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<P>An energy efficient localization algorithm with high accuracy for the cognitive radio networks (CRNs) is proposed in this letter. The key idea underlying this proposed algorithm is to provide the optimal transmission range for secondary users (SUs) to minimize the power consumption of the overall CRNs. Since energy efficiency is a key factor to consider in designing a node in the CRNs, location information of primary users (PUs) and SUs is valuable to calculate the optimal transmission range so that a spectrally efficient CRN can opportunistically take advantage of the spectrum with no or little interference to the PUs. In addition, the optimal positions of the SUs with known location are determined to improve the final localization accuracy for the whole CRN, which enables the optimal transmission range to be obtained. Thereby, the users in the CRN are localized with minimum energy consumption for a given target root mean square error. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by showing the optimal transmission range for various number of users in the network.</P>
The news and views of Pakistani television channels are extensively shared on digital media for information or analysis where the general public discusses overt and covert agendas by mentioning their factual and presentational style. This study contributes to the contemporary studies of media perception through focus group interviews with 72 randomly selected master's and bachelor's students studying Media and Communication at the School of Media and Communication Studies, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan to provide information about the feelings and observations of future journalists and media literates. In summary, the findings of our research exposed the negative perception of Pakistani electronic media among the participants due to what they perceived as biased, inaccurate, and unethical reporting.
In this study, twenty-one arylaminoquinoxalinone derivatives were synthesized and their antibacterial activities against Staphylococci aureus, Pseudomonas aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella pneumoniae were evaluated relative to known antibiotics; augmentin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol. The insecticidal activities of the prepared compounds were also investigated against Tribolium castaneum using permethrin as a standard insecticide. The derivatives were synthesized using both conventional and microwave techniques. Their structures were confirmed using spectral techniques and elemental analysis.
<P>In cognitive radio networks, secondary users (SUs) can share spectrum with primary users (PUs) under the condition that no interference is caused to the PUs. To evaluate the interference imposed to the PUs, the cognitive systems discussed in the literature usually assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the link from a secondary transmitter to a primary receiver (interference link) is known at the secondary transmitter. However, this assumption may often be impractical in cognitive radio systems, since the PUs need to be oblivious to the presence of the SUs. The authors first discuss PU localisation and then introduce an uplink resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based cognitive radio systems, where relative location information between primary and SUs is used instead of CSI of the interference link to estimate the interference. Numerical and simulation results show that it is indeed effective to use location information as a part of resource allocation and thus a near-optimal capacity is achieved.</P>
Future small satellites require the development of reconfi gurable antennas. Designing such antennas, especially single port patch antennas with circular polarization is a challenging task. Therefore, we propose both right-hand/left-hand circularly polarized (RHCP/LHCP) antenna which can reconfi gure. The proposed antenna follows patch topology with E-shape that is single-layer and single-feed with two RF switches. The switches can alter the polarization in real-time. We also show various properties of the proposed antenna, such as radiation pattern, impedance matching, axial ratio, and bandwidth through simulations and measurements. The proposed model shows excellent performance and agrees well with the measurements. The performance of the antenna shows an eff ective bandwidth of 2.45 GHz–2.82 GHz with a maximum gain of 9.88 dB at 2.55 GHz. The symmetry of the antenna radiation is preserved by switching between the LHCP and RHCP polarization modes.
Zakiullah, Zakiullah,Ahmadullah, Ahmadullah,Khisroon, Muhammad,Saeed, Muhammad,Khan, Ajmal,Khuda, Fazli,Ali, Sajid,Javed, Nabila,Ovais, Muhammad,Masood, Nosheen,Khalil, Nasir Khan,Ismail, Mohammad Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.3
Associations of GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 gene variants with risk of developing oral cancer were evaluated in this study. A case-control study was conducted in Pashtun population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in which 200 hospital based oral cancer cases and 151 population based healthy controls exposed to similar environmental conditions were included. Sociodemographic data were obtained and blood samples were collected with informed consent for analysis. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analysed through conventional PCR method while specific RT-PCR method was used to detect CYP1A1 polymorphisms. Results were analyzed for conditional logistic regression model by SPSS version 20. The study shows that patients with either GSTM1 or GSTT1 null genotypes have significantly higher risk of oral cancer (adjusted odds (OR): (3.019 (1.861-4.898) and 3.011(1.865-4.862), respectively), which further increased when either one or both null genes were present in combination (adjusted odds (OR): (3.627 (1.981-6.642 and 9.261 (4.495-19.079), respectively). CYP1A1 rs4646903 gene variants individually showed weak association OR: 1.121 (0.717-1.752); however, in the presence of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 null genotypes further increasing the association (adjusted odds (ORs): 4.576 (2.038-10.273), 5.593 (2.530-12.362) and 16.10 (3.854-67.260 for GSTM/GSTT null and CYP1A1 wild type, GSTM/GSTT either null and CYP1A1 variant alleles, and all 3 gene polymorphisms combinations, respectively). Our findings suggest that presence of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 null genotypes along with variant alleles of CYP1A1 may be the risk alleles for oral cancer susceptibility in Pashtun population.
Seyed Habib Shojaei,Mostafavi Khodadad,Lak Amirparviz,Omrani Ali,Omrani Saeed,Mousavi Seyed Mohammad Nasir,Illés Árpád,Bojtor Csaba,János Nagy 한국작물학회 2022 Journal of crop science and biotechnology Vol.25 No.3
Genotype×environment interaction is one of the complex issues of breeding programs to produce high-yielding and compatible cultivars. Interaction of genotype×environment and make the more accurate selection, the performance and stability of hybrids need to be considered simultaneously. This study aimed to investigate stable genotypes with yield using 12 maize hybrids in diferent climatic conditions of Iran. The experimental design used was a randomized complete blocks design in three replications in two cropping years in Karaj, Birjand, Shiraz, and Arak stations. The simple analysis of variance performed on grain yield of genotypes indicated that all hybrids studied each year and station were signifcantly diferent in grain yield. Also, the combined analysis results showed a signifcant efect on the environment, the efects of genotype, and the interaction of genotype×environment and t in the studied hybrids diferent. Comparing Duncan's mean on the data obtained from the research, KSC705 genotypes with an average yield of 7.21 and KSC704 genotype with an average yield of 7.04 were identifed as high yield cultivars. In order to identify stable cultivars, six stability parameters were used. KSC260 and KSC707 genotypes had stability Based on the environmental variance, also had stability based KSC705, KSC707 genotype on environmental the coefcient of variation, and KSC260 genotypes had stability based methods of genotype and environment interaction. As well as based on Eberhart and Russell regression coefcient had the stability to KSC400 and SC647 genotypes. Also, they were identifed as the most stable genotypes based on the detection coefcient method, KSC707, and KSC703 genotypes. Genotype × environment interaction is one of the complex issues of breeding programs to produce high-yielding and compatible cultivars. Interaction of genotype × environment and make the more accurate selection, the performance and stability of hybrids need to be considered simultaneously. This study aimed to investigate stable genotypes with yield using 12 maize hybrids in different climatic conditions of Iran. The experimental design used was a randomized complete blocks design in three replications in two cropping years in Karaj, Birjand, Shiraz, and Arak stations. The simple analysis of variance performed on grain yield of genotypes indicated that all hybrids studied each year and station were significantly different in grain yield. Also, the combined analysis results showed a significant effect on the environment, the effects of genotype, and the interaction of genotype × environment and t in the studied hybrids different. Comparing Duncan's mean on the data obtained from the research, KSC705 genotypes with an average yield of 7.21 and KSC704 genotype with an average yield of 7.04 were identified as high yield cultivars. In order to identify stable cultivars, six stability parameters were used. KSC260 and KSC707 genotypes had stability Based on the environmental variance, also had stability based KSC705, KSC707 genotype on environmental the coefficient of variation, and KSC260 genotypes had stability based methods of genotype and environment interaction. As well as based on Eberhart and Russell regression coefficient had the stability to KSC400 and SC647 genotypes. Also, they were identified as the most stable genotypes based on the detection coefficient method, KSC707, and KSC703 genotypes.