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Purpose: This study aimed to develop a decision-support tool to quantitatively determine authorship in clinical trial publications. Methods: The tool was developed in three phases: consolidation of authorship recommendations from the Good Publication Practice (GPP) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines, identifying and scoring attributes using a 5-point Likert scale or a dichotomous scale, and soliciting feedback from editors and researchers. Results: The authorship criteria stipulated by the ICMJE and GPP recommendations were categorized into 2 Modules. Criterion 1 and the related GPP recommendations formed Module 1 (sub-criteria: contribution to design, data generation, and interpretation), while Module 2 was based on criteria 2 to 4 and the related GPP recommendations (sub-criteria: contribution to manuscript preparation and approval). The two modules with relevant sub-criteria were then differentiated into attributes (n = 17 in Module 1, n = 12 in Module 2). An individual contributor can be scored for each sub-criterion by summing the related attribute values; the sum of sub-criteria scores constituted the module score (Module 1 score: 70 [contribution to conception or design of the study, 20; data acquisition, 7; data analysis, 27; interpretation of data, 16]; Module 2 score: 50 [content development, 27; content review, 18; accountability, 5]). The concept was integrated into Microsoft Excel with adequate formulae and macros. A threshold of 50% for each sub-criterion and each module, with an overall score of 65%, is predefined as qualifying for authorship. Conclusion: This authorship decision-support tool would be helpful for clinical trial sponsors to assess and provide authorship to deserving contributors.
Recently, ω-transaminases have been increasingly used to synthesize amine compounds by reductive amination of prochiral ketones which are of high pharmacological significance. However, the conventional methods for evaluating these enzymes are time consuming and have often been regarded as a bottle neck in developing these enzymes as industrial biocatalysts. In the past few years,several high throughput screening methods have been developed for fast evaluation and identification of ω-transaminase. This review summarizes the various methodologies developed for rapidly screening ω-transaminases.
Recently (R)-selective v-transaminase ((R)-v-TAMV) from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii was discovered and utilized for the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-amines from its corresponding ketones. In this study, (R)-v-TAMV was used for the kinetic resolution of racemic amines to produce (S)-amines. (R)-v-TAMV showed very low product inhibition by ketone product (acetophenone), which is beneficial for carrying out the kinetic resolution of racemic amines with high concentration. 100 mM racemic amines were successfully resolved into (S)-amines (>99% ee) by (R)-v-TAMV with pyruvate. In addition, the kinetic resolution of a-MBA was successfully carried out by using acetone as an amino acceptor which is cheaper than pyruvate.
<P>In this study, we developed a one-pot one-step deracemization method for the production of various enantiomerically pure amines using two opposite enantioselective ω-TAs. Using this method, various aromatic amines were successfully converted to their (<I>R</I>)-forms (>99%) with good conversion.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>In this study, we developed a one-pot one-step deracemization method for the production of various enantiomerically pure amines using two opposite enantioselective ω-TAs. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c3cc43348j'> </P>