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Flow field around a typical reentry capsule has been investigated adopting experiments and computations. The reentry capsule has the flap which could be useful to obtain control force. All the studies have been made at a free stream Mach number of 2 and Reynolds number of 30 X 106. Experiments consisted of schlieren flow visualization and measurement of axial force only. Three dimensional computation has been made using FLUENT and adopting k-ω turbulence model. Effect of angle of attack and flap angle has been obtained. Based on present study, it is observed the flap increases the axial force.
Gas evaporation was employed to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO nanoparticles, which showed in- tense UV/blue emission (380 nm) at room temperature. The thin lms were deposited by dip coating with nanoparticles dispersed in isopropanol and water. The PL spectrum showed dominant acceptor bound excitons around 371 nm at low temperatures, which was due to the substitution of nitrogen acceptors in oxygen sites. Nitrogen doping was also conrmed from Raman spectroscopy, which showed a nitrogen-related local vibrational mode (LVMN) at 583 cm-1. Gas evaporation was employed to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO nanoparticles, which showed in- tense UV/blue emission (380 nm) at room temperature. The thin lms were deposited by dip coating with nanoparticles dispersed in isopropanol and water. The PL spectrum showed dominant acceptor bound excitons around 371 nm at low temperatures, which was due to the substitution of nitrogen acceptors in oxygen sites. Nitrogen doping was also conrmed from Raman spectroscopy, which showed a nitrogen-related local vibrational mode (LVMN) at 583 cm-1.
Background: Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is an important phase II xenobiotic compound metabolizing enzyme family, involved in tolerance to a particular drug or susceptibility to a diseasec. This study focused the GSTM1 and T1 null allele frequency in the Gujarat population with a comparison across other Inter- and Intra-Indian ethnic groups to predict variation in the possible susceptible status. Methods: DNA was isolated by a salting out method and GSTM1 and T1 homozygous null genotypes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in 504 unrelated individuals. The genotype distribution of null alleles was compared with Indian and non Indian ethnics reported earlier in the literature using Fisher's test. Results: The frequencies of the homozygous null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95%CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95%CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. GSTM1 null frequency did not deviate from most other Indian ethnic groups but differed from the majority of those of non Indian ethnicity studied. The frequency of homozygous null type of GSTT1 was significantly higher and deviated from all Indian groups and a few of non Indian ethnicity. Conclusions: Gujarat ethnicity, possibly the most susceptible for GSTT1 dependent drug disposition and diseases regarding effects of pollution. Further, the results have implications for GSTT1 dependent drugs used for treatment, a serious problem which needs to be solved by physicians and clinical researchers.
A Level Set Evolution with Morphology (LSEM) based segmentation algorithm is proposed in this work to segment all the possible lung nodules from a series of CT scan images. All the segmented nodule candidates were not cancerous in nature. Initially the vessels and calcifications were also segmented as nodule candidates. The structural feature analysis was carried out to remove the vessels. The nodules with more centroid shift in the consecutive slices were eliminated since malignant nodule’s resultant position did not usually deviate. The calcifications were eliminated by frequency domain analysis. DC constant of nodule candidates were computed in frequency domain. The nodule candidates with high DC constant value could be the calcifications as the calcification patterns were homogeneous in nature. This algorithm was applied on a database of 40 patient cases with 58 malignant nodules. The algorithms proposed in this paper precisely detected 55 malignant nodules and failed to detect 3 with a sensitivity of 95%. Further, this algorithm correctly eliminated 778 tissue clusters that were initially segmented as nodules, however, 79 non-malignant tissue clusters were detected as malignant nodules. Therefore, the false positive of this algorithm was 1.98 per patient.
본 연구에서는 강황 유래의 curcuminoids가 없는 다당체를 이용하여 급성 및 만성 염증 모델에서의 항염증 효과를 검증하고자 하였다. 급성염증에 대한 효과를 알아보기 위하여 carrageenan에 의한 족부종 유발과 xylene에 의한 귀부종 유발을 일으킨 모델을 이용하여 수행하였다. Carrageenan 에 의한 족부종 유발 실험에서 강황추출물과 관절염 치료제로 알려진 diclofenac sodium을 처리하였을 때는 부종의 증가도가 낮은 것으로 나타났다(P≤0.05). 또한 다른 급성염증 모델인 xylene application 마우스 모델에서도 대조군에 비하여 diclofenac sodium과 강황추출물(31.5, 63, 126 mg/kg)을 농도별로 경구투여 하였을 때 염증 억제율이 각각 78.13%, 68.75%, 62.50% 및 59.38%로 나타나 염증 억제율이 높은 것으로 나타났다(P≤0.05). 만성염증에 대한 효과를 알아보기 위한 cotton pellet 육아종 실험에서는 대조군과 비교하여 삼출물과 염증 육아종이 적게 발생된 것으로 나타났다(P≤0.05). 따라서 강황 유래의 다당체를 경구투여하였을 때 만성 및 급성 염증에 대한 저해활성이 있는 것으로 나타나 항염증 소재로서 개발 가능성이 있음을 제시하였다. Anti-inflammatory effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rich in polysaccharides, as well as free of curcuminoids and turmerones were investigated in acute and chronic inflammatory models. Activity against the acute phase of inflammation was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema models. The results showed that turmeric extract significantly decreased paw edema volume in the first and third hours after carrageenan injection (P≤0.05). Turmeric extract at all dose levels also significantly inhibited xylene-induced ear edema formation (P≤0.05). Activity against chronic inflammation was also evaluated in cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. Turmeric extract significantly (P≤0.05) decreased the weight of granuloma tissue on cotton pellets in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the vehicle control. Thus, the findings of the study suggest that turmeric extract in effective against both acute and chronic inflammation.
Anxiety and depression have been found to be increasing among peo-ple with leprosy and it may lead to decreased social participation. The progressive muscle relaxation technique (PMRT) is widely used today in choice of treatment for reducing the anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of PMRT in reducing anxiety and depression among the hospitalized leprosy affected person in a tertiary care centre. This study is a case series of 50 leprosy affected people aged between 18–60 years who were admitted for leprosy com-plications in tertiary leprosy referral hospital. The Anxiety-Depression scale was developed and validated by the investigators and adminis-tered before intervention of PMRT and after 2 weeks. The follow-up as-sessment was done at 6 weeks after the initial intervention. The finding shows that a statistically significant difference was observed on anxiety domain before and after application of PMRT. The anxiety means score showed steady decline from 6.76 at pretest to 3.0 (t=25.068, P≤0.001) at post test and 1.12 (t=22.679, P≤0.001) at follow-up. In depression do-main, a statistically significant difference was seen in before and after application of PMRT. The depression means score showed steady de-cline from 6.92 at pre test to 3.28 (t=16.082, P≤0.001) at post test and to 1.16 (t=18.918, P≤0.001) at follow-up. This study proved that the PMRT as a valid treatment option for hospitalized person with leprosy in mini-mizing the anxiety and depression related symptoms and to benefit the psychosocial wellbeing of leprosy affected patients.
Light weight and high strength materials like carbon fiber reinforce plastics (CFRP), Titanium alloys (Ti) and stacks (CFRP/Ti, CFRP/Al, CFRP/Al/Ti) are being extensively used in commercial aircraft. Drilling process on the aircraft components was carried out to facilitate the assembly process. Drilling operations are made under dry condition which leads to tool wear and poor hole quality. In this paper study on drilling of CFRP/Ti6Al4V stacks under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) using LRT 30 oil with varying flow rate, spindle speed and feed rate have been carried out using three modified drill tool made of solid carbide (K 20) coated with TiAlN. The recital of the tools were evaluated based on hole quality, burr height, thrust force, chip formation and tool wear. It was found that TG1 tool performance was better by producing minimum burr height while drilling Ti. TG2 recital was better by producing minimum force and better hole quality.
Background: Tobacco contains agents which generate various potent DNA adducts that can cause gene mutations. Production of DNA adducts may be neutralized by glutathione S transferase (GST) along with other phase I and phase II enzyme systems. The existence of null type of GST among the population increases the susceptibility to various disorders and diseases. The present study focuses on the impact of high tobacco usage and possible null type mutation in GST loci. Methods: Genotypes of GST were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in unrelated 504 volunteers of high tobacco using natives of Gujarat. Allelic frequencies were calculated using Statistical Package for Social Studies-16 software. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was calculated using Chi square test. Two sided Fisher's significance test was used to compare allelic frequencies of different populations. Results: The frequency of homozygous null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95% CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95% CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null allele frequency distribution in the Gujarat population was significantly deviating from HWE. GSTT1 null frequency of Gujaratians was significantly higher and different to all reported low tobacco using Indian ethnics, while GSTM1 was not differing significantly. Conclusion: Tobacco usage significantly influences the rate of mutation and frequency of GSTT1 and M1 null types among the habituates. The rate of mutation in GSTT1 loci was an undeviating response to the dose of tobacco usage among the population. This mutational impact of tobacco on GSTT1 postulates the possible gene - environment interaction and selection of null genotype among the subjects to prone them under susceptible status for various cancers and even worst to cure the population with GSTT1 dependent drugs.
Crohn disease has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and rarely can present with complications such as a bowel stricture or fistula. In this case report, we describe a 17-year-old male who presented with a history of recurrent anterior abdominal wall abscesses and dysuria. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease and also found to have a fistulous communication between the terminal ileum and a patent urachus. An ileocecectomy with primary anastomosis and complete resection of the abscess cavity was performed. He is on azathioprine for maintenance therapy and currently in remission. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this complication in Crohn disease patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of urachal anomalies such as suprapubic abdominal pain, dysuria, umbilical discharge, and periumbilical mass.