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      • 이미수의 辭賦硏究 : 특히 陶淵明 蘇東坡의 歸去來辭와 對比하면서

        徐首生 慶北大學校 1967 論文集 Vol.11 No.-

        A Koryo-Dynasty poet of the 13th century created his literature adopting Sa-Bu(辭賦) which is a genre of Chinese literature. Especially he wrote Wha, Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa(和歸去來辭) in imitation of the Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa of Do, Yeun-Myung(陶淵明) who was a poet of the Chinese Jin(晉) Dynasty. (Wha means the imitation of the rhyme and form in the original copy of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa.) This was the first Korean Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. To make the original Gui-Geu-Rae-Rae-Sa clear, I had a square look into the literature of Do, Yeun-Myung as a pastoral poet and criticized his literature. I also surveyed the characteristics of the poetry of Do, Yeun-Myung with an emphasis on his subjective views of nature and on his abstruse literature motivated form his personal experience and keen insight of nature. Therewith I traced out the kind of Sa's(辭) world Yi(李) had reached under the influence of Do's poetry. It is reported that fire pieces of Yi's Bu have been carried down in Pa-Han-Jib,(破閑集) a compilation of criticism on poetry; however, in Dong-Mun-Seun(東文選) only two pieces are contained. I had a glimpse of the world of Yi's literature after a study directed to the rhetoric, ideas and position of his Sa-Bu. I endeavoured to declare the value of Yi's literal Sa, comparing Yi's Wha, Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa with of So, Dong-Pa(蘇東坡) Whose writing was influenced by Do, Yeun-Myungs original Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. At the same time I exposed the influence of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa on the history of our poetry.

      • 이미수의 辭賦硏究(1)

        徐首生 慶北大學校 師範大學 地理敎育科 1966 敎育硏究誌 Vol.5-6 No.-

        A Korea-Dynasty's poet of the 13th century created his literature adopting Sa-Bu which is a genre of Chinese literature. Especially he wrote Wha, Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa(和歸去來辭) in imitation of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa of Do, Yeun-Myung(陶淵明) who was a poet of Chinese Jin(晋) Dynasty. (Wha means the imitation of the rhyme and form in the original copy of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. ) This was the first Korean Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. To make the original Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa clear, I had a square look into the literature of Do, Yeun-Myung as a pastoral poet and criticized his literature. I also surveyed the characteristics of the poetry of Do, Yeun-Myung with an emphasis on his subjective views of nature and on his abstruse literature motivated from the personal experience and keen insight of nature. Therewith I traced out what kind of Sa's world Yi has reached under the influence of Do's poetry. It is reported that five pieces of Yi's Bu have been carried down in Pa-Han-Jib, (破閑集) a compilation of criticism on poetry; however, in Dong-Mun-Seun(東文選) only two pieces are contained. I had a glimpse of the world of Yi's literature after a study directed to the rhetoric, ideas and position of his Sa-Bu. I endeavoured to declare the value of Yi's Literal Sa, comparing Yi's Wha. Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa with that of So, Dong-Pa (蘇東坡) which was written with the influence of Do, Yeun-Myung's original Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. At the same time I exposed the influence of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa on the history of our poetry.

      • 松江의 前後思美人曲의 硏究 : 特히 屈原의 楚辭와 比較해 가면서 Specially Comparative Reference to Kul-won's(屈原)Tcho-sa(楚辭)

        徐首生 慶北大學校 1962 論文集 Vol.6 No.-

        Among the Korea literary genre, there is a special song just like English ballads, Among the Korean songs, 1st and 2nd series of Song-kang's Sa-mi-in Kog is an eminent masterpiece. I would like to consider it a poetic work under the influence of Tcho-sa the highest peak of the southern Chineses Literature. But I do not mean it as an imitation of Tcho-sa. Therefore, in this essay, I would like to revaluate the intrinsic value of Sa-mi-ni, the representative work of Song-kang compared with Yso·Sa-mi-in and so forth contained in Tcho-sa. In the 1st and 2nd series of Song-kang's Sa-mi-in Song, it has many beautiful lyric refrain with his fidelity to the king under the days of troubles. This work resulted from the conflict of the confucian theory and the romantic ideals. This song completed at fifty three of his age (A.D. 1588), and contains rhyme and alliteration, especially the latter. The alliteration in this song prospered fairly due to the streesaccent of the first syllable of Korean vocalbulary in most cases. And the form of this song consists of dimetre, and of the rhythm of three words plus four. Comparing with Tcho-sa, we may call the 'Sa-mi-in Kog' as an Oriental Yso which is the best lyric song represented the typical Korean character. The beauty in this song refers to Sun-Jo, the King, Song-kang used the method of comparison; that is, the King and his courtiers are not always tied together like man and woman and they are apt to separate by fate or accident in spite of longing each other. Every letter, every word in Sa-mi-in contained his bitter emotion loging for his king.

      • 十二歌詞의 音樂的 特徵

        張師勛 서울대학교 1973 서울대학교 論文集 Vol.18 No.-

        Kasa(歌詞) is a musical form in which a solo singer is accompanied by taeguˇm and changgu. It takes its name (literally, "song words") from the poetic genre to which its texts belong. Of the twelve kasa in the modern repertoire, eight^1 were transmitted to the present generation of singers by Ha Kyuil (1867-1937), and the remaining four^2 by Im Kijun (1868-1940). The author studied kagok, kasa, and shijo under the former between April, 1933 and May, 1937, and kasa and sasoˇ1-chiruˇm-shijo under the latter for approximately four months in 1939, transcribing the music as he learned it. (The sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo transcriptions, which constitute a valuable body of musical data, are here published for the first time.) The transcriptions upon which this study is based, then, were made respectively prior to 1937 and during 1939. As a literary gene, kasa is classified as a "long lyric"(長歌, So, however, are the texts to the twelve chapka(雜歌, literally, "coarse songs") from the Seoul region, which as music differ markedly from kasa. Literary scholars have attempted to define the difference between the two according to whether the syllable count is regular or irregular and the subject mater wholesome or coarse, but since both genres have been handed down as musical forms, it would seem more profitable to attempt a division based on their musical characteristics. In the study, section Ⅱ deals with the authors of the texts and the notations of the music and section Ⅲ with performance practice and the rhythmic structure. The core of the study, however, is to be found in section Ⅳ, which treats the musical characteristics of kasa. This section is subdivided into two parts which examine kasa from the literary and musical points of view. The latter part being the most important, it will be sufficient to summarize the conclusions reached therein. The analysis of musical characteristics was based on the use in each song of falsetto, vibrato, (downward) glissando, and mordent-like ornaments, and on cadential patterns. It has long been part of the authors' research method to analyze the characteristics of the modes and genres of Korean music by examining such features of performance technique. In this case the most significant features appear to be vibrato and glissando. (The type of glissando in question is a specific one: a downward slide which tends to occur only between certain adjacent pitches.) It is not possible to distinguish between music from the court-aristocratic and folk traditions or between the two principal modes-p'yoˇngjo and kemyoˇnjo-on the basis of the use of mordents. But the type of vibrato used can help to determine which tradition a given piece is closer to, and the central tone of a piece is often indicated by which pitches tend to have the most prominent vibrato. The downward slide is in turn quite a reliable indicator of mode, depending on which scale degree tends to slide down to its lower neighbor. Therefore it is very important when determining the mode and other musical characteristics of any branch of Korean music, to examine the type of vibrato and downward slides and the pitches on which they occur. In the case of kasa, mode is difficult to determine because features typical of both modes often occur within a single piece. A piece may exhibit simultaneously p'yoˇngjo-style singing technique and kemyoˇnjo-style melodic progressions, or vice versa. In this modal ambiguity kasa differs from kagok and other court-aristocratic genres, but resembles such folk genres as chapka, kayago sanjo, and p'ansori. Hence, rather than attempting to reach definite conclusions, the author has simply outlined the singing techniques characteristic of each individual song. Ha Kyuil said that he would not sing sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo or the four kasa sung by Im Kijun because they were too lowly. Likewise in former times kisaeng who sang kagok did not sing kasa or shijo. In singing style, kasa and shijo are indeed more lowly than kagok in the sense that they are closer to folk music. The vibrato (on the central tone) of such kasa as Pakku-sa and Hwanggye-sa, as well as that of p'yoˇng-shijo and chiruˇm-shijo, resembles the wide vibrato of the southern provinces. On the other hand, Ch'unmyoˇn-gok, Oˇbu-sa, Chnoˇsa-ga, Yangyang-ga, Suyangsan-ga, Maehwa T'aryoˇng, and Im Kijun's sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo use the violent vibrato (on the note a fourth above the central tone) of the northwestern provinces. The majority of kasa have more features in common with the northwestern than the sourhern folk style, and the same is true of Im Kijun's sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo and also of chapka. To sum up, whereas kagok represents the pure aristocratic style, kasa and Im Kijun's sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo hold a position standing between the music of the folk (particularly of northwestern Korea) and the music of the court and the aristocracy. 1. Paekku-sa(白鷗詞, Song of the Gull), Hwanggye-sa(黃鷄詞, Song of the Yellow Cock), Chukchi-sa(竹枝詞, Song of the Bamboo Branch), Ch'unmyoˇn-gok(春眠曲, Spring Sleep), Oˇbu-sa(漁父詞, Song of the Fisherman), Kil-Kunak(길軍樂, Street Military Music, not to be confused with the processional piece of the same name), Sangsa Pyoˇlgok(想思別曲, Longing for One Another), Kwoˇnju-ga(勸酒歌, Drinking Song). 2. Suyangsan-ga(首陽山歌, Song of Mount Suyang), Ch'oˇsa-ga(處土歌, Song of the Secluded Scholar), Yangyang-ga(襄陽歌, Song of Yangyang), Maehwa T'aryoˇng(梅花打令, Plum Blossom T'aryng).

      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Sa-am acupuncture on Knee Osteoarthritis

        ( Moo Hong Min ),( Yeong Gon Choi ),( Yun Ju Kim ),( Hi Joon Park ),( Sam Chool Lee ),( Ho No Joo ),( Seung Moo Han ),( Sa Bi Na Lim ) 대한경락경혈학회 2009 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.26 No.4

        Objective: Acupuncture has been widely used throughout the world for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (knee OA). This study investigated whether acupuncture, particularly Sa-am acupuncture, could be effective in relieving pain and improving the symptoms of knee OA. Method: This study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, controlled, and patient- and investigator- blinded clinical trial. Forty volunteers with knee OA participated in the study. All participants were screened through an inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty four participants completed the clinical trial. In total, forty subjects were randomly selected to receive Sa-am acupuncture. Eight sessions of acupuncture were given at the contralateral side of the problematic knee for 4 weeks. Korean translation of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (KWOMAC) scores were measured twice: at the beginning and end of the clinical trial period. Both the Patient Global Assessment and physical health scores based on the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were also used to measure the results. Results: Compared to the pre-trial scores, the Sa-am acupuncture group (n=34) showed a significant decrease in KWOMAC total scores according to a paired t -test. The Sa-am acupuncture group also showed significant improvement in the Patient Global Assessment when compared to the pre-trial. Conclusions: Sa-am acupuncture for knee OA resulted in an improved KWOMAC total score. This was mostly driven by the function component score that was greatly affected by acupuncture. However, further studies with expanded designs are needed to solidify this finding with scientific rigor.

      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Sa-am acupuncture on Knee Osteoarthritis

        Min, Moo-Hong,Choi, Yeong-Gon,Kim, Yun-Ju,Park, Hi-Joon,Lee, Sam-Chool,Joo, Ho-No,Han, Seung-Moo,Lim, Sa-Bi-Na Society for Meridian and Acupoint 2009 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.22 No.1

        Objective : Acupuncture has been widely used throughout the world for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (knee OA). This study investigated whether acupuncture, particularly Sa-am acupuncture, could be effective in relieving pain and improving the symptoms of knee OA. Method : This study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, controlled, and patient- and investigator-blinded clinical trial. Forty volunteers with knee OA participated in the study. All participants were screened through an inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty four participants completed the clinical trial. In total, forty subjects were randomly selected to receive Sa-am acupuncture. Eight sessions of acupuncture were given at the contralateral side of the problematic knee for 4 weeks. Korean translation of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (KWOMAC) scores were measured twice: at the beginning and end of the clinical trial period. Both the Patient Global Assessment and physical health scores based on the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were also used to measure the results. Results : Compared to the pre-trial scores, the Sa-am acupuncture group (n=34) showed a significant decrease in KWOMAC total scores according to a paired t-test. The Sa-am acupuncture group also showed significant improvement in the Patient Global Assessment when compared to the pre-trial. Conclusions : Sa-am acupuncture for knee OA resulted in an improved KWOMAC total score. This was mostly driven by the function component score that was greatly affected by acupuncture. However, further studies with expanded designs are needed to solidify this finding with scientific rigor.

      • 돼지난자의 체외성숙과 수정에 있어서 Xanthine-Xanthine Oxidase System의 이용

        Sa,S. J,H. T. Cheong,S. Y. Lee,J. H. Lee,I. S. Ryu,B. K. Yang,C. I. Kim,C. K. Park 한국동물번식학회 2003 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.27 No.1

        본 연구는 xanthine(X)-xanthine oxidase(XO) system하에서 돼지 난자의 체외성숙과 체외수정에 대한 catalase의 영향을 검토하였다. 그 결과 돼지 난포난자가 X 또는 XO하에서 배양되었을 때, 난포난자의 성숙율은 다른 배양시간에도 불구하고 catalase 첨가 유무에 따른 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 그렇지만, X-XO-catalase system하에서 배양한 경우 유의적으로 높은 성숙율을 얻었다(P<0.05). 퇴행난자의 비율은 배양기간이 늘어남에 따라 증가되었으며, 배양 120시간에서는 catalase 첨가시보다 무첨가시에 유의적으로 높았다. 다른 한편으로, 단위발생 난자들이 배양 72시간에 높은 비율로 관찰되었지만, 다양한 배양시간에서 catalase 첨가유무에 따른 차이는 발견되지 않았다. 또 다른 실험에서, 동결-응해된 돼지 정자가 체외수정을 위해 X-XO system으로 처리되었다. 난자투명대에 대한 정자침입율은 none (P<0.05), XO, X+XO하에서 체외수정시 catalase 무첨가시보다 첨가시에 높게 나타났다. 다른 한편으로, 돼지정자가 none, X, XO, X+XO로 처리되었을 때, lipid peroxidation은 catalase 첨가시보다 무첨가시에 높은 비율로 나타났으며, 그 결과 정자침입과 lipid peroxidation에서의 변화가 상반되는 양상을 보였다. 그렇지만, 모든 조건하에서 정자의 sulfhydry (-SH) group의 함량은 catalase 첨가시에 높게 측정되었다. 난자의 투명대에 대한 정자의 접착 정도는 salt-stored 돼지 난자에 대한 정자접착을 통해서 평가되었으며, control group의 경우 X, XO, X+XO group에 비해 높은 정자접착율이 관찰되었다. 그렇지만, catalase 첨가유무에 따른 유의적인 차이는 인정되지 않았다. 본 연구의 결과는 X-XO-catalase system에 대한 난포난자와 정자의 노출이 돼지에서의 체외성숙과 체외수정을 촉진시키는 것으로 생각된다. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of catalase using xanthine (X)-xanthine oxidase (XO) system on in vitro maturation and fertilization in the pig. When follicular oocytes were cultured with X or XO, the maturation rates were not significantly different between in medium with and without catalase despite of different culture periods. However, significantly (P<0.05) higher maturation rates were obtained in culture with X-XO-catalase system. The rates of degenerated oocytes were increased with culture periods prolonged, and were significantly (P<0.05) higher in medium without that than with catalase at 120 h of culture. On the other hand, the parthenogenetic oocytes were observed with high proportions at 72 h of culture, but were not different between the medium with and without catalase at various times of culture. In another experiment, the frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa treated with X-XO system for in vitro fertilization. The penetration rates were higher in medium with that than without catalase during the in vitro fertilization with none (P<0.05), XO and X+XO. On the other hand, when sperm were treated with none, X, XO and X+XO, lipid peroxidation were produced with higher rates in medium without that than with catalase, and consequently the changes in sperm penetration and lipid peroxidation showed opposite patterns. Under the above all conditions, however, sperm-SH group were higher detected by catalase. When the activity of sperm binding to zona pellucida was evaluated through binding to salt-stored porcine oocytes, sperm binding to zona pellucida in control group were higher than in medium with X, XO and X+XO groups. No significant differences, however, were observed between medium with and without catalase. In conclusion, the exposure of follicular oocytes and spermatozoa to X-XO-catalase system may be caused stimulating in vitro maturation and fertilization in the pig.

      • KCI등재후보

        Contribution of Arab countries to pharmaceutical wastewater literature

        Sa’ed H. Zyoud,Shaher H. Zyoud,Samah W. Al-Jabi,Waleed M. Sweileh,Rahmat Awang 대한직업환경의학회 2016 대한직업환경의학회지 Vol.28 No.-

        Background: Recently, the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry has been growing rapidly in many countries in the world, including in Arab countries. Pharmaceuticals reach aquatic environments and are prevalent at small concentrations in wastewater from the drug manufacturing industry and hospitals. Such presence also occurs in domestic wastewater and results from the disposal of unused and expired medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze and compare the quantity and quality of publications made by researchers in Arab countries on pharmaceutical wastewater. Methods: To retrieve documents related to pharmaceutical wastewater, we used the Scopus database on November 21, 2015. All documents with terms related to pharmaceutical wastewater in the title or abstract were analysed. Results obtained from Arab countries were compared with those obtained from Turkey, Iran and Israel. Results: Globally, a total of 6360 publications were retrieved while those from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Israel, were 179, 113, 96 and 54 publications respectively. The highest share of publications belonged to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with a total of 47 (26.2 %) publications, followed by Egypt (38; 21.2 %), Tunisia (17; 9.5 %) and Morocco (16; 8.9 %). The total number of citations was 1635, with a mean of 9.13 and a median (inter quartile range) of 3 (1.0–10.0). The study identified 87 (48.6 %) documents with 32 countries of international collaboration with Arab countries. It was noted that Arab researchers collaborated mainly with authors in Western Europe (54; 30.2 %), followed by authors from the Asiatic region (29; 16.2 %) and Northern America (15; 8.4 %). The most productive institution was King Saud University, KSA (13; 7.3 %), followed by the National Research Centre, Egypt (10; 7.3 %). Conclusions: This study showed that KSA has the largest share of productivity on pharmaceutical wastewater research. Bibliometric analysis demonstrated that research productivity, mainly from Arab countries in pharmaceutical wastewater research, was relatively lagging behind. More research effort is required for Arab countries to catch up with those of non-Arab Middle Easter countries on pharmaceutical wastewater research.

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