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      • KCI등재

        「街外街傳」과 「황무지」에 나타난 이상과 엘리엇의 제휴

        심상욱(Shim Sang-wook) 韓國批評文學會 2011 批評文學 Vol.- No.39

        이 논문은 이상 작품의 서구문학사조와의 관계에 초점을 맞춰 이상이 1936년에 발표한 「街外街傳」(가외가전)을 T. S. 엘리엇(T. S. Eliot)의 「황무지」(The Waste Land)와 비교하여 그 의미를 살펴보았다. 한국이 일본의 식민지로 있을 때 서구에서는 제임스 조이스가 ?율리시즈?를 창작하여 T.S. 엘리엇이 조이스의 작품이 신화기법으로 창작되었음을 밝혀 내 모더니즘의 중심과제로 등장해 있었다. 이러한 서구문학은 일본을 경유하여 유학파인 김기림, 정지용 등이 한국에 들여와 이상과 같은 한국 문인들에게 자극을 주었다. 엘리엇의 ‘신화기법'은 현대적인 것과 고대적인 것을 작품 속에 공존시킴으로서 흩어진 사건을 통합하는 방법이었지만, 이상은 한국의 신화와 동양사상에 대한 그의 지속적인 관심을 표현해 냈다. 이상은 식민지 치하에서 살지 않으면 안 되는 상황에서 편안한 대륙으로 암시된 고대 중국을 회상하면서 식민지 치하의 답답한 상황을 벗어나고자 하며, “손자(係子)도 탑재한 객차가 방을 피하나보다.”로 표현하여 중국을 원망하면서 한국의 삼족오 신화가 일본의 신화에 편입된 것을 일깨워 한국의 고유의 전통의식을 자극하고 있다. 엘리엇이 「황무지」에서 신화기법으로 현대문명의 위기를 그려낸 것처럼 이상은 「가외가전」에서 사라진 한국의 신화와 동양사상을 은유적으로 사용하여 한국의 식민지 상황을 그려냈다. 한국의 모더니즘을 주도했던 김기림이 이상을 한국의 ‘최후의 모더니스트'라고 지칭한 바와 같이 그의 ?가외가전?은 식민지 통치가 극에 달하고 있을 때 ‘서울의 모습'을 공개적으로는 말할 수 없어 ‘거리 밖의 이야기'로 그려낸 ‘폭로'적인 작품임을 알 수 있다. This paper is to examine an affiliation of Yi Sang and T. S. Eliot in Gawoigajeon(?街外街傳?) and The Waste Land written by them. For a Korean modernist Yi Sang, during the colonial period, potentially thought that the Korean myth had disappeared from Korean history into a Japanese myth caused by Japan's colonial policy. He knew T. S. Eliot's mythic narrative through Guinhoi and other sources. He became the last member of Guinhoi(九人會) and acted in various roles late in life. Through Guinhoi, he came to know a large amount of Western literary thoughts from abroad and created a variety of works, especially according to T. S. Eliot's mythic narrative explaining writing techniques of Joyce's Ulysses. As Kim, Ki-rim called Yi Sang “Jupiter,” Kim, Yun-sik asked for researchers “Why did Kim, Ki-rim call him “Jupiter”? This question is very important to know Yi Sang, since both Kim, Ki-rim and Yi sang were Korean modernists in the1930s. I think it that both writers created their poems by Eliot's mythic narrative technique. However, after Yi Sang's death Kim Ki-rim called him Jupiter, the gratest god of the Greek-Roman myths. As we think of Yi Sang, we must consider Kim, Ki-rim's The Weather Chart(氣象圖) written in 1935 with Yi Sang's Gawoigajeon in 1936. ThoughKim was a pioneer for importing Western modernism in Korean Literature, Yi Sang was a representative practice writer written Gawoigajeon depicted the urbanSeoul by the Joycean mythic narrative in the colonial period.

      • KCI등재

        『十二月 十二日』 : 이상과 졸라와의 제휴

        심상욱(Shim Sang-wook) 韓國批評文學會 2010 批評文學 Vol.- No.37

        This paper is to examine the affiliation of Yi Sang's Twelfth December and Emile Zola's Experimental Novel by Edward W. Said's Traveling Theory. Yi Sang wrote it with the main character ‘he' as alta ego, Yi Sang himself. He dealt with the social background of 1920s in it. Naturalism in literature deals with the evil aspects of human life and is in varying degrees deterministic view. This current thought was affected to Yi Sang with various trends via Japan from Europe. The naturalistic writer uses the knowledge and attitudes of current science in his depiction of human life. He described a segment of human existence according to the laws of scientific causality. The writer analyzes his characters and their social situations as the effects proceeding from various combinations of physical, emotional, and environmental causes. After all man was a phenomenon caused by certain hereditary and environmental forces. As we read it by comparative literary theory we should read the work according to context. Consequently, we can understand Yi Sang wrote the social situation in December Twelfth with Zola's limited determinism in the 1930s' colonial situation in Korea.

      • KCI등재후보

        이상 문학과 신화

        심상욱 ( Sang Wook Shim ) 세계문학비교학회 ( 구 한국세계문학비교학회 ) 2007 世界文學比較硏究 Vol.18 No.-

        Lee Sang(1910-1937) practiced paintings, novels, poems and essays, when Korea was a colonial country. Especially he participated Guinhoi(Nine Members Circle) discussing literary topics, which introduced to the Western modernism to Korea. As Bulfinch said that mythology is the handmaid of literature, the traditional myths form the backbone of the world literature. Creating his works I think Lee Sang used Sam Jog O(三足烏), a kind of mythic birds as the messenger living in the sun in the Oriental and Korean myth. It is similar to Phoenix in the Western myth, and when the young Phoenix has grown up and gained sufficient strength, it lifts its nest from the tree which is its own cradle and its parent`s sepulchre and deposits it in the temple of the sun. As Joyce` novels are the immediate example of the reinvestment of mythology in modernistic art at the colonial period of Ireland, through Guinhoi in the colonial period of Korea, Lee Sang interested in Joyce`s mythic narrative and in the process of writing he recognized a Korean traditional myth, Sam Jog O, the crow with three legs living in the sun. This myth was disappeared in the colonial period, however, it is refreshing now. At the colonial period Choi Nam-Sun researched the old Korean myth with Northern Asian and he asserted its importance. Like him Lee Sang also probably knew it. Kim Ki Rim, a Korean modernist, called him "Jupiter" of Greek-Roman myth in a poem of reconsidering Lee Sang. Through the above we know that Lee Sang composed his works by bird images in myths.

      • KCI등재

        조이스의 신화기법으로 본 이상의 『오감도(烏瞰圖)』: 삼족오 신화

        심상욱 ( Sang Wook Shim ) 세계문학비교학회 ( 구 한국세계문학비교학회 ) 2006 世界文學比較硏究 Vol.16 No.-

        "Ogamdo", which means map viewed from crow, written by Lee Sang is a Korean modernist poem. Although many scholars have studied this work, they haven`t explained completely contents of it. When Korea was occupied from Japan and was become a colonial country, Lee Sang practiced painting, first, and then wrote his works, that is, novels, poems, and essays. Then he was participated Guinhoi(Nine Members Meeting) with Kim Ki-rim, Jeong Ji-Yong, etc. to talk and discuss a literary topics included the western modernism and others. That time, I think, he recognized Korean traditional myth related to the three legs crow in the old Korean myth. In the old myth the crow has lived in the sun and given the human bing help. When Lee Sang had composed Ogamdo, he used it as symbols to explain the various preassure from Japan in the colonial period. And so I think he was interested in the western modernism related to James Joyce`s mythic narrative included T. S. Eliot, and when wrote works he used this method. Now Lee Sang`s works have been studied till deconstruction theory, and in this sense I think scholars must review Lee Sang`s works by postcolonial theory.

      • In Vitro Developmental Competence of Porcine SCNT Embryos is improved by m-Carboxycinnamic Acid Bishydroxamide, Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

        Sang-Hoon,Park,Mi-Ran,Lee,Tae-Suk,Kim,Sang-Ki,Baek,Sang-Jin,Jin,Jin-Wook,Kim,Sang-Gon,Jeon,Ho-Baek,Yoon,Joon-Hee,Lee 한국동물번식학회 2014 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.38 No.4

        Differentiated nuclei can experimentally be returned to an undifferentiated embryonic status after nuclear transfer (NT) to unfertilized metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Nuclear reprogramming is triggered immediately after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) into recipient cytoplasm and this period is regarded as a key stage for optimizing reprogramming. In a recent study (Dai et al., 2010), use of m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide (CBHA) as a histone deacetylase inhibitor during the in vitro early culture of murine cloned embryos modifies the acetylation status of somatic nuclei and increases the developmental competence of SCNT embryos. Thus, we examined the effects of CBHA treatment on the in vitro preimplantation development of porcine SCNT embryos and on the acetylated status of histone H3K9 on cloned embryos at the zygote stage. We performed the three groups SCNT: SCNT (NT), CBHA treatment at the porcine fetus fibroblast cells (PFFs) used as donor cells prior to SCNT (CBHA-C) and CBHA treatment at the porcine SCNT embryos during the in vitro early culture after oocyte activation (CBHA-Z). The PFFs were treated with a 15 μM of CBHA (8 h) for the early culture and the porcine cloned embryos were treated with a 100 μM concentration of CBHA during the in vitro early culture (10 h). Cleavage rates and development to the blastocyst stage were assessed. No significant difference was observed the cleavage rate among the groups (82.6%, 76.4% and 82.2%, respectively). However, the development competence to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased in CBHA-Z embryos (22.7%) as compared to SCNT and CBHA-C embryos (8.6% and 4.1%)(p<0.05). Total cell numbers and viable cell numbers at the blastocyst stage of porcine SCNT embryos were increased in CBHA-Z embryos as compared to those in CBHA-C embryos (p<0.05). Signal level of histone acetylation (H3K9ac) at the zygote stage of SCNT was increased in CBHA-Z embryos as compared to SCNT and CBHA-C embryos. The results of the present study suggested that treatment with CBHA during the in vitro early culture (10 h) had significantly increased the developmental competence and histone acetylation level at the zygote stage.

      • KCI등재

        이상의『김유정』과 서구의 자연주의와의 관계

        심상욱(Sang-wook Shim) 한국동서비교문학학회 2014 동서 비교문학저널 Vol.0 No.30

        This paper is to examine Yi Sang's “Kim You Jeong” in terms of Western naturalism, since Yi Sang, as an experimental writer, wrote the graduated album's memo, ‘exposure', a theme of naturalism, focused on ‘a discovery rather than an invention' in 1928. His ‘exposure', found in Western naturalism, especially American naturalism, is the origin of his works. It is certain that naturalism is a deceptive term, which is not fixed meaning. He wrote the real description using a scientific method which is affinity to science. Western naturalists took a definite concept of man which aimed to express in the writing the scientific thought in literature. Korean scholars in 1930s didn't drew a sharp line between realism and naturalism like Western scholars, and so, Choi Jai Suh wrote Yi Sang's works as ‘more deepening and expending than realistic method.' According to the above, we can say Yi Sang wrote his works with more naturalism than realism.

      • In Vitro Developmental Competence of Porcine SCNT Embryos is improved by m-Carboxycinnamic Acid Bishydroxamide, Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

        Park,,Sang-Hoon,Lee,,Mi-Ran,Kim,,Tae-Suk,Baek,,Sang-Ki,Jin,,Sang-Jin,Kim,,Jin-Wook,Jeon,,Sang-Gon,Yoon,,Ho-Baek,Lee,,Joon-Hee The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2014 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.38 No.4

        Differentiated nuclei can experimentally be returned to an undifferentiated embryonic status after nuclear transfer (NT) to unfertilized metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Nuclear reprogramming is triggered immediately after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) into recipient cytoplasm and this period is regarded as a key stage for optimizing reprogramming. In a recent study (Dai et al., 2010), use of m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide (CBHA) as a histone deacetylase inhibitor during the in vitro early culture of murine cloned embryos modifies the acetylation status of somatic nuclei and increases the developmental competence of SCNT embryos. Thus, we examined the effects of CBHA treatment on the in vitro preimplantation development of porcine SCNT embryos and on the acetylated status of histone H3K9 on cloned embryos at the zygote stage. We performed the three groups SCNT: SCNT (NT), CBHA treatment at the porcine fetus fibroblast cells (PFFs) used as donor cells prior to SCNT (CBHA-C) and CBHA treatment at the porcine SCNT embryos during the in vitro early culture after oocyte activation (CBHA-Z). The PFFs were treated with a $15{\mu}M$ of CBHA (8 h) for the early culture and the porcine cloned embryos were treated with a $100{\mu}M$ concentration of CBHA during the in vitro early culture (10 h). Cleavage rates and development to the blastocyst stage were assessed. No significant difference was observed the cleavage rate among the groups (82.6%, 76.4% and 82.2%, respectively). However, the development competence to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased in CBHA-Z embryos (22.7%) as compared to SCNT and CBHA-C embryos (8.6% and 4.1%)(p<0.05). Total cell numbers and viable cell numbers at the blastocyst stage of porcine SCNT embryos were increased in CBHA-Z embryos as compared to those in CBHA-C embryos (p<0.05). Signal level of histone acetylation (H3K9ac) at the zygote stage of SCNT was increased in CBHA-Z embryos as compared to SCNT and CBHA-C embryos. The results of the present study suggested that treatment with CBHA during the in vitro early culture (10 h) had significantly increased the developmental competence and histone acetylation level at the zygote stage.

      • KCI등재

        Difference between Kim Munjip's Mark Criticism and Ch'oe Chaeso's ‘Realism' on Yi Sang's “Wings”

        ( Shim Sang-wook ), ( Park Kyoon-cheol ) 한국일본어문학회 2016 日本語文學 Vol.1 No.68

        이 논문은 이상의 「날개」를 분석한 재일한국인 김문집의 논문과 최재서의 논문의 차이점을 살폈다. 최재서는 경성제대(현재 서울대학교)에서 영문학을 전공하여 한국문단에 서구문학에 대한 논문을 발표하면서 한국 작가의 작품을 일본어로 번역하여 일본문단에 발표했다. 그 중 이상이 1936년에 발표한 「날개」에 대해 「리얼리즘의 심화와 확대」란 논문을 발표하여 오늘날까지도 한국의 리얼리즘 문학을 논할 때 반드시 읽어야 할 논문으로 이상의 작품을 독자들에게 알리는 시금석이 된 글이다. 김문집은 친일비평가로 일본작가들의 작품을 표준삼아 한국작가의 작품을 보다 낮게 평가하는 소위 ‘채점 비평'을 채용하여 작품을 평가했다. 그는 이상의 「날개를 59점으로 평가하여 동경문단에 발표했다. 이러한 내용을 알게 된 이상은 문우 김유정을 소재로 하여 창작한 「소설 김유정」에서 김문집을 ‘족보도 없는 비평가'라고 비하해 꼬집었다. 이것은 최재서가 서구의 리얼리즘론으로 이상의 작품을 평했던 반면에 김문집은 그러한 이론과는 거리가 먼 오직 일본의 문학경향을 좇아 한국문학을 평가했기 때문이다. 이와 같이 두 비평가의 글에서 볼 수 있듯이 연구자들은 비평에 앞서 제반 비평이론을 철저히 검증을 한 후 비평에 임해야 할 것이다. This article is to examine difference between Kim Munjip's mark criticism and Ch'oe Chaeso's realism on Yi Sang's “Wings.” Yi wrote a novel related to his fellow Kim Youjeong as “A Novel Kim You Jeong” as a posthumous work in Chungsaekgi(1939). In the work he exposures Kim Munjip, Korean-Japanese critic, as ‘a critic without genealogical table', after knowing Kim announced "Wings" as failed work in Tokyo literary community. In fact “Wings” was appreciated ‘well written work with realistic technique' by Ch'oe Chaeo in Korea. By the way Kim Munjip made it the score 59 point below 60 point passing score by his mark criticism. Since each critic's critical view is different, first of all, critics must have prudential and discreet on adjusting critical theory. What we can know here is Kim's analysis of “Wings” is too narrow marked score according to his mark criticism, because his critical view is connected with Japan's ideology and his submission to Japan's rule, and after all he became a Korean-Japanese.

      • 두경부 편평상피세포암종에서 18FDG−PET을 이용한 방사선치료 반응평가

        이상욱(Sang wook Lee), 김재승(Jae seung Kim), 류진숙(Jin sook Ryu), 이병용(Byong yong Yi), 김종훈(Jong hoon Kim), 안승도(Seung do Ahn), 신성수(Seong soo Shin), 김상윤(Sang yoon Kim), 남순열(Soon yuhl Nam), 송시열(Si yeol song), 윤상민(Sang min) 대한두경부종양학회 2003 대한두경부 종양학회지 Vol.19 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of positron emission tomography with 2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in discrimination of response in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients who underwent FDG-PET scan before and after radiotherapy for no disseminated head and neck carcinoma at the Asan Medical Center between August 2001 and September 2002 were evaluate by prospective analysis. First FDG-PET scan performed before radiotherapy within 1 month, and second FDG-PET scan performed 1 month after radiotherapy. FDG-PET images were analyzed by standard uptake value (SUV). Follow-up period was more than 6 months. Results: The pretreatment SUV was 3.4-14.0 (median: 6.0) and posttreatment SUV was ground level-7.7 (median: 2.0). The overall sensitivity and specicity of FDG-PET to evaluate residual tumors in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were 94% and 94%. Conclusion: FDG-PET is effective in evaluation of radiation response in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We think that the timing of one month after finished radiotherapy FDG-PET scan was not too fast to evaluation of radiation response.

      • KCI등재

        식민지시대의 한국 신화의 위상

        심상욱(Shim Sang-wook) 한국비평문학회 2009 批評文學 Vol.- No.31

        As Thomas Bulfinch says that mythology is the handmaid of literature, we can see Korean writers such Kim Ki-rim and Yi Sang as examples of Joyce's mythic narrative in literary works. Though Joyce is the immediate example of the reinvestment of myth during the colonial period of Ireland, we know that myths are a representation of the collective unconsciousness of people and form the backbone of literature. After Korea was occupied by Japan, Korea was dominated by Japan's hard policies in the 1930s. Through Oguma Eiji's The Myth of Homogeneous Nation in Japan we can see that the phase of Korean traditional myths disappeared during that period. He wrote this book to explain the removal of Korean traditional myths in Japan's to fully dominate Korea and emphasized the myth of a homogenecus Japan. In order to fully grasp Korean myths, we learn about Japan's myth policy focusing on the foundation myths of old Korea. Choi Nam-sun also researched old Korean myths including Northern Asian myths during the colonial period according to Japan's myths policies as in the case of Nazi myths. Due to the nature of myths and their collective unconsciousness, it is important to call more attention to Japan's myths policies not only to reconstruct traditional Korean myths, but also to reestablish a tradition of Korean culture.

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