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      • Regulated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mediated Colon Cancer Therapy Assessed by Reporter Gene Based Optical Imaging

        Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Zhu, Liya,Oh, Ji Min,Lee, Ho Won,Gangadaran, Prakash,Rajendran, Ramya Lakshmi,Baek, Se Hwan,Jeon, Yong Hyun,Jeong, Shin Young,Lee, Sang-Woo,Lee, Jaetae,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol MDPI 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES Vol.19 No.4

        <P>Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Suicide gene-based therapy with suicide gene-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy. A tetracycline-controlled Tet-On inducible system used to regulate gene expression may be a useful tool for gene-based therapies. The aim of this study was to develop therapeutic MSCs with a suicide gene that is induced by an artificial stimulus, to validate therapeutic gene expression, and to monitor the MSC therapy for colon cancer using optical molecular imaging. For our study, we designed the Tet-On system using a retroviral vector and developed a response plasmid RetroX-TRE (tetracycline response element) expressing a mutant form of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-sr39TK) with dual reporters (eGFP-Fluc2). Bone marrow-derived MSCs were transduced using a RetroX-Tet3G (Clontech, CA, USA) regulatory plasmid and RetroX-TRE-HSV1-sr39TK-eGFP-IRES-Fluc2, for a system with a Tet-On (MSC-Tet-TK/Fluc2 or MSC-Tet-TK) or without a Tet-On (MSC-TK/Fluc2 or MSC-TK) function. Suicide gene engineered MSCs were co-cultured with colon cancer cells (CT26/Rluc) in the presence of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) after stimulation with or without doxycycline (DOX). Treatment efficiency was monitored by assessing Rluc (CT26/Rluc) and Fluc (MSC-Tet-TK and MSC-TK) activity using optical imaging. The bystander effect of therapeutic MSCs was confirmed in CT26/Rluc cells after GCV treatment. Rluc activity in CT26/Rluc cells decreased significantly with GCV treatment of DOX(+) cells (<I>p</I> < 0.05 and 0.01) whereas no significant changes were observed in DOX(−) cells. In addition, Fluc activity in also decreased significantly with DOX(+) MSC-Tet-TK cells, but no signal was observed in DOX(−) cells. In addition, an MSC-TK bystander effect was also confirmed. We assessed therapy with this system in a colon cancer xenograft model (CT26/Rluc). We successfully transduced cells and developed a Tet-On system with the suicide gene HSV1-sr39TK. Our results confirmed the therapeutic efficiency of a suicide gene with the Tet-On system for colon cancer. In addition, our results provide an innovative therapeutic approach using the Tet-On system to eradicate tumors by administration of MSC-Tet-TK cells with DOX and GCV.</P>

      • Drug Discovery by Molecular Imaging and Monitoring Therapy Response in Lymphoma

        Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Jeong, Ju Hye,Oh, Ji Min,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol MDPI AG 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES Vol.18 No.8

        <P>Molecular imaging allows a noninvasive assessment of biochemical and biological processes in living subjects. Treatment strategies for malignant lymphoma depend on histology and tumor stage. For the last two decades, molecular imaging has been the mainstay diagnostic test for the staging of malignant lymphoma and the assessment of response to treatment. This technology enhances our understanding of disease and drug activity during preclinical and clinical drug development. Here, we review molecular imaging applications in drug development, with an emphasis on oncology. Monitoring and assessing the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies in preclinical or clinical models are essential and the multimodal molecular imaging approach may represent a new stage for pharmacologic development in cancer. Monitoring the progress of lymphoma therapy with imaging modalities will help patients. Identifying and addressing key challenges is essential for successful integration of molecular imaging into the drug development process. In this review, we highlight the general usefulness of molecular imaging in drug development and radionuclide-based reporter genes. Further, we discuss the different molecular imaging modalities for lymphoma therapy and their preclinical and clinical applications.</P>

      • In Vivo Tracking of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4-Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration by Optical Molecular Imaging

        Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Oh, Ji Min,Gangadaran, Prakash,Zhu, Liya,Lee, Ho Won,Rajendran, Ramya Lakshmi,Baek, Se hwan,Jeon, Yong Hyun,Jeong, Shin Young,Lee, Sang-Woo,Lee, Jaetae,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol Hindawi 2017 Stem cells international Vol.2017 No.-

        <P>CXCR4, the stromal cell-derived factor-1 receptor, plays an important role in the migration of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells to injured and inflamed areas. Noninvasive cell tracking methods could be useful for monitoring cell fate. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an intravenous infusion of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) overexpressing CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) to home to the tumor, by optical imaging. We constructed a retroviral vector containing CXCR with dual reporter genes, <I>eGFP</I> and <I>Fluc2</I>, under the control of an EF1<I>α</I> promoter (pBABE-EF1<I>α</I>-CXCR4-eGFP-IRES-Fluc2). We also developed an eGFP-Fluc2 construct in the Retro-X retroviral vector (Retro-X-eGFP-Fluc2). MSCs were transduced with retroviruses to generate CXCR4-overexpressing MSCs (MSC-CXCR4/Fluc2) and MSCs (MSC/Fluc2). CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and it was higher in MSC-CXCR4/Fluc2 than in naive MSCs. eGFP expression was confirmed by confocal microscopy. The transfected MSC-CXCR4/Fluc2 cells showed higher migratory capacity than naive MSCs observed in Transwell migration assay. The in vivo migration of CXCR4-overexpressing MSCs to MDAMB231/Rluc tumor model by BLI imaging was also confirmed. Intravenous delivery of genetically modified MSCs overexpressing CXCR4 with a <I>Fluc2</I> reporter gene may be a useful, noninvasive BLI imaging tool for tracking cell fate.</P>

      • Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

        Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Se-Kwon, Kim MDPI 2013 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES Vol.14 No.2

        <P>Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT) causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell survival by anticancer agents has been shown to correlate with tumor response. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence; the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to various anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell survival and proliferating signaling molecules. As a new therapeutic strategy, alternative types of cell death might be exploited to control and eradicate cancer cells. This review discusses the signaling of apoptosis and cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of marine bioactive compounds, suggesting that new therapeutic strategies might follow.</P>

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging.

        Kim, Jung Eun,Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol 大韓核醫學會 2015 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.49 No.1

        <P>Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        <i>In vivo</i> migration of mesenchymal stem cells to burn injury sites and their therapeutic effects in a living mouse model

        Oh, Eun Jung,Lee, Ho Won,Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Kim, Tae Jung,Kim, Hyun Mi,Baek, Se Hwan,Zhu, Liya,Oh, Ji Min,Son, Seung Hyun,Chung, Ho Yun,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol Elsevier 2018 Journal of controlled release Vol.279 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration and repair. In this study, we non-invasively monitored the tracking of MSCs toward burn injury sites using MSCs expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene in living mice, and evaluated the effects of the MSCs at the injury site. Murine MSCs co-expressing Fluc and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were established using a retroviral system (referred to as MSC/Fluc). To evaluate the ability of MSC migration toward burn injury sites, cutaneous burn injury was induced in the dorsal skin of mice. MSC/Fluc was intravenously administrated into the mice model and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to monitor MSC tracking at designated time points. BLI signals of MSC/Fluc appeared in burn injury lesions at 4 days after the cell injection and then gradually decreased. Immunoblotting analysis was conducted to determine the expression of neovascularization-related genes such as TGF-β1 and VEGF in burnt skin. The levels of TGF-β1 and VEGF were higher in the MSC/Fluc-treated group than in the burn injury group. Our observations suggested that MSCs might assist burn wound healing and that MSCs expressing Fluc could be a useful tool for optimizing MSC-based therapeutic strategies for burn wound healing.</P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>

      • Advances in Molecular Imaging Strategies for <i> In Vivo</i> Tracking of Immune Cells

        Lee, Ho Won,Gangadaran, Prakash,Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2016 BioMed research international Vol.2016 No.-

        <P>Tracking of immune cells<I> in vivo</I> is a crucial tool for development and optimization of cell-based therapy. Techniques for tracking immune cells have been applied widely for understanding the intrinsic behavior of immune cells and include non-radiation-based techniques such as optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiation-based techniques such as computerized tomography (CT), and nuclear imaging including single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Each modality has its own strengths and limitations. To overcome the limitations of each modality, multimodal imaging techniques involving two or more imaging modalities are actively applied. Multimodal techniques allow integration of the strengths of individual modalities. In this review, we discuss the strengths and limitations of currently available preclinical<I> in vivo</I> immune cell tracking techniques and summarize the value of immune cell tracking in the development and optimization of immune cell therapy for various diseases.</P>

      • Biological Production of an Integrin <i>α</i> v <i>β</i> 3 Targeting Imaging Probe and Functional Verification

        Hwang, Mi-Hye,Kim, Jung Eun,Kim, Sang-Yeob,Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Jeong, Shin Young,Lee, Sang-Woo,Lee, Jaetae,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2015 BioMed research international Vol.2015 No.-

        <P>The aim of the present study is to establish a bacterial clone capable of secreting an integrin <I>α</I>v<I>β</I>3 targeting probe with bioluminescent and fluorescent activities, and to verify its specific targeting and optical activities using molecular imaging. A bacterial vector expressing a fusion of secretory Gaussia luciferase (sGluc), mCherry, and RGD (sGluc-mCherry-RGDX3; GCR), and a control vector expressing a fusion of secretory <I>Gaussia luciferase</I> and mCherry (sGluc-mCherry; GC) were constructed. The GCR and GC proteins were expressed in <I>E. coli</I> and secreted into the growth medium, which showed an approximately 10-fold higher luciferase activity than the bacterial lysate. Successful purification of GCR and GC was achieved using the 6X His-tag method. The GCR protein bound with higher affinity to U87MG cells than CHO cells in confocal microscopy and IVIS imaging, and also showed a high affinity for integrin <I>α</I>v<I>β</I>3 expressing tumor xenografts in an <I>in vivo</I> animal model. An <I>E. coli</I> clone was established to secrete an integrin <I>α</I>v<I>β</I>3 targeting imaging probe with bioluminescent and fluorescent activities. The probe was produced feasibly and at low cost, and has shown to be useful for the assessment of angiogenesis <I>in vitro</I> and <I>in vivo</I>.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells activates VEGF receptors and accelerates recovery of hindlimb ischemia

        Gangadaran, Prakash,Rajendran, Ramya Lakshmi,Lee, Ho Won,Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar,Hong, Chae Moon,Jeong, Shin Young,Lee, Sang-Woo,Lee, Jaetae,Ahn, Byeong-Cheol Elsevier Science Publishers 2017 Journal of controlled release Vol.264 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential therapies for various diseases, but their angiogenic mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy remain unclear. Here, we describe how MSC-EVs, activates VEGF receptors and downstream angiogenesis pathways. Mouse MSC-EVs were isolated from cell culture medium and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle analysis, and western blotting. <I>In vitro</I> migration, proliferation, and tube formation assays using endothelial cells were used to assess the angiogenic potential of MSC-EVs, and revealed higher levels of cellular migration, proliferation, and tube formation after treatment. qRT-PCR and western blotting (WB) revealed higher protein and mRNA expression of the angiogenic genes VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in mouse SVEC-4 endothelial cells after MSC-EVs treatment. Additionally, other vital pro-angiogenic pathways (SRC, AKT, and ERK) were activated by <I>in vitro</I> MSC-EV treatment. WB and qRT-PCR revealed enriched presence of VEGF protein and miR-210-3p in MSC-EV. The hindlimb ischemia mouse model was established and MSC-EVs with or without Matrigel (EV-MSC+Gel) were injected into the ischemic area and blood reperfusion was monitored using molecular imaging techniques. The <I>in vivo</I> administration of MSC-EVs increased both blood reperfusion and the formation of new blood vessels in the ischemic limb, with the addition of matrigel enhancing this effect further by releasing EVs slowly. MSC-EVs enhance angiogenesis in ischemic limbs, most likely <I>via</I> the overexpression of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in endothelial cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of activating receptors by MSC-EVs influence the angiogenesis.</P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>

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