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Caries prevalence rate have been increased in children of korea along with social and socio economic status increment. Water fluoridation is the most effective public dental health plan for preventon of dental caries. The purpose of this study is to estimate the preventive effect on dental caries in discontinued water fluoridated area in korea. Jin-Hae city was selected, where water fluoridation was temporarily stopped due to unmatched supply of NaF₂. Dental survey had been done for 2,599 children in Jin-Hae city and 2,401 children in non-fluoridated area in 1994, and after the obtained data were analysed. The obtained results were as follows; 1. The mean of df and DMF rate was 78.84%, 66.01% in non-fluoridated area but Jin-Hae city was 77.41%, 49.94%. 2. The df index was 4.06 in non-fluoridated area and 3.40 in Jin-Hae city. 3. The DMF index was 2.22 in non-fluoridated area and 1.30 in Jin-Hae city. 4. The preventive effect on dental caries of discontinued water fluoridation was 16.26% in primary dentitions and 41.44% in permanent dentitions. 5. It is recommended that water fluoridation should be implemented in all supplied areas of communal water in Korea.
The purpose of thus study were to investigate the proper conditions of struvite formation in synthetic wastewater and then to apply these conditions to effluent of anaerobic digester of livestock wastewater The conditions of struvite formation had been studied by many researchers. But a little conditions were different among them. Especially, according to suspended solid variation in livestock wastewater was investigated by few researchers. In experiment of synthetic wastewater, the proper conditions of struvite formation were pH 105, l50rpm of mixing rate, 10 minutes of reaction time, and 20 minutes of precipitation time. At same time, the ammonia nitrogen removal rates were about 99.7%, 95.5%, and 96% of synthetic wastewater, raw wastewater, and effluent of anaerobic digester of livestock wastewater at molar ratio of 2(Mg):l(N)2(P) respectively. The larger factor of NH₄/SS constant was, the more effective the removal rate of ammonium nitrogen, SS was, but the less effective COD_(cr), and TOC was. By using XRD analysis, the most certain compound in precipitate of synthetic wastewater was struvite.
이 글에서는 陜川 三嘉에 있었던 龍巖書院 운영주체들의 성격과 활동을 고찰하였는데, 특히 인조반정 이후 그들이 보여주었던 학문적 지향에 관해 주로 논의하였다. 또한 1609년에 공히 사액되었던 德川書院ㆍ新山書院 등 타 남명 제향 서원의 경우와 비교해 봄으로써, 용암서원 운영주체들의 특징을 좀더 부각시키고자 하였다. 용암서원은 임진왜란 때 소실된 뒤, 1601년경 재건되었는데, 이때 관여한 인물 다수가 鄭仁弘과 밀접한 관련이 있는 것으로 판단된다. 용암서원의 원장ㆍ원임을 맡은 인물로는 정인홍, 文景虎, 李屹, 鄭蘊, 林眞付, 朴絪 등이 있는데, 정온ㆍ임진부ㆍ박인은 인조반정 이후에도 용암서원 내에서 남명 선양 사업을 활발히 진행하였고, 덕천ㆍ신산서원의 추가 배양 논의에서도 남명 위상의 제고를 위한 방법을 제시하였다. 임진부는 용암서원에서의 강학을 통해 남명 정신을 강조했고, 박인은 남명 관련 기록물의 정리ㆍ편집을 맡았는데, 이 일들을 정온의 자문을 받아 진행하였다. 정온은 趙任道에게 신산서원 원장을 맡길 만큼 용암서원ㆍ신산서원 내에서 영향력이 있었고, 조임도는 용암서원 측의 입장을 참고하며 신산서원 내의 일을 처리한 것으로 보인다. 한편 덕천서원에서는 1635년 무렵 覺齋 河沆을 배향하려는 논의가 있었다. 여기서 사액서원의 지위를 포기하면서까지 배향을 강행하려는 의견도 있었지만, 정온 등 용암서원 운영주체 측에서는 사액의 지위를 인정해야 한다는 의견을 피력함과 동시에 하항 외에 鄭逑 등 남명 高弟를 함께 배향해야 타당하다고 주장하였다. 이는 인조반정 이후 추락해가는 남명의 위상을 제고할 방법을 모색한 것인데, 정구에게서 남명의 영향을 지우려는 집단의 반대로 결국 실현되지 못한 것으로 보이지만 정인홍이 생전에 추구했던 남명 선양 정신의 잔존이라 할만하다. 신산서원에서 金宇옹만을 제향하려는 움직임에 대해서도 이들 용암서원 운영주체들은 정구도 함께 배향할 것을 주장하였다. 인조반정 이후 덕천서원ㆍ신산서원에서는 서원 내 서로 다른 성향을 가진 집단끼리 논의하고 충돌함으로써, 반정 이후 바뀐 환경에서 적응할 방법을 모색해 나갔다면, 용암서원은 변신이 불가능할 정도로 정인홍 계열의 영향력이 컸던 곳으로 판단되지만, 이러한 점 때문에 인조반정 이후에도 한동안은 정인홍의 정신을 계승하여 남명학의 학습과 교육, 정리와 출판 사업 등이 추진될 수 있었던 것이다. This article focused on Yongam-Seowon[龍巖書院]’ operating leaders action and their direction. Especially, it is mainly discussed what they were kept of scholarship, immediately after Injo-Coup[仁祖反正]. It was memorial that about Nammyung Jo,Sik[南冥 曺植]’ scholarship, in Yongam-Seowon. In 1609, Yongam-Seowon was authorized by government. In the same year, Deokcheon-Seowon[德川書院], Sinsan-Seowon[新山書院] were authorized, too. These three Seowon were memorial place about Nammyung Jo,Sik. In operation policy discussions, their academic features appear. In Yongam-Seowon, Jeong,In-hong[鄭仁弘]’ impact is huge, from the beginning. Jeong,In-hong is excellent student in Jo,Sik school, and in academic attitude, he is most looked like his teacher. Jeong,In-hong, Lee,Heul[李屹], Jeong,On[鄭蘊], Im,Jin-bu[林眞付], Pak,In[朴絪] were responsible for operating Yongam-Seowon. They kept up about Jo,Sik memorial activity. Around 1635, Deokcheon-Seowon and Sinsan-Seowon operating leaders were discussed who is addendum memorial scholar in their Seo-won. Yongam-Seowon leaders insisted that the most admirable scholar is there in. Because it is one way to respect Jo,Sik. In this discussion, we may know that their three Seowon’ insistences were different from each other.
In order to provide a reliable M-Commerce, a payment solution with security functions should be required. User's mobile terminals used in M-Commerce services are diversifying to cellular phone, PDA, Smart phone etc. Among them, integration of PDA's interface and mobile connection overcomes the weak point of existing cellular phone depending on information via the internet. In this paper, the Secure Card based protocol for a credit card transaction on PDA using ECC is presented. Secure Card module on this protocol encrypts user's information such as private information, delivery information and credit card information and stores it on PDA in order to free from inputting information whenever it is used. This scheme also offers security services on M-Commerce including authentication, confidentiality, integration, non-repudiation and so on.
Objectives: This study examined the relationship of fatigue to medical utilization, occupational accident and sickness absence. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project, 2002~2004). A total of 30,146 employees categorized within the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were recruited. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess the participants' sociodemo-graphics, job-related factors, health-related behaviors, personality trait, self=perceived fatigue (MFS) and the frequency of medical utilization, occupational accident and sickness absence. Data on medical utilization and occupational accident were confirmed from company health records. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to elucidate the relationship of self-perceived fatigue to medical utilization, occupational accident and sickness absence. Results: In logistic regression analyses, self-perceived fatigue was associated with medical utilization (outpatient), occupational accident and sickness absence although the strength of the associations was higher in the blue collar workers except for medical utilization. For medical utilization, the white collar worker's adjusted odds ratios of outpatient utilization for workers scoring in the third quartile and the highest quartile, compared to workers scoring in the lowest quartile were 1.50 (95% CI: 1.20-1.87) and 2.16 (95% CI: 1.69-2.75), respectively. The blue collar workers' adjusted odds ratios of outpatient utilization for workers scoring in the second (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), third (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22-1.66) and highest quartile (OR:1.83, 95% CI: 1.55-2.17), respectively, compared to workers scoring in the lowest quartile were statistically significant. However, no associations were found between fatigue and inpatient utilization for either the white or blue collar workers. The blue collar workers' adjusted odds ratios of being injured for workers scoring in the second, third and highest quartile were 1.41 (95% CI: 1.00-2.00), 1.57 (95% CI: 1.10-2.22) and 2.41 (95% CI: 1.69-3.44), respectively, compared to those scoring in the lowest quartile, but, those of the white collar workers were not significant. There was more likely to an increased risk of sickness absence in workers scoring in the second, third and highest quartile compared to those scoring in the lowest quartile in both white and blue collar workers, but the magnitudes of risk were higher in the blue collar workers than the white collars workers. Conclusion: This result suggests that fatigue is a determinant predictor of medical utilization, occupational accident and sickness absence, and that the pattern of risks for the three outcomes differs according to the occupational type. Some limitations of this study and considerations for future study were also discussed.
Outsourcing has been a key policy tool for delivering a range of social services, and regarded as more effective than insourcing or direct government provision. At the same time, it has also caused many delivery issues such as principal‐agent problems, a lack of policy coordination, and poor‐quality welfare services. While the pendulum continues to swing between insourcing and outsourcing, we aim to propose a new public–private partnership model called the “hybrid insourcing model” and examine which factors influence the performance of the model. In South Korea, around 2010, the local government in Namyangju City was the first to implement the “Hope Care Center model,” a kind of hybrid insourcing model, which has been praised for its innovation and widely emulated by central and local governments. Our analysis utilizes data collected between December 2017 and January 2018 from public sector employees and civilian staff in Namyangju and a comparable city, A. From this, we draw a number of implications, both for theory and for policy. We argue that, for public–private partnerships, active cooperation and equality are the biggest factors in contributing to positive performance. These work alongside leaders with a clear vision and with employees' positive attitude
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연구 목적 : 한국의 일 도시지역에 거주하는 청소년의 우울 증상의 유병률과 관련요인을 밝힘으로써 청소년 정신건강 증진을 위한 기초 자료를 수집하기 위하여 실시되었다. 방 법 : 연구 대상은 부천시에 거주하는 중학교나 고등학교에 재학중인 청소년 71,102명 가운데에서 무작위 집락 표본 추출법에 의해 선정된 2,203명이었으며, 이들에 대해서 CES-D(the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale)와 사회인구학적 정보에 대한 문항이 들어 있는 설문을 실시하였다. 설문은 직접 학교를 방문하여 수행하였다. 선정된 2,203명의 청소년 가운데에 CES-D문항을 완성한 학생은 1,972명으로 반응률은 89.5%였다. 결 과 : 1) CES-D의 절단점을 16점으로 하여 계산한 '가능한' 우울 증상의 유병률은 중학생의 경우에 남학생 34.6%, 여학생 44.7%였으며, 고등학생의 경우에는 남학생 43.8%, 여학생 49.6%였다. 2) CES-D의 절단점을 25점으로 하여 계산한 '명확한' 우울증 증상의 유별률은 중학생의 경우에 남학생 18.4%, 여학생 20.7%였으며, 고등학생의 경우에는 남학생 21.4%, 여학생 23.9%였다. 3)종교, 인문계와 실업계의 여부에 따라서 우울 증상의 유병률에는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 4) 성,학년, 생활수준에 대한 자신의 평가, 가족의 구조, 성적에 대한 만족도의 다섯 가지 변수에 대해 CES-D점수가 16점 이상인 우울 증상의 유무에 따라서 로지스틱 회귀 분석을 시행하였을 때 성적에 대해 불만적 하는 군에서 매우 만족하는 군에 비해서 8.850배의 상대 위험도를 보였다. 생활 수준을 중하정도라고 대답한 군은 상이라고 대답한 군에 비해서 2.007배의 상대 위험도를 보였다. 여학생은 남학생에 비해서 1.307배의 상대 위험도를 보였다. 5) 우울 증상에 있어서 남학생과 여학생의 비율은 전체 군에서 1:1.38이며 중학생의 경우에는 1:1.88, 고등학생의 경우에는 1:1.13으로 나타났다. 고등학생에 있어 남학생의 우울 증상이 증가하는 것은 학업과 입시에 대한 부담과 관련된 것으로 생각되었다. 결 론 : 한국 일 도시거주 중고등학생에서 CES-D로 측정한 우울 증상은 남학생의 34.3%, 여학생의 47.5%에서 나타날 정도로 흔하다. 특히 학업 성적에 대해 불만족 하는 군에서 높은 우울 증상의 상대 위험률을 보이며, 고등학생에서 남학생의 우울증의 유병률이 높아지는 것은 이 지역 학생들이 학업에 대한 높은 부담을 가지고 있다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 이들에 대한 특별한 관심이 요구된다. Objective : We tried to see the prevalence and correlates of symptoms of depression in an adolescent population in Korea, and collected the basal data for mental health promotion of adolescents. Method : We sampled 2,203 adolescents among 71,102 adolescents living in Puchon City in Korea by the randomized clustered sampling method. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale(CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms. The measurements were conducted through visiting schools. Of the 2,203 adolescents(aged 13 to 18) who were sampled, 1,972 persons completed CES-D and sociodemographic questions. The response rate was 89.5%. Result : 1) The prevalence rate of 'probable' depressive symptoms with cutoff point 16 was 34.3% in the boys and 47.5% in the girls. 2) The prevalence rate of 'definite' depression symptoms with cutoff point 25 was 17.4% in the boys and 20.6% in the girls. 3) We could not find any meaningful difference in the average of CES-D from the districts where they live, the course of their education, and their religions. 4) We used the logistic regression analysis to find the risk factor for adolescent depression in these samples. Among the variables degree, it was most important risk factor in adolescent depression to dissatisfy with their school degrees. Compared it with fully satisfied group, the odds ratio was 8.850. The group of mid to low socioeconomic status had the odds ratio 2.007 compared with high socioeconomic status. The girls had the odds ratio 1.307 compared with the boys. 5) The male versus female ratio was 1: 1.38 in the total students and 1 : 1.88 in the middle school students, and 1 : 1.13 in the high school students. The male versus female ratio was relatively low in the high school students. It was the result of the high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the high school boys, and it was due to the large burden to their school degrees. Conclusion : The depressive symptoms checked by CES-D were very common among adolescents in Korean urban area. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 34.3% in the boys and 47.5% in the girls. The result that male versus female ratio was relatively low in the high school adolescents, and the group that were dissatisfied with the school degrees had high risk of depressive symptoms, revealed that the students had large burden to their school degrees and so they needed special concerns.
본 연구의 목적은 흰 쥐의 상악 대구치를 발거한 후 치주인대세포를 0°C/2 MPa고압-저온하에 1주간 보관시켜 MTT, WST-1 검색법을 이용하여 측정한 치주인대세포의 활성도를 저속 냉동법 (No Additional Pressure. 2,3 MPa). 급속 냉동법, (No Additional Pressure. 2 MPa), -5°C/90 MPa초고압 저온보존법과 비교하여 평가하는 것이다. 생후 4주된 암컷 Sprague-Dawley계 흰쥐의 상악 좌우 제 1,2대 구치를 발거하여 각 군 당 12개의 쥐 치아를 MTT, WST-1 검색에 이용하였다 실험군은 9개 군으로 대조군은 즉시 발치군이며, 각각 3 MPa. 2 MPa. NoAdditional Pressure (NAP)의 압력을 가한 후 4°C 에 서 -35°C 까지 -0.5°C/min 속도로 서서히 냉동시킨 뒤 -196°C 에 냉동한 저속 냉동군, 발치 후 동해방지제 처리과정을 거쳐 각각 2 MPa, NP의 압력을 가한 후, -196°c 의 액화질소에 넣어 냉동한 급속 냉동군, 발치 후 각각 2MPa,NP의 압력을 가한 후. 0°C에 보관한 저온 보존군, -5°C/90 MPa의 초고압 저온 보존군으로 나누었다. 보존액은 Fmedium을 사용했으며 통해방지제로 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) 를 사용하였다. 치근변을 단위면적으로 표준화하기 위해 MTT. WST-1 측정값을 Eosin 염색 후 530 nm에서 측정한 흡광도 값으로 나누었다. 통계 분석을 위해 one way ANOVA를 시행하였으며 사후 검정으로는 Tukey HSD 방법을 사용하였고 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. MTT 검색법 및 WST-1 검색법 결과 0°C/2 MPa 고압 저온 보존군이 즉시 발치군보다 세포 활성도가 낮았으나 통계적 유의차는 없었으며, 저속 압력 냉동군 (NP, 2 MPa, 3 MPa)과, 급속 압력 냉동군 (NP, 2 MPa). 저온보존군(0 °C/NP) 초고압 저온 보존군 (-5°C /90 MPa) 보다 통계적으로 유의차있게 높은 세포 활성도를 나타내었다 (p <0.05). 2. MTT검색법 및 WST-1 검색법 결과 -5°C/90 MPa 초고압 저온 보존군이 가장 낮은 세포 활성도를 나타내었으며, MTT 검사 결과에서는 모든 군에 대해 통계적으로 유의성 있는 결과를 보였다 (p <0.05). 위의 결과를 통해, 0°C/2 MPa (20기압) 의 고압 저온 보존법이 다른 급속 냉동 보관법 (2 MPa. NAP) 이 나 저속냉동보관법 (3. 2 MPa, NAP), -5°C/90 MPa 초고압 저온 보존법에 비해 우수한 쥐 치아의 치주인대세포의 활성도를 보여 차후 치아의 재이식시 치아보관을위한방법으로의 가능성을제시하였다. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of periodontalligament cells of rat teeth after low temperature preservation under high pressure by means ofMTT assay, WST-1 assay. 12 teeth of SpragueDawley white female rats of 4 week-old were used for each group. Both side of the first and second maxillary molars were extracted as atraumatically as possible under tiletamine anesthesia. The experimental groups were group 1 (Immediate extraction) , group 2 (Slow freez ing under pressure of 3 MPa), goup 3 (Slow freezing under pressure of 2 MPa), group 4 (Slow freezing under no additional pressure), group 5 (Rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen under pressure of 2 MPa), group 6 (Rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen under no additional pressure), group 7 (low-temperature preservation at Ot under pressure of 2 MPa), group 8 (low-temperature preservation at 0˚C under no additional pres sure), group 9 (low-temperature preservation at -5 t under pressure of 90 MPa). F-medium and 10% DMSO were used as preservation medium and cryo-protectant. For cryo-preservation groups, thawing was performed in 37˚C water bath, then MTT assay , WST-1 assay were processed. One way ANOVA and Tukey HSD method were performed at the 95% level of confidence. The values of optical density obtained by MTT assay and WST-1 were divided by the values of eosin staining for tissue volume standardization. In both MTT and WST-1 assay, group 7 (0˚C/2 MPa) showed higher viability of periodontal ligament cells than other group (2-6, 8) and this was statistically significant (p <0.05), but showed lower viability than group 1, immediate extraction group (no statistical significance). By the results of this study, low-temperature preservation at Ot under pressure of 2 MPa suggest the possibility for long term preservation of teeth.
Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.