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Lee,,Sang-Hun,Choi,,Ji-Hun,Choi,,Yun-Sang,Kim,,Hack-Youn,Kim,,Hyun-Wook,Park,,Jae-Hyun,Song,,Dong-Heon,Kim,,Yong-Jae,Kim,,Cheon-Jei Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2012 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.32 No.6
The pre-rigor salting effects on physicochemical properties of ground duck breast muscle were evaluated in this study. The pre-rigor salting treatments were prepared within 30 min after slaughter, the duck breast muscles after post mortem 48 h were used to prepare the post-rigor treatments. The pre-rigor salting treatment had significantly higher pH value than post-rigor salting treatment (p<0.001), and all pre-rigor salting treatments showed a significant higher pH value. As a result, the pre-rigor salting treatment showed increased water holding capacity and decreased cooking loss compared to those in the post-rigor salting treatment. No significant differences in redness and yellowness were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). The increased solubility of salt-soluble proteins in the pre-rigor salting treatment leads to increase the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Also, the pre-rigor salted duck breast muscle had similar textural properties compared to those of post-rigor duck breast muscle containing sodium tri-polyphosphate (STPP). The 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of all treatments were ranged from 0.121 to 0.177 mg/kg. The lowest TBA value was observed for post-rigor duck breast muscle containing STPP, however, pre-rigor salting did not influence lipid oxidation of ground duck breast muscle. Therefore, the pre-rigor salting method, especially a single addition of sodium chloride to pre-rigor muscle, is more efficient method for improving cooking loss.
Sang-Hun Kim(김상현), Kwang-Youn Kim(김광연), Sun-Nyoung Yu(유선녕), Seul-Ki Park(박슬기), In-Seok Kwak(곽인석), Moon-Soo Rhee(이문수), Byung-Ho Bang(방병호), Sung-Sik Chun(전성식), Soon-Cheol Ahn(안순철) 한국생명과학회 2012 생명과학회지 Vol.22 No.11
Poster Presentations : P8 ; Dietary Royal Jelly Improves Epidermal Hydration with Increased Levels of Glucosylceramide and Ceramideby Altered Protein Expressions of β-glucocerebrosidase, Acidic Sphingomyelinase and Ceramidase in Aged C57BL/6J Mice
Epidermal hydration is maintained by epidermal lipid barrier, of which ceramide (Cer) is the major constituent. In this study, the dietary effectof royal jelly (RJ)on epidermal levels of hydrationand Cerspecies was determinedin intrinsically aged C57BL/6J mice. Altered Cer metabolism was further determined, as measured by epidermal levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and sphingomyelin (SM), two major precursor lipids in Cer generation, and of Cer metabolizing enzymes. 6 Month old C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (group C) or diets with 1% RJ harvested in area 1 (group RJ1) or 2 (group RJ2) for 16 weeks. Compared to group C, epidermal levels of hydration, total Cer (including Cer 2-7) and total GlcCer (including GlcCer A-D) were significantly increased in group RJ1. In addition, protein expressions of β-glucocerebrosidase (β-GlcCer` ase) and acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase), enzymes for GlcCer or SM hydrolysis, were increased and of ceramidase (CDase), the Cerdegradative enzyme, was decreased. Epidermal levels of all SM species and serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) protein in de novoCersynthesis, were similar between groups C and RJ1. Despite the increased levels of SM and SPT, epidermal levels of hydration, Cer 2-7, GlcCerA-D, β -GlcCer`ase, aSMase and CDase in group RJ2 were similar with those in group C. Cer 1 and Cer synthase 3in de novoCer synthesis were not altered among all groups. Dietary RJ1 improves epidermal hydration in parallel with increased GlcCerand Cer 2-7 by high protein expressions of β-GlcCer`ase and aSMase, which further maintained with low CDase protein expression.
The amylosucrase encoding gene from Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 11300 (DgAS) was codonoptimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was employed for biosynthesis of three different dihydroxybenzene glucosides using sucrose as the source of glucose moiety. The reaction parameters, including temperature, pH, and donor (sucrose) and acceptor substrate concentrations, were optimized to increase the production yield. This study demonstrates the highest ever reported molar yield of hydroquinone glucosides 325.6 mM (88.6 g/l), resorcinol glucosides 130.2 mM (35.4 g/l) and catechol glucosides 284.4 mM (77.4 g/l) when 400 mM hydroquinone, 200 mM resorcinol and 300 mM catechol, respectively, were used as an acceptor substrate. Furthermore, the use of commercially available amyloglucosidase at the end of the transglycosylation reaction minimized the glucooligosaccharides, thereby enhancing the target productivity of mono-glucosides. Moreover, the immobilized DgAS on Amicogen LKZ118 beads led to a 278.4 mM (75.8 g/l), 108.8 mM (29.6 g/l) and 211.2 mM (57.5 g/l) final concentration of mono-glycosylated product of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol at 35 cycles, respectively, when the same substrate concentration was used as mentioned above. The percent yield of the total glycosides of hydroquinone and catechol varied from 85% to 90% during 35 cycles of reactions in an immobilized system, however, in case of resorcinol the yield was in between 65% to 70%. The immobilized DgAS enhanced the efficiency of the glycosylation reaction and is therefore considered effective for industrial application.