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      • 이미수의 辭賦硏究(1)

        徐首生 慶北大學校 師範大學 地理敎育科 1966 敎育硏究誌 Vol.5-6 No.-

        A Korea-Dynasty's poet of the 13th century created his literature adopting Sa-Bu which is a genre of Chinese literature. Especially he wrote Wha, Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa(和歸去來辭) in imitation of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa of Do, Yeun-Myung(陶淵明) who was a poet of Chinese Jin(晋) Dynasty. (Wha means the imitation of the rhyme and form in the original copy of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. ) This was the first Korean Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. To make the original Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa clear, I had a square look into the literature of Do, Yeun-Myung as a pastoral poet and criticized his literature. I also surveyed the characteristics of the poetry of Do, Yeun-Myung with an emphasis on his subjective views of nature and on his abstruse literature motivated from the personal experience and keen insight of nature. Therewith I traced out what kind of Sa's world Yi has reached under the influence of Do's poetry. It is reported that five pieces of Yi's Bu have been carried down in Pa-Han-Jib, (破閑集) a compilation of criticism on poetry; however, in Dong-Mun-Seun(東文選) only two pieces are contained. I had a glimpse of the world of Yi's literature after a study directed to the rhetoric, ideas and position of his Sa-Bu. I endeavoured to declare the value of Yi's Literal Sa, comparing Yi's Wha. Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa with that of So, Dong-Pa (蘇東坡) which was written with the influence of Do, Yeun-Myung's original Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. At the same time I exposed the influence of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa on the history of our poetry.

      • 이미수의 辭賦硏究 : 특히 陶淵明 蘇東坡의 歸去來辭와 對比하면서

        徐首生 慶北大學校 1967 論文集 Vol.11 No.-

        A Koryo-Dynasty poet of the 13th century created his literature adopting Sa-Bu(辭賦) which is a genre of Chinese literature. Especially he wrote Wha, Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa(和歸去來辭) in imitation of the Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa of Do, Yeun-Myung(陶淵明) who was a poet of the Chinese Jin(晉) Dynasty. (Wha means the imitation of the rhyme and form in the original copy of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa.) This was the first Korean Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. To make the original Gui-Geu-Rae-Rae-Sa clear, I had a square look into the literature of Do, Yeun-Myung as a pastoral poet and criticized his literature. I also surveyed the characteristics of the poetry of Do, Yeun-Myung with an emphasis on his subjective views of nature and on his abstruse literature motivated form his personal experience and keen insight of nature. Therewith I traced out the kind of Sa's(辭) world Yi(李) had reached under the influence of Do's poetry. It is reported that fire pieces of Yi's Bu have been carried down in Pa-Han-Jib,(破閑集) a compilation of criticism on poetry; however, in Dong-Mun-Seun(東文選) only two pieces are contained. I had a glimpse of the world of Yi's literature after a study directed to the rhetoric, ideas and position of his Sa-Bu. I endeavoured to declare the value of Yi's literal Sa, comparing Yi's Wha, Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa with of So, Dong-Pa(蘇東坡) Whose writing was influenced by Do, Yeun-Myungs original Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa. At the same time I exposed the influence of Gui-Geu-Rae-Sa on the history of our poetry.

      • 松江의 前後思美人曲의 硏究 : 特히 屈原의 楚辭와 比較해 가면서 Specially Comparative Reference to Kul-won's(屈原)Tcho-sa(楚辭)

        徐首生 慶北大學校 1962 論文集 Vol.6 No.-

        Among the Korea literary genre, there is a special song just like English ballads, Among the Korean songs, 1st and 2nd series of Song-kang's Sa-mi-in Kog is an eminent masterpiece. I would like to consider it a poetic work under the influence of Tcho-sa the highest peak of the southern Chineses Literature. But I do not mean it as an imitation of Tcho-sa. Therefore, in this essay, I would like to revaluate the intrinsic value of Sa-mi-ni, the representative work of Song-kang compared with Yso·Sa-mi-in and so forth contained in Tcho-sa. In the 1st and 2nd series of Song-kang's Sa-mi-in Song, it has many beautiful lyric refrain with his fidelity to the king under the days of troubles. This work resulted from the conflict of the confucian theory and the romantic ideals. This song completed at fifty three of his age (A.D. 1588), and contains rhyme and alliteration, especially the latter. The alliteration in this song prospered fairly due to the streesaccent of the first syllable of Korean vocalbulary in most cases. And the form of this song consists of dimetre, and of the rhythm of three words plus four. Comparing with Tcho-sa, we may call the 'Sa-mi-in Kog' as an Oriental Yso which is the best lyric song represented the typical Korean character. The beauty in this song refers to Sun-Jo, the King, Song-kang used the method of comparison; that is, the King and his courtiers are not always tied together like man and woman and they are apt to separate by fate or accident in spite of longing each other. Every letter, every word in Sa-mi-in contained his bitter emotion loging for his king.

      • 十二歌詞의 音樂的 特徵

        張師勛 서울대학교 1973 서울대학교 論文集 Vol.18 No.-

        Kasa(歌詞) is a musical form in which a solo singer is accompanied by taeguˇm and changgu. It takes its name (literally, "song words") from the poetic genre to which its texts belong. Of the twelve kasa in the modern repertoire, eight^1 were transmitted to the present generation of singers by Ha Kyuil (1867-1937), and the remaining four^2 by Im Kijun (1868-1940). The author studied kagok, kasa, and shijo under the former between April, 1933 and May, 1937, and kasa and sasoˇ1-chiruˇm-shijo under the latter for approximately four months in 1939, transcribing the music as he learned it. (The sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo transcriptions, which constitute a valuable body of musical data, are here published for the first time.) The transcriptions upon which this study is based, then, were made respectively prior to 1937 and during 1939. As a literary gene, kasa is classified as a "long lyric"(長歌, So, however, are the texts to the twelve chapka(雜歌, literally, "coarse songs") from the Seoul region, which as music differ markedly from kasa. Literary scholars have attempted to define the difference between the two according to whether the syllable count is regular or irregular and the subject mater wholesome or coarse, but since both genres have been handed down as musical forms, it would seem more profitable to attempt a division based on their musical characteristics. In the study, section Ⅱ deals with the authors of the texts and the notations of the music and section Ⅲ with performance practice and the rhythmic structure. The core of the study, however, is to be found in section Ⅳ, which treats the musical characteristics of kasa. This section is subdivided into two parts which examine kasa from the literary and musical points of view. The latter part being the most important, it will be sufficient to summarize the conclusions reached therein. The analysis of musical characteristics was based on the use in each song of falsetto, vibrato, (downward) glissando, and mordent-like ornaments, and on cadential patterns. It has long been part of the authors' research method to analyze the characteristics of the modes and genres of Korean music by examining such features of performance technique. In this case the most significant features appear to be vibrato and glissando. (The type of glissando in question is a specific one: a downward slide which tends to occur only between certain adjacent pitches.) It is not possible to distinguish between music from the court-aristocratic and folk traditions or between the two principal modes-p'yoˇngjo and kemyoˇnjo-on the basis of the use of mordents. But the type of vibrato used can help to determine which tradition a given piece is closer to, and the central tone of a piece is often indicated by which pitches tend to have the most prominent vibrato. The downward slide is in turn quite a reliable indicator of mode, depending on which scale degree tends to slide down to its lower neighbor. Therefore it is very important when determining the mode and other musical characteristics of any branch of Korean music, to examine the type of vibrato and downward slides and the pitches on which they occur. In the case of kasa, mode is difficult to determine because features typical of both modes often occur within a single piece. A piece may exhibit simultaneously p'yoˇngjo-style singing technique and kemyoˇnjo-style melodic progressions, or vice versa. In this modal ambiguity kasa differs from kagok and other court-aristocratic genres, but resembles such folk genres as chapka, kayago sanjo, and p'ansori. Hence, rather than attempting to reach definite conclusions, the author has simply outlined the singing techniques characteristic of each individual song. Ha Kyuil said that he would not sing sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo or the four kasa sung by Im Kijun because they were too lowly. Likewise in former times kisaeng who sang kagok did not sing kasa or shijo. In singing style, kasa and shijo are indeed more lowly than kagok in the sense that they are closer to folk music. The vibrato (on the central tone) of such kasa as Pakku-sa and Hwanggye-sa, as well as that of p'yoˇng-shijo and chiruˇm-shijo, resembles the wide vibrato of the southern provinces. On the other hand, Ch'unmyoˇn-gok, Oˇbu-sa, Chnoˇsa-ga, Yangyang-ga, Suyangsan-ga, Maehwa T'aryoˇng, and Im Kijun's sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo use the violent vibrato (on the note a fourth above the central tone) of the northwestern provinces. The majority of kasa have more features in common with the northwestern than the sourhern folk style, and the same is true of Im Kijun's sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo and also of chapka. To sum up, whereas kagok represents the pure aristocratic style, kasa and Im Kijun's sasoˇl-chiruˇm-shijo hold a position standing between the music of the folk (particularly of northwestern Korea) and the music of the court and the aristocracy. 1. Paekku-sa(白鷗詞, Song of the Gull), Hwanggye-sa(黃鷄詞, Song of the Yellow Cock), Chukchi-sa(竹枝詞, Song of the Bamboo Branch), Ch'unmyoˇn-gok(春眠曲, Spring Sleep), Oˇbu-sa(漁父詞, Song of the Fisherman), Kil-Kunak(길軍樂, Street Military Music, not to be confused with the processional piece of the same name), Sangsa Pyoˇlgok(想思別曲, Longing for One Another), Kwoˇnju-ga(勸酒歌, Drinking Song). 2. Suyangsan-ga(首陽山歌, Song of Mount Suyang), Ch'oˇsa-ga(處土歌, Song of the Secluded Scholar), Yangyang-ga(襄陽歌, Song of Yangyang), Maehwa T'aryoˇng(梅花打令, Plum Blossom T'aryng).

      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Sa-am acupuncture on Knee Osteoarthritis

        ( Moo Hong Min ), ( Yeong Gon Choi ), ( Yun Ju Kim ), ( Hi Joon Park ), ( Sam Chool Lee ), ( Ho No Joo ), ( Seung Moo Han ), ( Sa Bi Na Lim ) 대한경락경혈학회 2009 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.26 No.4

        Objective: Acupuncture has been widely used throughout the world for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (knee OA). This study investigated whether acupuncture, particularly Sa-am acupuncture, could be effective in relieving pain and improving the symptoms of knee OA. Method: This study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, controlled, and patient- and investigator- blinded clinical trial. Forty volunteers with knee OA participated in the study. All participants were screened through an inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty four participants completed the clinical trial. In total, forty subjects were randomly selected to receive Sa-am acupuncture. Eight sessions of acupuncture were given at the contralateral side of the problematic knee for 4 weeks. Korean translation of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (KWOMAC) scores were measured twice: at the beginning and end of the clinical trial period. Both the Patient Global Assessment and physical health scores based on the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were also used to measure the results. Results: Compared to the pre-trial scores, the Sa-am acupuncture group (n=34) showed a significant decrease in KWOMAC total scores according to a paired t -test. The Sa-am acupuncture group also showed significant improvement in the Patient Global Assessment when compared to the pre-trial. Conclusions: Sa-am acupuncture for knee OA resulted in an improved KWOMAC total score. This was mostly driven by the function component score that was greatly affected by acupuncture. However, further studies with expanded designs are needed to solidify this finding with scientific rigor.

      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Sa-am acupuncture on Knee Osteoarthritis

        Min,,Moo-Hong,Choi,,Yeong-Gon,Kim,,Yun-Ju,Park,,Hi-Joon,Lee,,Sam-Chool,Joo,,Ho-No,Han,,Seung-Moo,Lim,,Sa-Bi-Na Society for Meridian and Acupoint 2009 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.22 No.1

        Objective : Acupuncture has been widely used throughout the world for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (knee OA). This study investigated whether acupuncture, particularly Sa-am acupuncture, could be effective in relieving pain and improving the symptoms of knee OA. Method : This study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, controlled, and patient- and investigator-blinded clinical trial. Forty volunteers with knee OA participated in the study. All participants were screened through an inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty four participants completed the clinical trial. In total, forty subjects were randomly selected to receive Sa-am acupuncture. Eight sessions of acupuncture were given at the contralateral side of the problematic knee for 4 weeks. Korean translation of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (KWOMAC) scores were measured twice: at the beginning and end of the clinical trial period. Both the Patient Global Assessment and physical health scores based on the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were also used to measure the results. Results : Compared to the pre-trial scores, the Sa-am acupuncture group (n=34) showed a significant decrease in KWOMAC total scores according to a paired t-test. The Sa-am acupuncture group also showed significant improvement in the Patient Global Assessment when compared to the pre-trial. Conclusions : Sa-am acupuncture for knee OA resulted in an improved KWOMAC total score. This was mostly driven by the function component score that was greatly affected by acupuncture. However, further studies with expanded designs are needed to solidify this finding with scientific rigor.

      • 死六臣의 思想과 文學 硏究

        徐首生,金文基 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1979 東洋文化硏究 Vol.6 No.-

        Sa Yuk Sin (six great sacrificed loyalists) are a incarnation of loyalty, because they censured immorality of King Se-Jo(世祖) who fled his nephew, King Dan-jong(端宗), and fought for King Dan-Jong's reinstatement. As Baekchon(白村) Kim Mun-Ki(金文起), a great loyalist, was also loyal to his principle and died for his Lord's reinstatement, we must adore him as loyal as Sa Yuk Sin. And so, we may call them Sa Chil Sin(死七臣) (seven great sacrifced loyalists). The characteristics of Sa Chil Sin's thoughts and their literary works are summarized as following. (1) They practiced the principle of loyalty itself, for they died to correct immorality and unjustice. (2) They made effort actively to establish the moral society on the basis of In(仁), the oriental humanism, and the equality of all the people. (3) They sacrificed themselves to preserve their integrity and wished for the peace of their nation than their welfare. (4) The spirits of their loyalty is eminently expressed on their chinese poetry and Sijo(時調). (5) They expressed their minds chiefly with four-to-eight line verses of chinese poetry, especially Sung Sam-Mun and Lee Gae wrote well with Jeolgu(絶句, chinese quatrain), and Park Paeng-Nyeon wrote well with Yulsi(律詩). (6) The subjects of Sijo(時調) written by them are mostly loyalty. And they symbolized the ideas of loyalty by comparative poetic dictions.

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        사재동(史在東) 소장(所藏) 필사본(筆寫本) 한국고전소설(韓國古典小說)의 현황(現況)과 자료적(資料的) 가치(價値)

        사재동 ( Jae Dong Sa ) 택민국학연구원 2014 국학연구론총 Vol.0 No.14

        이 논문에서는 사재동 소장 필사본 소설의 전통적 지역성과 그 유통범위를 추적하였다. 경산문고의 필사본은 국문소설이 필사·유전된 이래, 면면한 전통을 이어 대전·충남 중심의 기호지방에서 생성·정착됨으로써, 그 시대를 통관하고 이 지역을 망라하여 각계 각층에 유통되었다. 따라서 경산문고 필사본의 유통범위가 그 분포도에 근거하고 입체적인 분포망을 따라서 확실하게 부각되었다. 이 논문에서는 경산문고의 이본적 현황과 자료적 가치를 검토하였다. 단독 이본은 400책의 22% 정도인데 그 중 「김용주전」이나 「갑진녹」·「왕조열전」·「쇼듕화역□셜」·「소강절실긔」·「셔부인젼」·「쳥암녹」·「쳥월당영화록」 등 10여개 작품들은 미발표 자료로 가치가 높다. 이들 필사본은 그 유통과정에서 강독과 강담, 강창과 가창의 방편을 타고 민간 대중에 연행되면서, 시간과 공간을 아우르는 유통망을 형성하고 이끌어 옴으로써, 다른 장르와 관련하여 국문학유통사상에서 큰 역할을 수행하여 왔던 것이다. 이 논문에서는 또한 경산문고의 문화사적 위상을 파악하였다. 먼저 경산문고의 필사본은 생성·유통의 역사적 도정에서 국문소설사 그 자체의 역할을 감당하여 왔다. 더구나 이 필사본의 여러 이본들이 위와 같은 유통의 방편으로 연행·교접하는 가운데 희곡장르나 시가장르 내지 평론장르를 생산함으로써, 당시의 국문희곡사나 국문시가사·국문평론사와 합류되었으니, 그 국문학사상의 위상이 높이 평가될 수밖에 없다. 나아가 경산문고의 필사본은 다양한 기술·표현 가운데 그 시대에 상응하는 문어체와 구어체의 음운·어휘·어법, 그리고 방언 등을 통하여 그 시대의 국어사를 정립·체계화할 수가 있고, 그 국자·국문장을 통하여 훈민정음 교습·보급의 교과서적 원전으로서 국자·국문보급사 내지 국문문장사를 계통적으로 파악하는 데에 필수적 원전 자료가 되었다. 또한 경산문고는 그 시대의 민간·대중에 유전·보급된 국문문헌으로서 보편적인 전형성과 지역·계층적인 특이성을 다양하게 갖추었기에, 그 문헌사를 고찰·정리하는 데에 중요한 원전·자료가 된다. 겸하여 경산문고는 다양·다기한 국문필체를 구비하였기에, 그 시대 국문필체사를 체계화하는 데에더 직접적인 원전·자료가 된다. 이와 같이 경산문고는 고전소설·국문학의 연구 원전으로서 자료적 가치가 높을 뿐만 아니라, 국문소설유통사 내지 국문학유통사의 체계화에 필수되는 그 원전이라고 본다. 전국에 유전되는 모든 필사본의 이본을 총체적으로 집성해 본다면 그것이야말로 값진 민족문화유산으로 높이 평가될 보전이라고 하겠다. 따라서 유일본은 국가의 문화재로, 희귀본도 국가문화의 문화재로, 기타 필사본은 국민문화유산으로 영구 보존 관리되어야 할 것이다. This paper examines five hundred fictional stories of hand-writing edition in the Sa Jae-dong collection of premodern fiction and provides an index to this collection. First of all, this study traces sources of fictional stories, which help us understand the reception and circulation of traditional fiction, and locates that most stories appearing in the collection are from Giho province. Second, this study addresses the significance of the collection as a precious cultural asset of Korean tradition. The stories have potentials to be made into various forms of media and art such as new story-telling, film, drama, animation, and also they can be used in visual media. Third, it is necessary to make this collection more available to the modern readers. Since most texts exist in a form of hand-written manuscripts, it is also important to translate these texts into modern Korean. In terms of preservation and circulation of premodern source, I suggest that we should discover and collect premodern fiction at a place and also secure a space for reading the collected works in order to make the stories readable and accessible not only for scholars but also for the younger generations.

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