 나라의 직업성질환 감시체계 구축에도 새로운 자극제가 되면서, 1998년이후 인천, 대전, 여천, 구미, 부울경 지역에서 지역 직업성질환감시체계를 산업보건관리의 중요한 시스템으로 구축하려는 노력이 확산되고 있다. 새로이 구축되어지는 이들 지역 직업성질환 감시체계는 감시하고자 하는 대상질환, 활용 가능한 인적자원 및 자료원, 지역 의료체계의 특수성 등에 따라서 목적과 방법을 달리하면서 독특한 형태로 발전을 하고 있다. 각 지역단위 감시체계들이 그 상황에 맞게 독특한 목적과 전략들을 발전 시키면서도, 향후 발전할 국가적인 차원의 직업성질환 감시체계 구축을 위하여 직업성질환 감시의 기본 전략 등을 공유하는 등의 노력이 필요하다. 환례 정의 및 기본적인 등록 서식의 공유, 직업성질환 감시 자료원의 발굴, 공동의 정보 네트워크 및 직업성질환 감시 데이터베이스 구축 등 직업성질환 감시활동을 지원하기 위한 여러 기초 인프라 구축에 힘을 모아야 할 것이다. 우리 나라에서 직업성질환 감시체계를 성공적으로 구축하기 위해서는 수집된 자료의 질 관리를 위한 직업성질환 감시의 원칙 제정과 감시 전략의 공유 등이 필요하며, 전국적인 직업성질환 감시체계의 하부구조라고 할 수 있는 지역감시체계의 기초 토대 마련과 강화작업이 절실하게 필요하다.