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Anxiety and depression have been found to be increasing among peo-ple with leprosy and it may lead to decreased social participation. The progressive muscle relaxation technique (PMRT) is widely used today in choice of treatment for reducing the anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of PMRT in reducing anxiety and depression among the hospitalized leprosy affected person in a tertiary care centre. This study is a case series of 50 leprosy affected people aged between 18–60 years who were admitted for leprosy com-plications in tertiary leprosy referral hospital. The Anxiety-Depression scale was developed and validated by the investigators and adminis-tered before intervention of PMRT and after 2 weeks. The follow-up as-sessment was done at 6 weeks after the initial intervention. The finding shows that a statistically significant difference was observed on anxiety domain before and after application of PMRT. The anxiety means score showed steady decline from 6.76 at pretest to 3.0 (t=25.068, P≤0.001) at post test and 1.12 (t=22.679, P≤0.001) at follow-up. In depression do-main, a statistically significant difference was seen in before and after application of PMRT. The depression means score showed steady de-cline from 6.92 at pre test to 3.28 (t=16.082, P≤0.001) at post test and to 1.16 (t=18.918, P≤0.001) at follow-up. This study proved that the PMRT as a valid treatment option for hospitalized person with leprosy in mini-mizing the anxiety and depression related symptoms and to benefit the psychosocial wellbeing of leprosy affected patients.
Background: Tobacco contains agents which generate various potent DNA adducts that can cause gene mutations. Production of DNA adducts may be neutralized by glutathione S transferase (GST) along with other phase I and phase II enzyme systems. The existence of null type of GST among the population increases the susceptibility to various disorders and diseases. The present study focuses on the impact of high tobacco usage and possible null type mutation in GST loci. Methods: Genotypes of GST were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in unrelated 504 volunteers of high tobacco using natives of Gujarat. Allelic frequencies were calculated using Statistical Package for Social Studies-16 software. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was calculated using Chi square test. Two sided Fisher's significance test was used to compare allelic frequencies of different populations. Results: The frequency of homozygous null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95% CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95% CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null allele frequency distribution in the Gujarat population was significantly deviating from HWE. GSTT1 null frequency of Gujaratians was significantly higher and different to all reported low tobacco using Indian ethnics, while GSTM1 was not differing significantly. Conclusion: Tobacco usage significantly influences the rate of mutation and frequency of GSTT1 and M1 null types among the habituates. The rate of mutation in GSTT1 loci was an undeviating response to the dose of tobacco usage among the population. This mutational impact of tobacco on GSTT1 postulates the possible gene - environment interaction and selection of null genotype among the subjects to prone them under susceptible status for various cancers and even worst to cure the population with GSTT1 dependent drugs.
( Polpass Arul Jose ),( Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy ),( Pandiyan Indira Gandhi ),( Murugaiyan Senthilkumar ),( Veeranan Janahiraman ),( Karunandham Kumutha ),( Aritra Roy Choudhury ),( Sandipan Samaddar ) 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2020 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.30 No.7
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) harbor diverse microbial symbionts that play essential roles in host physiology, ecology, and evolution. In this study we aimed to reveal microbial communities associated with two different mealybugs, papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus) and two-tailed mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) collected from the same host plant. Comparative analysis of microbial communities associated with these mealybugs revealed differences that appear to stem from phylogenetic associations and different nutritional requirements. This first report on both bacterial and fungal communities associated with these mealybugs provides a preliminary insight on factors affecting the endomicrobial communities.