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Santini, P.,Ferguson, H. C.,Fontana, A.,Mobasher, B.,Barro, G.,Castellano, M.,Finkelstein, S. L.,Grazian, A.,Hsu, L. T.,Lee, B.,Lee, S.-K.,Pforr, J.,Salvato, M.,Wiklind, T.,Wuyts, S.,Almaini, O.,Coope IOP Publishing 2015 The Astrophysical journal Vol.801 No.2
<P>We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey project. We combine the effort from 10 different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for similar to 80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age <100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for <20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.</P>
Biogeographic affinities of the Amphipod fauna from the Portuguese Coast were analysed. The Portuguese Coast appeared as a transition zone where faunas from the Mediterranean and of northern affinities become mixed. The biogeographic affinities between the Portuguese Coast and the Mauritanian and Senegalese regions still remained difficult to interpret. The comparison of the life cycles between several populations of Echinogammarus marinus (Leach), under different environmental constraints, showed that Gammarids can have large intraspecific variations in their reproductive patterns, which might have an important role in marine amphipods speciation.
In this paper some techniques for the dynamic analysis of non-classically damped linear systems are reviewed and compared. All these methods are based on a transformation of the governing equations using a basis of complex or real vectors. Complex and real vector bases are presented and compared. The complex vector basis is represented by the eigenvectors of the complex eigenproblem obtained considering the non-classical damping matrix of the system. The real vector basis is a set of Ritz vectors derived either as the undamped normal modes of vibration of the system, or by the load dependent vector algorithm (Lanczos vectors). In this latter case the vector basis includes the static correction concept. The rate of convergence of these bases, with reference to a parametric structural system subjected to a fixed spatial distribution of forces, is evaluated. To this aim two error norms are considered, the first based on the spatial distribution of the load and the second on the shear force at the base due to impulsive loading. It is shown that both error norms point out that the rate of convergence is strongly influenced by the spatial distribution of the applied forces.
Automated damage detection through Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques has become an active area of research in the bridge engineering community but widespread implementation on in-service infrastructure still presents some challenges. In the meantime, visual inspection remains as the most common method for condition assessment even though collected information is highly subjective and certain types of damage can be overlooked by the inspector. In this article, a Frequency Response Functions-based model updating algorithm is evaluated using experimentally collected data from the University of Central Florida (UCF)-Benchmark Structure. A protocol for measurement selection and a regularization technique are presented in this work in order to provide the most well-conditioned model updating scenario for the target structure. The proposed technique is composed of two main stages. First, the initial finite element model (FEM) is calibrated through model updating so that it captures the dynamic signature of the UCF Benchmark Structure in its healthy condition. Second, based upon collected data from the damaged condition, the updating process is repeated on the baseline (healthy) FEM. The difference between the updated parameters from subsequent stages revealed both location and extent of damage in a "blind" scenario, without any previous information about type and location of damage.
Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. Results: We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. Conclusions: This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.
Background: Epigenetic alteration may affect a patient’s prognosis by altering the development and progression of the tumor. Some recent reports have identified a correlation between histone modification and patient outcome. However, no studies have been conducted on global histone modification in osteosarcomas. Methods: We investigated histone modification in 54 cases of osteosarcoma by performing immunohistochemical staining. The immunohistochemical expression of four histone modification markers, acetylated H4 lysine 12 (H4K12Ac), acetylated H3 lysine 18, trimethylated H3 lysine 27, and dimethylated H3 lysine 4 were evaluated. Results: High H4K12Ac expression was correlated with patient age (p=0.011). However, the other histone modification markers showed no correlation with any of the clinicopathological data such as survival, tumor grade, tumor site, metastasis, age, or gender. Conclusions: Our study showed that all four histone modification markers are expressed in osteosarcoma (median expression rate, 40 to 60%). However, we did not find a correlation with the clinicopathological factors except for age. Further study to evaluate the reason for the association between H4K12Ac and patient age is needed.
<P>AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein involved in regulation of the growth and metastatic behavior of cancer cells. Metastatic tumor antigen (MTA) is a potential metastasis-associated protein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of ezrin and MTA and their correlation with clinicopathological features in osteosarcomas of the jaw. METHODS: We analyzed ezrin and MTA protein levels by immunohistochemistry in 31 osteosarcomas of the jaw. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 39 years and half of the patients were male. The mandible (n = 19) was more frequently involved than the maxilla (n = 12). The predominant histological type was chondroblastic (58.1%) and 24 patients (77.4%) were classified as having a high grade of malignancy. Immunoreactivity for ezrin was identified in 6 of 31 cases (19.4%), while 77.4% displayed expression of MTA. All ezrin-positive patients had high-grade tumors. The high-grade tumors (n = 24) had a higher rate of MTA expression (42.9% vs 87.5%). Expression of ezrin and MTA was not significantly different according to age, sex, tumor site, histological type, and tumor ploidy. Follow-up information was available for 13 patients, with a mean follow-up time of 26.7 months (range, 6-48 months). At the time of last follow-up, 5 (38.5%) patients had died of disease and 8 patients (61.5%) were alive with no evidence of disease. Expression of ezrin and MTA was not significantly different according to the follow-up data. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, high-grade tumors had a higher rate of ezrin and MTA expression. This expression pattern indicates that ezrin and MTA positivity can be additional prognostic markers in osteosarcoma of the jaw.</P>
<P>Aims: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells against stress-associated injuries and are overexpressed in several malignant tumours. We investigated the potential roles of HSP27, HSP60, and HSP70 in conventional and low grade central osteosarcoma. Methods: Expressions of HSP27, HSP60, and HSP70 were analysed using immunohistochemistry on tissue sections from 52 cases of conventional osteosarcoma and 21 cases of low grade central osteosarcoma. We evaluated the expression of each protein and examined its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. Results: We found significantly different expressions of HSP27 and HSP70 between conventional and low grade central osteosarcoma [34.6% versus 4.8% (p = 0.008), 88.5% versus 14.3% (p < 0.001)]. However, HSP60 was highly expressed in both kinds of osteosarcoma (92.3% versus 85.7%). In conventional osteosarcoma, a higher expression of HSP27 was significantly related to distant metastasis (p = 0.034) and histological subtype [osteoblastic versus non-osteoblastic (p = 0.041)]. The expressions of HSP60 and HSP70 were not significantly related to any tested clinicopathological parameter. Conclusions: HSP27 and HSP70 may be used as differential markers to distinguish conventional and low grade central osteosarcoma. HSP27 may be used as a possible prognostic marker in conventional osteosarcoma cases.</P>
It is believed that offshore wind farms may satisfy an increasing portion of the energy demand in the next years. This paper presents a comparative study of the fatigue performances of tripod and jacket steel support structures for offshore wind turbines in waters of intermediate depth (20-50 m). A reference site at a water depth of 45 m in the North Atlantic Ocean is considered. The tripod and jacket support structures are conceived according to typical current design. The fatigue behavior is assessed in the time domain under combined stochastic wind and wave loading and the results are compared in terms of a lifetime damage equivalent load.