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Flow field around a typical reentry capsule has been investigated adopting experiments and computations. The reentry capsule has the flap which could be useful to obtain control force. All the studies have been made at a free stream Mach number of 2 and Reynolds number of 30 X 106. Experiments consisted of schlieren flow visualization and measurement of axial force only. Three dimensional computation has been made using FLUENT and adopting k-ω turbulence model. Effect of angle of attack and flap angle has been obtained. Based on present study, it is observed the flap increases the axial force.
Gas evaporation was employed to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO nanoparticles, which showed in- tense UV/blue emission (380 nm) at room temperature. The thin lms were deposited by dip coating with nanoparticles dispersed in isopropanol and water. The PL spectrum showed dominant acceptor bound excitons around 371 nm at low temperatures, which was due to the substitution of nitrogen acceptors in oxygen sites. Nitrogen doping was also conrmed from Raman spectroscopy, which showed a nitrogen-related local vibrational mode (LVMN) at 583 cm-1. Gas evaporation was employed to prepare nitrogen-doped ZnO nanoparticles, which showed in- tense UV/blue emission (380 nm) at room temperature. The thin lms were deposited by dip coating with nanoparticles dispersed in isopropanol and water. The PL spectrum showed dominant acceptor bound excitons around 371 nm at low temperatures, which was due to the substitution of nitrogen acceptors in oxygen sites. Nitrogen doping was also conrmed from Raman spectroscopy, which showed a nitrogen-related local vibrational mode (LVMN) at 583 cm-1.
Background: Tobacco contains agents which generate various potent DNA adducts that can cause gene mutations. Production of DNA adducts may be neutralized by glutathione S transferase (GST) along with other phase I and phase II enzyme systems. The existence of null type of GST among the population increases the susceptibility to various disorders and diseases. The present study focuses on the impact of high tobacco usage and possible null type mutation in GST loci. Methods: Genotypes of GST were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in unrelated 504 volunteers of high tobacco using natives of Gujarat. Allelic frequencies were calculated using Statistical Package for Social Studies-16 software. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was calculated using Chi square test. Two sided Fisher's significance test was used to compare allelic frequencies of different populations. Results: The frequency of homozygous null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95% CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95% CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null allele frequency distribution in the Gujarat population was significantly deviating from HWE. GSTT1 null frequency of Gujaratians was significantly higher and different to all reported low tobacco using Indian ethnics, while GSTM1 was not differing significantly. Conclusion: Tobacco usage significantly influences the rate of mutation and frequency of GSTT1 and M1 null types among the habituates. The rate of mutation in GSTT1 loci was an undeviating response to the dose of tobacco usage among the population. This mutational impact of tobacco on GSTT1 postulates the possible gene - environment interaction and selection of null genotype among the subjects to prone them under susceptible status for various cancers and even worst to cure the population with GSTT1 dependent drugs.
<P>In this work, we report the fabrication of a new high voltage hybrid fiber supercapacitor (HFSC) with porous carbon coated carbon fibers (PC@CFs) as the negative electrode and copper hexacyanoferrate coated carbon fibers (CuHCF@CFs) as the positive electrode. Carbon fibers (CFs) were used as both the substrate and the current collector due to their good conductivity, high flexibility, good mechanical strength, and light weight. The as-fabricated HFSC can be cycled reversibly in the range of 0-2 V and exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 19.2 F g(-1) (68.2 mF cm(-2) or 3.1 F cm(-3)) and an energy density of 10.6 W h kg(-1) (180.85 mu Wh cm(-2) or 8.11 mW h cm(-3)), better than those reported in the previous literature. Additionally, the HFSCs have retained their original electrochemical performance even after bending, suggesting good flexibility of the device. The promising results show great potential in developing HFSCs with CuHCF@CFs and PC@CFs electrodes for practical wearable devices.</P>
The present work focuses on the development of template-free mesoporous NiO nanoarrays with large surface area grown on 3D nickel foam networks by a seed mediated aqueous chemical growth technique and subsequent annealing process. The resultant binder-free, well-aligned and vertically grown NiO nanoarrays exhibits a micron-sized planar structure as well as an ultrathin thickness (~7 nm). The unique surface and electronic structure facilitates surface-dependent electrochemical reaction processes with no dead volume. They deliver a high capacitance of 2065 F g<SUP>-1</SUP> at a current density of 16 A g<SUP>-1</SUP> as a three electrode system. A specific capacitance of 1247 F g<SUP>-1</SUP> is maintained at a higher current rate of 70 A g<SUP>-1</SUP> with 88.9% retention after 5000 cycles. Finally, in a solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor configuration using NiO//activated carbon, the device delivers an enhanced supercapacitive performance, with an energy density of 43.5 Wh kg<SUP>-1</SUP> and power density of 2.1 kW kg<SUP>-1</SUP>. Thus, the current research paves the way for the use of NiO nanoarrays as an electrode material for practical supercapacitor devices with higher cycling retention and rate capacity.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg<SUP>−1</SUP> at a current density of 10 mA g<SUP>−1</SUP>, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> A novel sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery is fabricated. </LI> <LI> Nickel hexacyanoferrate is prepared via a precipitation method for the cathode. </LI> <LI> Cathode part is an open system which enables a cathode replaceable. </LI> <LI> Seawater used as a low cost and eco-friendly catholyte. </LI> <LI> Both fresh and replaced cathode exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
Anxiety and depression have been found to be increasing among peo-ple with leprosy and it may lead to decreased social participation. The progressive muscle relaxation technique (PMRT) is widely used today in choice of treatment for reducing the anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of PMRT in reducing anxiety and depression among the hospitalized leprosy affected person in a tertiary care centre. This study is a case series of 50 leprosy affected people aged between 18–60 years who were admitted for leprosy com-plications in tertiary leprosy referral hospital. The Anxiety-Depression scale was developed and validated by the investigators and adminis-tered before intervention of PMRT and after 2 weeks. The follow-up as-sessment was done at 6 weeks after the initial intervention. The finding shows that a statistically significant difference was observed on anxiety domain before and after application of PMRT. The anxiety means score showed steady decline from 6.76 at pretest to 3.0 (t=25.068, P≤0.001) at post test and 1.12 (t=22.679, P≤0.001) at follow-up. In depression do-main, a statistically significant difference was seen in before and after application of PMRT. The depression means score showed steady de-cline from 6.92 at pre test to 3.28 (t=16.082, P≤0.001) at post test and to 1.16 (t=18.918, P≤0.001) at follow-up. This study proved that the PMRT as a valid treatment option for hospitalized person with leprosy in mini-mizing the anxiety and depression related symptoms and to benefit the psychosocial wellbeing of leprosy affected patients.
Crohn disease has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and rarely can present with complications such as a bowel stricture or fistula. In this case report, we describe a 17-year-old male who presented with a history of recurrent anterior abdominal wall abscesses and dysuria. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease and also found to have a fistulous communication between the terminal ileum and a patent urachus. An ileocecectomy with primary anastomosis and complete resection of the abscess cavity was performed. He is on azathioprine for maintenance therapy and currently in remission. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this complication in Crohn disease patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of urachal anomalies such as suprapubic abdominal pain, dysuria, umbilical discharge, and periumbilical mass.
This paper is to study the performance of vapour compression refrigeration system using, hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR) mixture (R600a & R290), hydrocarbon nanorefrigerant mixture (R600a & R290/TiC) and cryogenically treated hydrocarbon nanorefrigerant mixture (R600a & R290/ Cryo TiC). The COP of HCR (R600a & R290) system is 1.2960 whereas COP of R600a & R290/TiC nano refrigerant system is 1.5223. The TiC nano powder is cryogenically treated at -196°C for 24 hours. The treated TiC is dispersed in HCR mixture. Hence, the COP of R600a & R290- Cryo TiC system is further increased to 1.5801. The energy consumption of R600a & R290-TiC is reduced by 10.3% when compared with HCR. Further it is reduced by 12.69% with respect to Cryogenically treated refrigerant (R600a & R290/Cryo TiC) system. The COP is enhanced due to deep cryogenic of TiC nano powder .