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      • KCI등재

        NMP로부터 제조된 Melt-blown흑연섬유의 안정화조건에 따른 미세구조와 전기화학적 특성

        김찬,양갑승,고장면,박상희,박호철,김영민,Kim,Chan,Yang,Kap,Seung,Ko,Jang,Myoun,Park,Sang,Hee,Park,Ho,Chul,Kim,Young-Min 한국전기화학회 2001 한국전기화학회지 Vol.4 No.3

        용융분사법으로 나프탈렌계 메조페이스 피치(mP)를 방사하여 산화안정화 속도를 변화시켜 흑연화 섬유의 모폴러지를 제어하였으며, 흑연화 섬유를 이용하여 Li-ion 이차전지 부극을 제조하여 충$\cdot$방전 거동 및 용량을 측정하였다. 용융분사조건에 따라 제조된 피치섬유의 직경은 $4{\mu}m$로부터 $16{\mu}m$까지 다양하였다 이중에서 직경 $10{\mu}m$인 피치섬유를 선택하여 세가지 승온속도 조건 $2^{\circ}C/min,\;5^{\circ}C/min,\;10^{\circ}/min$에서 산화안정화 후 $1000^{\circ}C$에서 탄소화하여 $2650^{\circ}C$에서 흑연화 한 결과, 섬유 단면이 산화안정화 조건 $2^{\circ}C/min$의 경우는 라디알 구조, $5^{\circ}C/min$의 것은 라디알-랜덤 구조, $10^{\circ}C/min$의 경우는 skin-core 구조를 형성하였고, 승온속도가 큰 경우일수록 이흑연화성이 컷다. 이것은 큰 승온속도에서는 탄소화$\cdot$흑연화 과정에서 섬유표면에서만 산화안정화가 일어나고, 내부에서는 피치분자가 유동성이 커 승온과정에서 고결정성의 흑연구조가 발달한 것으로 추측된다. 따라서 이흑연화성이 큰 $10^{\circ}C/min$에서 산화안정화 한 것이 충전방전 용량이 $2^{\circ}C/min$의 경우에 비해서 1.3배로 약 400mAh/g, 충방전 효율도 $96.8\%$로 가장 우수한 특성을 나타냈다. Naphthalene derived mesophase pitch WP) was spun into short fibers by using melt-blown technology. The pitch fibers oxidative stabilization were carried out heating rates of $2^{\circ}C/min,\;5^{\circ}C/min\;and\; 10^{\circ}/min$. The heating rate was a key factor to maximate the capacity of the Li-ion secondary battery through controlling the morphology of the graphitized fiber. The diameters of the melt-blown fibers prepared were in the range of $4{\mu}m\~16{\mu}m$ with functions of air jet speed, air temperature and the temperature of the nozzle. The graphitized fibers of $10{\mu}m$ diameters showed various morphological structure with heating rate of the stabilization. Radial, radial-random and skin-core cross-sectional structure of the fibers were observed at the respective heating rate of $2^{\circ}C/min\;5^{\circ}C/min\;and\;10^{\circ}C/min$. Most crystalline structure of graphite was obtained from the fiber stabilized at heating rate of $10^{\circ}C/min$ exhibiting the best anode performance with 400 mAh/g of capacitance and $96.8\%$ of charge/discharge efficiency.

      • KCI등재

        초음파 주파수 및 반응조건 변화에 따른 나프탈렌 분해효율과 OH 라디칼의 발생량 비교

        박종성(Jong Sung Park), 박소영(So Young Park), 오재일(Jei Ll Oh), 정상조(Sang Jo Jeong), 이민주(Min Ju Lee), 허남국(Nam Guk Her) 大韓環境工學會 2009 대한환경공학회지 Vol.31 No.2

        나프탈렌은 휘발성이 있는 소수성 물질로 발암유발 가능성이 있고, 수생태계에 심각한 영향을 미친다. 본 연구는 초음파의 주파수 및 반응조건별 나프탈렌 분해효율과 OH 라디칼 변화량을 조사하였다. C-18 역상칼럼을 이용한 LC/FLD (1200 series, Agilent)로 나프탈렌을 분석한 결과 MDL (Method detection limit)은 0.01 ppm이었다. 초음파 조사 동안 휘발된 나프탈렌은 거의 검출되지 않았고(0.05 ppm 이하), 반응조 덮개 개폐별 나프탈렌 분해효율은 거의 차이를 보이지 않았다(1% 이내). 초음파 반응온도가 증가할수록 나프탈렌 제거효율은 감소하는 경향(15℃: 95%→40℃: 85%)을 보였고, pH가 낮을수록 나프탈렌 분해효율이 증가(pH 12: 84%→pH 3: 95.6%)하였다. 나프탈렌 초기농도의 감소에 따라 반응속도는 증가하는 경향을 보여주었다(2.5 ppm: 27.3×10(-3) min(-1), 5 ppm: 22.7×10(-3) min(-1), 10 ppm: 19.0×10(-3) min(-1)). 동일한 초음파 조건(2.5 ppm 나프탈렌, 0.075 W/mL, 20℃, pH 6.8)에서 28 kHz의 분해효율이 132 kHz보다 약 1.46배 높았고(132 kHz: 56%, 28 kHz: 82.7%), 유사 일차반응 속도상수(k1)도 약 2.3배 높게 나타났다(132 kHz: 2.4×10(-3) min(-1), 28 kHz: 5.0×10(-3) min(-1)). 초음파 조사 10분 후 H₂O₂ 농도는 132 kHz가 28 kHz보다 약 7.2배 높았지만(132 kHz: 0.36 ppm, 28 kHz: 0.05 ppm), 조사 90분 후에는 28 kHz가 132 kHz보다 1.1배 높았다(28 kHz: 0.45 ppm, 132 kHz: 0.4 ppm). 2.5 ppm 나프탈렌 용액에 132 kHz와 28 kHz 초음파 조사시 발생된 H₂O₂ 농도는 초순수에 초음파 조사한 결과보다 각각 0.1 ppm과 0.05 ppm씩 낮게 나타났다. 혼형(24 kHz)과 배스형(28 kHz) 초음파의 나프탈렌 분해효율은 각각 87%와 82.7%였고, k1은 22.8×10(-3) min(-1)와 18.7×10(-3) min(-1)로 산출되었다. 다주파 복합형 초음파 시스템(28 kHz 배스형+24 kHz 혼형 초음파)의 나프탈렌 분해효율은 단일주파수 24 kHz(혼형)와 비슷한 제거효율을 보였으나(88%), H₂O₂의 농도는 약 3.5배 높게 조사되었다(28 kHz+24 kHz: 2.37 ppm, 24 kHz: 0.7 ppm). 이와 같은 다주파 복합형 초음파 시스템은 OH 라디칼에 의해 산화가 잘 일어나는 물질의 분해에 매우 효과적으로 적용될 수 있을 것으로 예상된다. Naphthalene is a volatile, hydrophobic, and possibly carcinogenic compound that is known to have a severe detrimental effect to aquatic ecosystem. Our research examined the effects of various operating conditions (temperature, pH, initial concentration, and frequency and type of ultrasound) on the sonochemical degradation of naphthalene and OH radical production. The MDL (Method detection limit) determined by LC/FLD (1200 series, Agilient) using C-18 reversed column is measured up to 0.01 ppm. Naphthalene vapor produced from ultrasound irradiation was detected under 0.05 ppm. Comparison of naphthalene sonodegradion efficiency tested under open and closed reactor cover fell within less than 1% of difference. Increasing the reaction temperature from 15℃ to 40℃ resulted in reduction of naphthalene degradation efficiency (15℃: 95%→40℃: 85%), and altering pH from 12 to 3 increased the effect (pH 12: 84%→pH 3: 95.6%). Pseudo first-order constants (k1) of sonodegradation of naphthalene decreased as initial concentration of naphthalene increased (2.5 ppm: 27.3×10(-3) min(-3)→10 ppm : 19.0×10(-3) min(-3)). Degradation efficiency of 2.5 ppm of naphthalene subjected to 28 kHz of ultrasonic irradiation was found to be 1.46 times as much as when exposed under 132 kHz (132 kHz: 56%, 28 kHz: 82.7%). Additionally, its k1 constant was increased by 2.3 times (132 kHz: 2.4×10(-3) min(-1), 28 kHz: 5.0×10(-3) min(-1)). H₂O₂ concentration measured 10 minutes after the exposure to 132 kHz of ultrasound, when compared with the measurement under frequency of 28 kHz, was 7.2 times as much. The concentration measured after 90 minutes, however, showed the difference of only 10%. (concentration of H₂O₂ under 28 kHz being 1.1 times greater than that under 132 kHz.) The H₂O₂ concentration resulting from 2.5 ppm naphthalene after 90 minutes of sonication at 24 kHz and 132 kHz were lower by 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, respectively, than the concentration measured from the irradiated M.Q. water (no naphthalene added.) Degradation efficiency of horn type (24 kHz) and bath type (28 kHz) ultrasound was found to be 87% and 82.7%, respectively, and k1 was calculated into 22.8×10(-3) min(-1) and 18.7×10(-3) min(-1), respectively. Using the multi- frequency and mixed type of ultrasound system (28 kHz bath type+24 kHz horn type) simultaneously resulted in combined efficiency of 88.1%, while H₂O₂ concentration increased 3.5 times (28 kHz+24 kHz: 2.37 ppm, 24 kHz: 0.7 ppm.) Therefore, the multi-frequency and mixed type of ultrasound system procedure might be most effectively used for removing the substances that are easily oxidized by the OH radical.

      • SCIEKCI등재

        Reduction of Bacillus cereus Contamination in Biofilms on Stainless Steel Surfaces by Application of Sanitizers and Commercial Detergent

        Lee,,Min-Jeong,Ha,,Ji-Hyoung,Kim,,Yong-Su,Ryu,,Jee-Hoon,Ha,,Sang-Do The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistr 2010 Applied Biological Chemistry (Appl Biol Chem) Vol.53 No.1

        We established the effectiveness of a washing, detergent and sanitizer treatments for reducing Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) contamination in biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. A water treatment did not affect biofilms and chlorine treatments at 200 ppm for 10 min and 300 ppm for 5 min, iodophor at 200 ppm for 10 min, and QAC at 400 ppm for 10 min were used to eliminate all B. cereus cells. B. cereus cells after detergent treatment were eliminated by chlorine at 100 ppm for 10 min, 200 ppm for 5 min, and 300 ppm for 3 min, and with iodophor at 100 ppm for 10 min and 200 ppm for 10 min, and QAC at 400 ppm for 10 min.

      • KCI등재

        Corrosion Behavior of Inconel X-750 for Carbon Anode Oxide Reduction Application

        Jeon,,Min,Ku,Kim,,Sung-Wook,Lee,,Sang-Kwon,Choi,,Eun-Young Korean Radioactive Waste Society 2020 방사성폐기물학회지 Vol.18 No.3

        The corrosion behavior of the Inconel X-750 alloy was investigated for its potential application under a Cl<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>2</sub> mixed gas flow in an Ar atmosphere. The corrosion rate was found to be negligible at temperatures up to 400℃ under a flow rate of 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 170 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Ar, whereas an exponential increase was observed in the corrosion rate at temperatures greater than 500℃. The suppression of the corrosion reaction due to the presence of O<sub>2</sub> was verified experimentally at flow rates of 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> (4.96 g·m<sup>-2</sup>·h<sup>-1</sup>), 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub> (2.02 g·m<sup>-2</sup> ·h<sup>-1</sup>), and 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub> (1.34 g·m<sup>-2</sup>·h<sup>-1</sup>) under a constant Ar flow rate of 170 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> at 600℃ for 8 h. The surface morphology analysis results revealed that porous surfaces with tunnel-type holes were produced under the Cl<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>2</sub> mixed-gas condition. Furthermore, the effects of the Cl<sub>2</sub> flow rate on the corrosion rate were investigated, indicating that its impact was negligible within the range of 5-30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> at 600℃.

      • 3D 프린터를 이용한 Customized Bolus 제작에 관한 연구

        정상민,양진호,이승현,김진욱,염두석,Jung,,Sang,Min,Yang,,Jin,Ho,Lee,,Seung,Hyun,Kim,,Jin,Uk,Yeom,,Du,Seok 대한방사선치료학회 2015 대한방사선치료학회지 Vol.27 No.1

        목 적 : 3D 프린터는 입력한 도면을 바탕으로 3차원의 입체 모델을 만들어 낼 수 있는 장비이다. 이러한 특징을 이용하여 방사선치료시 bolus 사용으로 인한 피부와 bolus 사이의 air gap을 최소화 할 수 있는 bolus 제작이 가능하다. 이에 본 연구에서는 3D 프린터를 이용하여 customized bolus를 제작하여 air gap과 target 선량을 상품화된 1 cm bolus와 비교하고자 한다. 대상 및 방법 : 왼쪽 chest wall에 돌출된 종양이 있는 RANDO phantom을 CT 모의치료기를 이용하여 영상 획득 후, CT DICOM 파일을 3D 프린터에 필요한 STL 파일로 변환시켰다. 이것을 이용하여 치료부위의 체표윤곽과 일치하면서 1 cm 두께를 유지하는 customized bolus 주형틀을 3D 프린터로 제작한 후 paraffin wax를 녹여 customized bolus를 만들었다. 이렇게 만들어진 customized bolus와 상품화된 1 cm bolus의 air gap을 확인하였고, air gap으로 인한 차이를 Eclipse를 이용하여 치료계획상 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$와 $V_{95%}$를 비교하였다. 결 과 : customized bolus 제작 기간은 약 3일이 소요되었다. air gap 총 용적은 customized bolus는 평균 $3.9cm^3$, 상품화된 1 cm bolus는 평균 $29.6cm^3$이었다. 상품화된 1 cm bolus를 사용할 때보다 3D 프린터를 이용하여 제작한 customized bolus를 사용하는 것이 air gap을 최소화시켰다. 6 MV photon에서 customized bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 각각 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4%이었고, 상품화된 1 cm bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%이었다. proton의 경우 customized bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 각각 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8%이었고, 상품화된 1 cm bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%이었다. 이처럼 치료계획에서 customized bolus와 1 cm bolus 모두 GTV의 선량은 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 GTV에 인접한 정상조직은 customized bolus의 선량이 더 적게 나타났다. 결 론 : 3D 프린터를 이용한 customized bolus가 표면이 일정하지 않은 치료부위에 사용 할 때 air gap을 줄이는 효과를 나타냈다. 그렇지만 상품화된 bolus와 피부 사이에 생기는 air gap은 target에서의 선량의 변화를 일으킬 만큼 많은 양이 아님을 알 수 있었다. 반면 chest wall에서는 air gap이 적을수록 선량이 감소함을 확인 할 수 있었다. customized bolus 제작 기간은 3일이 걸렸고, 고가의 제작비용이 든다는 문제점이 발생하였다. 따라서 3D 프린터 customized bolus의 상용화를 위해서는 저비용이고, bolus 사용으로 적합한 3D 프린터 재료 모색의 필요성이 있다고 사료된다. Purpose : 3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. Materials and Methods : RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$ and $V_{95%}$ in treatment plan through Eclipse. Results : Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average $3.9cm^3$ at the customized bolus. And it was average $29.6cm^3$ at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. Conclusion : The customized bolus developed by 3D printers was effective in minimizing the air gap, especially when it is used against the treatment area with irregular surface. However, the air gap between branded bolus and skin was not enough to cause a change in target dose. On the other hand, in the chest wall could confirm that dose decrease for small the air gap. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days and the development cost was quite expensive. Therefore, the commercialization of customized bolus developed by 3D printers requires low-cost 3D printer materials, adequate for the use of bolus.

      • KCI등재

        원저 : 심정지 후 경도 저체온 유도를 위한 일개 종합적인 혼합 냉각방법의 냉각 효율성과 안전성

        김효준 ( Hyo Joon Kim ), 김영민 ( Young Min Kim ), 김수현 ( Soo Hyun Kim ), 윤준성 ( Chun Song Youn ), 오상훈 ( Sang Hoon Oh ), 김현정 ( Hyun Jung Kim ), 박규남 ( Kyu Nam Park ) 대한응급의학회 2013 大韓應急醫學會誌 Vol.24 No.5

        Purpose: To evaluate the cooling efficacy and safety of a comprehensive combination method for cooling induction in post-cardiac arrest patients. Methods: Adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients cooled using combination methods in a tertiary teaching hospital from January 2009 to June 2011were enrolled in the study. Patients were placed into one of two groups: 1) a typical combination (combination I) group, in which cold saline infusion, ice bags,and endovascular cooling were applied, and 2) acomprehensive combination (combination II) group, in which cold saline infusion, ice bags, endovascular cooling, skin exposure, and fanning with ice-water massage were applied. The time from cardiac arrest, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and cooling start to 34°C, as well asadverse events during cooling, were recorded. Results: Forty-two out of 125(34%) of OHCA patients with ROSC were cooled usingcombination methods. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two combination groups. The time [median (IQR)] from arrest, ROSC, and cooling to 34°C of the combination II group were significantly shorter than those of the combina combination I group [215 min(range 156~270 min) vs. 320 min (range 263-385) for median IQR, p=.002; 189 min (range 135-220 min) vs. 288 min (range 227-358 min) for ROSC, p=.002; 150min (range 120-180 min) vs. 210 min (range 180-260 min) for cooling to 34°C, p=.030, respectively]. There were no statistical differences in adverse events during and after cooling induction between the two groups. Conclusion: A comprehensive combination cooling method is feasible and capable of reducing the induction time for endovascular cooling in post-cardiac arrest patients.

      • KCI등재

        혈합육어 Trypsin 의 효소적 성질에 대한 반응속도록적 해석

        변재형,조득문,김형락,허민수,김두상 한국수산학회 1996 한국수산과학회지 Vol.29 No.1

        멸치, 고등어, 황다랭이 및 날개다랭이의 혈합육어에서 정제된 trypsin을 시료로 하여 각각의 BAPNA기질에 대한 반응속도와 그 관련 성질들을 분석 검토하였다. 4종의 혈합육어에서 정제된 trypsin의 ㎞'와 k_(cat)는 멸치 trypsin이 각각 49.3㎛과 90.9min^(-1), 고등어 trypsin A는 53.7㎛과 61.2min^(-1), 고등어 trypsin B는 96.5㎛과 76.6min^(-1), 황다랭이 trypsin은 62.8 ㎛과 46.4min^(-1), 그리고 날개다랭이 trypsin은 98.3 ㎛과 47.68 min^(-1) 이었다. TLCK에 대한 K_i값은 멸치 trypsin이 20.90 ㎛, 고등어 trypsin A가 2.86 ㎛, 고등어 trypsin B가 3.90㎛, 황다랭이 trypsin이 0.96 ㎛, 그리고 날개다랭이 trypsin이 1.82 ㎛이었으며, 황다랭이의 trypsin이 TLCK에 대하여 가장 예민하게 반응하였다. 이들 trypain의 효소 활성과 촉매효율은 연근해 온대산 혈합육어인 멸치와 고등어 trypsin이 열대해역에서 온대해역에 걸쳐 널리 회유하는 혈합육어인 황다랭이와 날개다랭이의 trypsin에 비하여 높은 특징을 보였다. Kinetic properties of trypsins purified from dark-fleshed fish (anchovy, mackerel, yellowfin tuna, and albacore) were examined and analyzed on benzoyl-_(D,L)-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA). The values of ㎞' and k_(cat) of the purified trypsins from the four dark-fleshed fish were found to be 49.3 ㎛ and 90.9 min^(-1) for anchovy, 53.7 ㎛ and 61.2 min^(-1) for mackerel A, 96.5 ㎛ and 76.6 min^(-1) for mackerel B, 62.8 ㎛ and 46.6 min^(-1) for yellowfin tuna, and 98.3 ㎛ and 47.7 min^(-1) for albacore, respectively. The values of K_i on tosyl-_L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) were determined to be 20.90 ㎛ for anchovy trypsin, 2.86 ㎛ for mackerel trypsin A, 3.90 ㎛ for mackerel trypsin B, 0.96 ㎛ for yellowfin tuna trypsin, and 1.82 ㎛ for albacore trypsin. Thus yellowfin tuna trypsin was the most sensitive to TLCK among all trypsins. The activities and catalytic efficiency of the trypsins purified from the temperate zone fish, anchovy and mackerel, were higher than those of the trypsins purified from yellowfin tuna and albacore which migrate widely from the tropic zone to the temperate zone.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        인간 포배기 배아의 초자화 동결에 관한 연구: II. 초자화 동결이 포배기 배아의 착상 및 임신에 미치는 영향

        김수희,이상원,이주희,강상민,오희정,이승민,이성구,윤혜균,윤산현,박세필,송해범,임진호,Kim,,Su-Hee,Lee,,Sang-Won,Lee,,Ju-Hee,Kang,,Sang-Min,Oh,,Hee-Jeong,Lee,,Seoung-Min,Lee,,Seong-Goo,Yoon,,Hye-Gyun,Yoon,,San-Hyun,Park,,Se-Pill,Song,,Hai- 대한생식의학회 2000 Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine Vol.27 No.1

        Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitrification on the implantation and the pregnancy of human blastocysts. Method: The transfer of the frozen-thawed blastocysts by the slow freezing or vitrification was performed between January 1998 and July 1999. The zygotes derives from IVF were cocultured with cumulus cells in YS medium containing 20% hFF for 5days. Two or three of the best balstocysts produced on day 5 were transferred into the uterus, and then supernumerary blastocysts were randomly divided into two groups. One was frozen by slow freezing and the other was frozen by vitrification method. The slow freezing procedure was performed in two steps (5% glycerol and 9% glycerol + 0.2 M sucrose for 10 min, respectively) using programmed freezer ($-2^{\circ}C$/min to $-7^{\circ}C$, manual seeding at $-7^{\circ}C$, $-0.3^{\circ}C$/min to $-38^{\circ}C$ and plunged into $LN_{2}$). The blastocysts frozen by slow freezing were thawed at $36^{\circ}C$ then removed glycerol in 7 steps. The vitrification procedure was performed in three steps (10% glycerol for 5 min, 10% glycerol + 20% ethylene glycol for 5 min, 25% glycerol + 25% ethylene glycol and directly $LN_{2}$ within 1 min). The blastocysts frozen by vitrification were thawed at $20^{\circ}C$ water then removed cryoprotectant in 3 steps. In each group, thawed blastocysts were cocultured with cumulus cells in YS medium containing 20% hFF for 18h and transferred into the uterus. The implantation rate was evaluated per transferred blastocysts and the pregnancy rate was evaluated per transfers. Results: The survival rate of vitrified group (74.5%) was higher than slow freezing group (68.0%), but not significant. When 98 thawed blastocysts of vitrification were transferred in 40 cycles, 19 pregnancies (clinical pregnancy rate; 47.5%) were established. One miscarriage occurred in the eighth week of pregnancy (ongoing pregnancy rate; 45.0%). 7 pregnancies were ongoing, 11 pregnancies went to term, and 16 healthy infants were born. The Implantation rate was 31.6%. These results were higher than those obtained by the slow freezing (clinical pregnancy rate; 40.3%, ongoing pregnancy rate; 32.5% and implantation rate; 25.3%), but not significant. Conclusion: Vitrification is a simple, quick and economical method when compared to slow freezing. It will be chosen as a good method of human embryo freezing in IVF-ET programs.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Propofol/Rocuronium을 이용한 신속 기관 내 삽관 시 Remifentanil의 세 가지 지속 정주 용량에서의 혈역학적 반응

        곽미숙 ( Mi Sook Gwak ), 최수주 ( Soo Joo Choi ), 윤진선 ( Jin Sun Yoon ), 이준용 ( Jun Yong Lee ), 양미경 ( Mi Kyung Yang ), 김갑수 ( Gaab Soo Kim ), 이상민 ( Sang Min Lee ), 김명희 ( Myung Hee Kim ) 대한마취과학회 2006 Korean Journal of Anesthesiology Vol.50 No.4

        Background: This study compared the effect of the three different infusion doses of remifentanil on the hemodynamic response to rapid sequence anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation. Methods: In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, 60 ASA I or II patients without any airway abnormalities, who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery requiring endotracheal intubation, were allocated to receive remifentanil 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0μg/kg/min. Anesthesia was induced with a remifentanil infusion and propofol 2.0 mg/kg. Rocuronium 1.0 mg/kg was given after a loss of consciousness and endotracheal intubation was performed 1 min after the rocuronium injection. The remifentanil infusion was stopped immediately before intubation. The noninvasive blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before induction (baseline), immediately before intubation, and at 1 min intervals until 5 min after intubation. Results: The HR and BP measured immediately before intubation decreased significantly in the three doses. The HR was similar in the three doses, and the BP was significantly different only between the 0.25 and 1.0μg/kg/min doses (P < 0.05). The hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation was very well blunted in 0.5 and 1.0μg/kg/min, but not in 0.25μg/kg/min. The HR and BP increased significantly 1 min after intubation in the 0.25μg/kg/min (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 0.5 and 1.0μg/kg/min doses until 5 min after intubation. Conclusions: Remifentanil 0.5μg/kg/min infusion without a bolus provides excellent hemodynamic stability for a rapid sequence endotracheal intubation using propofol and rocuronium. There are no advantages in using remifentanil doses higher than 0.5μg/ kg/min. (Korean J Anesthesiol 2006; 50: 385~9)

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