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      • 대행선에 관한 일고 -『한마음 요전』을 중심으로

        강문선(혜원),(Kang, Moon-Seon(Ven, Hye-Won) 대행선연구원 2018 한마음연구 Vol.1 No.-

        This thesis aims at investigating the course of truth seeking Venerable Myogong Daehaeng (1927-2012) took by herself and at examining her full awakening to the truth, rather than viewing Daehaeng Seon from the standpoint of patriarch Seon, gongan Seon, ganhwa Seon, or the theory of original buddhahood. The scope of my investigation is restricted to the period ranging from Daehaeng's childhood to her arrival at Baengnyeonsa Temple in Jecheon City in order to ‘dim her radiance and mingle with the dust of the world' 和光同塵 as recorded in the Han mau m yojeon: Daehaen g sunim haengjanggi, peobeojip. My thesis is generally based on this book. Before and after Daehaeng's teen life, Korea was in the gloomy conditions under Japanese colonial rule. On account of dire poverty and ill-treatment by her father, Daehaeng at that time had an extremely hard time: she frequently run away from home and slept in the open air. But on the contrary this situation allowed her to thoroughly investigate such things as ‘life', ‘uncertain self-existence', ‘refuge', and ‘existence'. She pursued to find out a compassionate ‘father' in her inner world as a replacement of her cruel father in the troubled external world. This is the starting point of Daehaeng Seon. At the age of nine, Daehaeng came to the recognition of life through the question of “Who led me to such a state?” She looked straight on the reality of the world full of discrimination and hardship, but discovered that there is an inner world, namely ‘he(father),' in which people can find their inherent peace and refuge beyond this troubled world. In other words, she understood that ‘he' and ‘I' are coexistent. At the age of fourteen, when she met Master Hanam, she longed for seeing the actual appearance of ‘father' with Hanam's compassionate nature as condition. Ten years after that, she realized that the actual ‘I' and inherent ‘he' are non-dual. Before, the actual ‘I' followed the inner ‘him'[master] but now she penetrated a basic spiritual barrier upon removing the boundary between ‘he' and ‘I'. In 1950 when she was twenty-four years of age, Daeng became a novice nun. Master Hanam noticed Daehaeng's capability of following the buddha-way and acknowledged that she had been free from affliction. Hanam gave her the dharma name Cheonggak 靑覺 and entrusted her with an order that she now go her own way. Daehaeng continued her traveling practice firmly abiding in the contemplation of no-thought in which she stayed only at the things touching to her comfortable mind. One day both at a graveyard and from her reflection in water, she reached a thorough realization that the ‘I' in the actual world and ‘he' in the fundamental nature are neither the same nor different. Thereafter, in her capacity as a free person, she set off to extend compassion to all sentient beings, manifesting unrestricted competency. Daehaeng had already realized that the troubled reality [guest] and secured inner fundamental nature [master] are both coexistent and non-dual. All Hanam did was merely to approve Daehaeng's intent of Seon. Furthermore, Daehaeng did not know about the Chinese Chan (Seon) in Tang China. However, rather than being in the style of the ‘ordinary mind is free from troubles' 平常無事 of Mazu Daoyi 馬祖道一, Daehaeng Seon corresponds to the lineage of Shitou Xiqian 石頭希遷 because Shitou Chan emphasizes the original self whose aspects in the actual world and fundamental nature are not rejected but maintained as they are, and considered as non-different. Like this, we can find that Daehaeng Seon embraces in Seon all the activities such as looking straight on both the nature and actual world; thereby finding out an inner refuge; and realizing one's ‘original self' in which one can reach the union of various phenomena. I think this features prominently in Daehaeng Seon. 본 논문은 ‘대행선'을 조사선, 공안선, 간화선, 본래성불론 등의 관점에서 바라보기보다는 그의 생애(1927-2012)에서 스스로 형성된 구도의 과정과 증오證悟를 살펴보는 데에 목표를 둔다. 연구의 범위는 유년기에서 제천 백련사에 당도하여 ‘화광동진和光同塵'하는 시기 이전까지로 하며, 『한마음 요전』을 중심으로 고찰했다. 대행의 10대 전후는, 암울한 일제 강점기였으며 가세의 몰락과 부친의 학대 가출과 노숙으로 이어진 극히 어려운 시기였다. 이로 인해 ‘생명', ‘불확실한 자기존재', ‘도피처', ‘실존' 등에 대해 궁구하게 되었으며 고난의 외부세계보다 내면에서 혹독한 아빠를 대신 할 수 있는 자애로운 ‘아빠'를 찾으려 한다. 대행의 선禪은 여기서 비롯된다. 대행의 나이 9세, ‘누가 나를 이렇게 만들었는가?'라는 간절한 물음은 현실이 분명 차별과 고난의 세계임을 직시한 것이지만, 이 를 벗어난 본래 평화롭고 위안처가 되는 내면의 세계, 즉 ‘그(渠= 아빠)'가 있음을 발견한다. 다시 말해서 ‘그'와 ‘나'가 둘이 공존함을 알게 된다. 14세, 모친을 따라 선지식 한암을 만나게 되고 스님의 자비로운 성품이 기인이 되어 ‘아빠'의 현실의 모습을 보기를 갈망한다. 10년 후, 현실의 ‘나'와 본래의 ‘그'가 불이임을 체득하게 된다. 그동안 현실의 ‘나'가 내면의 ‘그[주인공]'를 따라다녔는데 이제 ‘그'와 ‘나'가 소통이 되고 경계가 없어진다. 말하자면 초관初關을 투득透得한 것이다. 낙발落髮하기 전의 일이다. 24세(1950) 대행은 사미니가 되고, 한암은 대행과의 문답에서 대행의 법기法器를 알아보고 이미 신심身心이 투탈透脫되었음을 안다. 법명을 청각靑覺으로 내리고 ‘이제 네 길을 가라'고 부촉付囑한다. 대행의 만행은 계속되고 무심관으로 편안한 마음에 와 닿는 것에만 응주凝住할 뿐이었다. 어느 날 묘지에서, 또한 물에 비친 자신의 모습에서 현실의 ‘나'와 본래성의 ‘그'가 불일불이不一不異임을 철견徹見하였다. 견자성見自性한 것이다. 이후 ‘자유인'으로서 자재 한 권능으로 ‘입전수수入鄽垂手'의 길로 나섰다. 대행은 이미 고된 현실[客]과 안정된 내면의 본래성[主]을 직시하고 관찰하여 이 둘이 공존함을 알았고 객과 주가 불이임을 알았다. 한암은 대행의 선지禪旨를 인가했을 뿐이다. 또한 대행은 중국 당대唐代의 선을 알지 못했다. 그러나 그의 선은 ‘평상무사'의 마조계馬祖系 선禪보다 이를 비판하고 현실태와 본래성을 유지하면서 이 양자를 상즉시키는 ‘자기自己'를 중요시 하는 석두계石頭系 선禪에 상응됨을 살필 수 있었다. 이와 같이 대행선에서는 자연과 현실의 세계를 직시, 내면의 안락처를 발견, 이를 상즉相卽시키는 ‘자기自己'를 투득하는 것 등이 전부 선禪임을 알 수 있다. 이것이 바로 대행선의 특색이라고 본다.

      • KCI등재후보

        허응당(虛應當) 보우(普雨)의 사상과 시적 형상화 연구

        정선양 ( Jeong Seon-yang ), 백원기 ( Baek Won-gi ) 한국사상문화학회 2019 韓國思想과 文化 Vol.96 No.-

        이 논문의 목적은 허응당 보우(1509~1565)의 사상의 특징과 그것의 시적 표현을 고찰하는데 있다. 조선 중기 숭유억불의 시대에 보우는 문정왕후의 적극적인 지원과 배려로 선종판사가 되어 목숨을 걸고 불법을 수호하고 불교중흥을 위해 진력을 다하였다. 특히 그는 선·교 회통을 주장함으로써 불교교단의 분열과 갈등을 극복하고 통합된 교단과 교세 확장을 도모하였다. 또한 그는 유·불 회통을 통한 조화로운 공존을 모색함으로써 위기의 불법(佛法)을 지키고자 하였다. 그런데 그의 이러한 주장의 핵심 사상은 ‘일정론'을 근간으로 하는 ‘원융사상'이다. 아울러 탁월한 시적 상상력과 재능을 지닌 보우는 선지(禪旨)에 기반 한 주옥같은 많은 시문학을 남기고 있다. 자신의 시심을 시마(詩魔)라 표현할 정도로 시 창작에 대한 지대한 관심을 가지고 많은 시를 생산하였다. 무엇보다도 그의 선심(禪心)을 시심화 하는데 있어서의 중심적인 사유는 원융사상이다. 그것은 모든 사물과 현상, 사상과 이념을 분별하지 않고 하나로 일체화하여 시적으로 표현하는데서 잘 드러나고 있다. 따라서 보우에게 있어 시문학은 구도와 깨달음, 자연교감과 교화 방편의 선심(禪心)을 드러내기 위한 하나의 장치였다 할 수 있다. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristic of thought and poetic expression of Seon master Heoeungdang Bowu(1509~1565). At the era of middle Joseon based on respecting Confucianism and oppressing Buddhism, Bowu, as a judge of Seon Oder, tried to do his best in protecting Buddha-dharma and in promoting Buddhism under queen Munjeong's positive support and consideration. In particular, he made an effort to overcome the division and conflict between Seon and Doctrine School, and also planned a unified Buddhist order and the extension of Buddhist influence by asserting the unification of Seon and the Doctrinal School. In addition, he attempted to keep endangered Buddha-dharma by aiming at harmonious co-existence through the unification of Confucianism and Buddhism. Above all, the core of Bow's thought is 'Perfect Unification' based on 'Iljeongron,' which is the very Hwaeom thought. On the other hand, Bowu, having an excellent poetic imagination and talent, produced lots of jemlike poems based on Seon intuition. That is, he created many Seon poems enough to express his poetic mind as poetic magic power, with a great interest in the creation of poetry. The point in the poetic expression of his Seon mind is 'Perfect Unification,' which is well revealed in poetic description unifying all objects/phenomena, thought/idea without discriminating them. Therefore, his poetic products are a kind of mechanic to express Seon mind in the process of obtaining enlightenment, communion with nature, and guidance of his disciples in more vivid and condensed poetic images and dictions.

      • KCI등재

        근대화에 따른 동아시아 사원규범의 변화

        강문선(Mun Seon Kang) 동국대학교 불교문화연구원 2010 佛敎學報 Vol.0 No.55

        본 논문의 목적은 불교가 동아시아에 전래된 후 19세기 근대화시기에서 현대에 이르기까지 사원의 규범에 대한 변화과정을 고찰하는 것이다. 본 주제의 연구방법과 범위는 현재 동아시아의 불교사원의 규범을 고찰하여 사원규범의 형성과 그 제도의 의미를 이해하고, 또한 사원규범의 연원이 되는 『백장고청규』의 根源的 의미와 의의를 살펴, 지금에 이른 사원규범의 변화를 고찰해 보는 것이며 범위는, 중국불교의 종파중 禪宗의 宗旨를 실천하는 선종계 선원을 중심으로 하였다. 결국 다음과 같은 내용으로 결론을 내렸다. 중국선종의 교단은 백장회해(749-814)의 규범제정으로 인해 비로소 시작되며 백장의 規制의 근간은 ``보청작무``와 ``大小乘의 博約折中``이었다. 이러한 고청규의 정신은 이후 작성되는 모든 ``청규``의 토대가 되었다. 청규의 중심은 선원의 職制(소임), 수행실천, 보청작무 등이었다. 그러나 시대적 변천에 따라 청규의 절목은 변화되고 복잡해지며 본래의 『백장고청규』의 의미는 희석되어 그 형태만이 지속되고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 중국선종의 전래와 더불어 동아시아의 선원 청규는 역사적 정치적 영향 또는 風土와 文化의 배경에 따라 새로운 청규가 형성되고, 본래의 고청규의 의미는 쇠퇴해져 갔다. 특이한 점은 현재 동아시아 삼국의 선원청규는 각 개산조나 혹은 선원을 개설한 조실의 안목으로 청규가 마련되었고, 이는 그대로 그 시대의 불교정신과 수행문화와 직결되었다는 것이다. 이와 같이 백장교단이 성립되고 12세기가 지난 오늘날까지 청규를 율장으로 여기고 있다는 것은, 바로 『백장고청규』가 갖는 의미와 가치가 지대하다고 볼 수 있으며, 현재의 사원의 규범이 고청규를 벗어나지 않는다는 것은 불교의 율장정신이 계승되고 있다는 증거라고 생각한다. The purpose of this thesis is to study the development of temple rules since Buddhism has been introduced to East Asian countries to the present. The historical coverage of this thesis ranges from the beginning of the 9thcenturywhentheSeonmasterBaizhangHuaihai(百丈懷海: 749-814) formulated the pure rules to the 21stcentury so as to investig at e how temple rules have changed, been modified andre formed. The method of this study is to understand the formulation of temple rules through investigation of the current Buddhist temple`s rules in East Asian countries and to chart the historical development of the current rules comparing the Old pure rules of Baizhang (百丈古淸規), which was the origin of Korean temple rules. The content of this study is focused on Seon temples, which abide by the doctrine of the SeonSchool. As a result of this thesis, I came to a conclusion as follows; Chinese Seon Schools began with the pure rules formulated by Baizhang Huaihai, which contained the following basic principles. One is ``Mandatory participation in communal labor (普請作務)``, which means all should join in farming the monastery land regardless of monastic level and the other is ``Balanced compromise the rules of both Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism`` (博約折衷). The spirit of pure rules became the foundation of all the rules made later. Major contents of the rule spelled out the duty of Seon temples, practicing methods and mandatory participation in communal labor. However, the original content of the rules was altered and became more complicated according to the change of times and eventually the original meaning of ``the Old pure rules of Baizhang`` was faded out and only superficial forms remain. The pure rules of Seon temples in the East Asian countries issued new rules through influence of historical and political situation and their own geomantic and cultural back ground since Chinese Seon was transmitted to those countries, and accordingly the original meaning of the old pure rules faded away. Particularly the pure rules of Seon temples in the three East Asian countries were formulated depending upon the individual view point of Sect founders or temple founders and were closely related to Buddhist culture and practicing methods prevailing at that time in the respective countries. At present in China, pure rules of the temples are made under the political ideology of the People`s Republic of China maintaining the friendly relationship with the government and are solely purposed to manage and operate the temple, without any rules for supporting disciples` cultivation. In Korea, due to the unstable historical change, the pure rules of the Seon temples including the larger temples (叢林) used to be formulated by the patriarch master (祖室) who established the temple and became widely contrary to the original old pure rules at the present age, though there exist some rules in the recent times that are identical to the ``old pure rules of Baizhang``. However, the Seon temples in Japan seemed to follow or imitate ``the old pure rules of Baizhang`` while they abode by and performed the old regulations established by the founders of School or Sect (開山祖: 宗祖). As mentioned above, the pure rules of Seon temples in the East Asian countries have been continuously varied, modified or reformed reflecting the changes of the times but keeping spirit of the ``old pure rules of Baizhang``. It stands for the deep meaning and the great value of ``old pure rules of Baizhang`` that the pure rules have been regarded as the basic Vinaya or monastic regulations till now even though twelve centuries have been already passed since Baizhang`s rules were first formulated. Also, the fact that the current monastic regulations are still within the range of the old pure rules is clear evidence that the spirit of Vinaya has been inherited up to this moment.

      • KCI등재

        기획논문 : 호서선비문화가 가진 교육콘텐츠로서의 의미와 가능성

        김세정 ( Sea Jeong Kim ), 양선진 ( Seon Jin Yang ) 충남대학교 유학연구소 2015 儒學硏究 Vol.33 No.-

        지금 21세기 사회는 인문학, 과학기술, 사회과학, 예술학 영역을 포함하는 ‘통섭적 융합문화시대'라고 평가된다. 유학(儒學)에 대한 연구도 근대적인 분과학적 입장에서 벗어나 다른 학문.문화.사유 등과 통섭적으로 융합시킬 수 있는 연결지점을 찾는 일이 필요하다. 다시 말해, 유학의 콘텐츠를 현재의 삶과 문화 등과 연결시킬 수 있는 그 무언가를 찾는 일이 요구되는 것이다. 21세기에도 유효한 유학의 사상을 발굴하여 이를 새롭게 조명하여 ‘교육적 가치를 지닌 콘텐츠'로 되살려야 할 것이다. 그 점에서 이 논문의 주제인 ‘호서선비문화가 가진 교육콘텐츠로의 의미와 가능성'을 찾는 일은 이러한 시대적 요구와 맞닿아 있다. 콘텐츠는 산업적.경제적 측면의 상품뿐만 아니라 교육적 측면에서 의미를 지닌 내용물(content)이다. 곧 교육콘텐츠는 ‘교육적 가치를 지닌 내용물'이라고 정의할 수 있다. 교육콘텐츠로서 ‘선비정신'은 유학에 대한 부정적 인식을 넘어서 이 시대에 유학의 가치를 새롭게 되살릴 수 있는 장점이 있다. 특히 선비정신은 인성교육진흥법 시행과 관련하여 그 필요성이 더욱 요청되며, ‘세방화'하는 세계적 추세와 ‘교육과정 지역화'에 들어맞는 교육콘텐츠로서 의미와 가치를 지니고 있다. 이에 충청지역의 학생들을 교육하기 위해 ‘호서선비문화의 정신'이 교육콘텐츠로서의 가능성을 탐색하는 일은 너무도 당연한 것이라 할 수 있다. 이와 같은 문제의식을 바탕으로 이 논문은 다음의 세 과정을 거쳤다. 먼저 유학의 역사와 사상을 통해 선비 정신에 대해 정리하였다. 더불어 그것이 현대적으로 어떠한 시사점을 주는지에 대해서도 논의하였다. 다음으로, 오늘날의 호서 지역에서 형성된 선비정신을 호서유학의 흐름과 사상적 특성을 통해 살펴보았다. 물론 이 두 과정을 거치면서, 선비정신과 호서의 선비문화가 교육콘텐츠로서 어떠한 의미와 가능성을 지녔는지도 검토하였다. 마지막 결론에서는 지금까지의 논의를 간략하게 정리하고 남은 문제를 짚어보았다. The current 21st century society is considered ‘the era of convergence culture' in which different fields such as the humanities, the technology, social sciences, and science of arts etc go on reciprocal exchanges. In this context, the research on Confucianism (儒學) must liberate itself from the modern standpoint of disciplinary division and seek for points of connection on which it can combine with other disciplines, cultures, and thoughts. Thus it is necessary to carry out the search for what can connect Confucian contents with the present-day life and culture. In this 21st century, the rediscovery and consideration of useful Confucian thoughts and the revival of them as ‘contents filled with educational values' is regarded as very important. From this point of view, the authors think that the search for ‘the significance and possibilities of educational contents in Ho-seo's Seon-bi culture' as the subject of this paper can meet those demands of the era. The term ‘contents' refers not only to the goods in economics and industry, but also to the valuable things contained in the education. From this aspect, it can be said that educational contents are ‘things filled with educational values'. The Seon-bi spirit (the intellectuals' spirit) thus can start from the point of overcoming misunderstandings of the Confucianism and reviving Confucian values. Especially, the Seon-bi spirit becomes more important in the context of the enforcement of the Law for Stimulation of Humanity Education, and can be seen as valuable educational contents appropriate to ‘the curriculum localization'. It is regarded as reasonable to investigate the significance and possibilities of constructing the ‘spirit of the Seon-bi culture in the Ho-seo area' as educational contents to cultivate students in the Chung-cheong area. Based on that standpoint, the paper is developed into three processes as follows. Firstly, the authors try to re-define the term ‘seon-bi spirit' by considering the Confucian history and thoughts. Together with it, the authors discuss what suggestion this spirit can give from the modern aspect. Secondly, the authors examine the Seon-bi spirit rising in the Ho-seo area nowadays, based on the theoretical characteristics of the Ho-seo Confucianism. After those considerations, the authors try to find out the significance and possibilities of the Seon-bi spirit and the Seon-bi culture in Ho-seo as the educational contents. In the conclusion, the authors summarize the above contents and point out some outstanding questions.

      • KCI등재

        기해사행(己亥使行) 통신부사(通信副使) 황선(黃璿)의 관직생활

        임선빈 ( Yim Seon-bin ) 고려대학교 민족문화연구원 2018 民族文化硏究 Vol.81 No.-

        이 논문은 1719년에 기해통신사의 부사로 일본에 다녀온 황선의 사례를 통해 조선후기 통신사행 참여가 관직생활에 미친 영향을 살펴보았다. 황선은 1710년 과거 급제를 통해 벼슬길에 나아갔으며, 초기에는 주로 중앙부서의 실무직에 근무하였다. 그런데 ‘專對' 능력을 인정받아 38세의 젊은 나이로 1719년의 기해사행 통신부사 직무를 수행하게 되면서 그의 관직은 고속 승진을 하였다. 통신사행에 참여하기 전 황선의 관직은 통신부사에 부합하지 않는 낮은 직위였으나, 사행을 떠나기 전 2개월에 걸쳐 여러 차례의 관직 제수를 통해 통신부사 임무를 수행하기에 걸맞는 종3품 관직인 세자시강원 보덕에까지 올랐다. 10개월에 걸친 통신사행을 다녀온 후에는 다시 그 노고에 대한 치하의 의미로 당하관 최고위 품계로 資窮이라고 일컫는 통훈대부를 거치지 않았음에도 불구하고, 국왕의 특지에 해당하는 備忘記를 통해 당상관인 통정대부에 오르고, 국왕을 측근에서 모시는 승정원 승지에 제수되었다. 황선은 보통 2, 30년이 걸려도 오르기가 쉽지 않은 당상관직을 통신사행 참여로 인해 관직생활을 시작한 지 10년 만에 제수 받았다. 이후 황선은 경종이 즉위하자 세자시강원에 근무했던 인연으로 다시 승지가 되었으나, 3년여 유배생활을 하는 어려움을 겪기도 했다. 반면에 영조 초에 이르면 가선대부로 승진하고 재상급 관료가 되었으며, 경상도관찰사에 제배되었다. 그러나 1728년(영조 4)에 발발한 무신란에서 경상도 지역의 난을 토벌한 직후 47세의 나이로 군중에서 갑자기 죽었다. 황선의 卒逝에 대해서는 당대는 물론 후대에도 의혹이 분분했으며, 그의 사후 녹훈에 대해서도 논란이 있었다. 그러나 마침내 황선은 좌찬성에 증직되고, 忠烈이라는 시호를 받았으며, 후손들도 녹용될 수 있었다. 한편, 경상도 지역민들에 의해 황선의 훈적을 기리는 사우 愍忠祠가 세워졌는데, 이 사우는 중앙 조정의 정국동향과 서원정책에 따라 훼철과 복원이 진행되기도 했다. 황선의 관직생활을 사례로 선택하여 자세히 검토해본 결과, 일본통신사의 통신부사경력이 그의 승진에 큰 도움이 되었으며, 국왕을 측근에서 모신 직무가 관직생활의 진퇴에 미친 영향도 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 조선후기 관원의 관직생활을 재구성할 때, 『승정원일기』가 유용한 자료로 활용될 수 있음을 입증하였다. This paper examines how participation in communication embassy affects the operation of bureaucracy in the late Joseon Dynasty through the official career of Hwang Seon, who visited Japan in 1719 as a deputy envoy in Kihae communication embassy. In 1710, Hwang Seon passed the Civil Service Examination and was mainly given practical positions in the central office in his early days. Then, he was on the fast track promotion not until 1719, when he started to perform the deputy envoy in age 38 during Kihae communication embassy visit, getting credit for his ‘expertise (專對)' ability. Before he participated the trip, his position was too low to meet the stands of the deputy envoy position. However, over 2 months prior to the trip, he was constantly assigned a position until he became first tutor in Academy for the Crown Prince (世子侍 講院), which was appropriate to serve a deputy envoy position. Even though he didn't passed Tonghundaebu, which was the first rank position in Danghagwan, and its nickname was ‘nowhere up to go (資窮)', after 10 months visit, with a direct exceptional order “Bimangki” from the king, he was promoted to Tongjeongdaebu, which was the ministerial rank position (Dangsanggwan) higher than Danghagwan, in recognition of hard work he had done. Also, he was assigned to serve a royal secretary position who closely assists the king in “Seungjungwon”. As a result of participating communication embassy, Hwang Seon was able to win the ministerial rank position in just 10 years, which is the position usually takes more than 20-30 years and still hard to get promoted. Hwang Seon served a royal secretary position after the reign of Gyeongjong, since he had already worked in Academy for the Crown Prince. However, his work performance as the royal secretary also led to his three years banishment. On the contrary, after the reign of King Yeongjo. Hwang Seon was promoted to grand minister Gaseondaebu, and also was assigned to the junior second rank Gyeongsang province governor. However, in the following year (1728), he suddenly died at the war zone at the age of 47, immediately after he defeated the military official uprising in Gyeongsang province. His decease was contentious among his period and even in later generations, and his posthumous award was also controversial. However, Hwang Seon was eventually canonized as a fourth state councilor Jwachansung and the title “Unswerving Loyalty” was granted. Furthermore, his descendants were also hired in royal officials. Meanwhile, “Minchoongsa”―a shrine dedicated to Hwang Seon―was constructed by Gyeongsang province residents, and this shrine was both disposed and restored, depending on the central government situation and its Seowon policy. After examining the case of Hwang Sun's official career in detail as an example, it is confirmed that the communication embassy career of the Japanese ambassador was a great help for his promotion. Also we could find how the work as a royal secretary position had affected his official career. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that “Seungjungwon Diary” can be used as a useful data when reconstructing the governmental official's career life in the late Joseon dynasty.

      • 이성선 시의 주요 이미지에 관한 연구

        노창선 忠州大學校 2007 한국교통대학교 논문집 Vol.42 No.-

        Lee Seong-Seon's father went into North Korea. His family came to know a tragic fate was coming. Lee Seong-Seon′s poetry shows the self-realization that he overcomes the tragic world view. Therefore, in this study, I examined the images of the worms, the trees and the stars appearing in Lee Seong-Seon′s poetry. The image of the worm reminds us of the poet himself as beggar poet. The tree being the symbol of the communication of the heavens with the earth represents the poet himself and sometimes becomes friends with the poet. Lee Seong-Seon loves the flowers, the birds, the worms, the mountains and the trees as natural things, and the moon, the stars and the music from the sky as the universal objects. Lee Seong-Seon′s father didn't come back home and passed away beyond the 38th parallel. The poet gets very discouraged in the real world and he travels around India. While travelling around India he comes across the well seeing in the midst of the desert, the stars in the sky each other. The image of the stars means the light of love that his father shows to the poet. In his mind the poet realizes that the real things and the imaginary things are combined into one.

      • 조선후기 기독교(基督敎) 수용의 사회(社會), 사상적(思想的) 배경

        조윤선 ( Yun Seon Cho ) 글로벌기독교세계관학회 2010 학문과기독교세계관 Vol.1 No.-

        The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the social environment and people`s ideology, life style which were the period of previous modern age. At that time the Protestant was not still spreaded in the Cho-seon dynasty, but on the other hand the Confucianism was general tended since the 17th century. It was the common thing in those ages that the inequality was a heavy burden to the women and the slaves. Especially when the political party of the Noron took the helm of state, the inequality was deepened and the opposite political party of the Soron was more isolated. Because of those social atmosphere, they had been denied the existing social idea and as a result the standard of the social values were changed. And the changing of the social values were afforded an opportunity of the new religion Dong-hak which were emphasized the importance of the human rights and equality. In the same age eventually the Roman Catholicism were come to this country, Cho-seon. They took the new religions as a matter of course. Because they had declared themselves against the inequality, oppression and the irrational family system. The people who followed the new religion especially the Roman Catholicism believed the Cheon-Ju as one and only God instead the exciting King and the aristocratic class, Yang-ban. More and more they were inclined the new ideology which emphasized the equality of all kind of human. IThe more Roman Catholicism was spread out, the more religious persecution were happened. Lots of the believers were punished the death. At those times the case of the "Hwang-Sa Yeong`s letter on silk" was happened. Even though Hwang`s mainly attitude was toward the dependent on the western country`s power, we could find out the people who appeared on the letter were truly believer as the christian. The later period of the Cho-seon, the inequality was dominated over all kind of the society, and many of the catholic martyr and martyress made the finally the sacrifice the reception of Protestant.

      • KCI등재

        A Repeated-dose Oral Toxicity Study of Orostachys japonicus Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

        Deok-Seon,Ryu,Mi-Young,Lee,Hyeong-Seon,Lee,Seon-Hee,Kim,Gyeong-Seon,Lee,Ji-Hye,Kwon,Dong-Seok,Lee 대한의생명과학회 2012 Biomedical Science Letters Vol.18 No.1

        A 12-week repeated-dose oral toxicity study of water-soluble Orostachys japonicus extract (WOJ) was performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both genders. Each group of ten rats was orally administered in doses of either 0 or 250 mg/day over a 12-week period. As a result, no WOJ-related changes were observed in terms of survival rate, clinical signs, body weight, or food intake. In addition, no difference in organ weight between the control and treated groups was detected. Furthermore, serum biochemistry parameters revealed some changes within normal ranges although significant decreases in total-bilirubin in the females. In spite of some alterations in serum biochemistry, the clinical signs, body weight changes from food intake, and autoptical remarks indicated that WOJ was not toxic. This study suggests that repeated treatment of O. japonicus very low toxicity and the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect dose) of WOJ exceeds 250 mg/kg in the SD rats.

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