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      • Diagnostic usefulness of a T cell-based assay for latent tuberculosis infection in kidney transplant candidates before transplantation

        Kim, S.-H.,Lee, S.-O.,Park, I.-A.,Park, S.J.,Choi, S.-H.,Kim, Y.S.,Woo, J.H.,Park, S.-K.,Park, J.S.,Kim, S.C.,Han, D.J. Blackwell Publishing Inc 2010 Transplant infectious disease Vol.12 No.2

        <P>S.-H. Kim, S.-O. Lee, I.-A. Park, S.J. Park, S.-H. Choi, Y.S. Kim, J.H. Woo, S.-K. Park, J.S. Park, S.C. Kim, D.J. Han. Diagnostic usefulness of a T cell-based assay for latent tuberculosis infection in kidney transplant candidates before transplantation.Transpl Infect Dis 2010: <B>12:</B> 113–119. All rights reserved</P><P>Background</P><P>The presence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) should be evaluated before kidney transplantation. Although a new T cell-based assay for diagnosing LTBI gave promising results, this assay has not yet been compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing LTBI in renal transplant candidates before transplantation.</P><P>Patients and methods</P><P>All adult patients admitted to a single institute for renal transplantation over a 1-year period were prospectively enrolled. A clinically predictive risk of LTBI was defined as: (i) recent close contact with a person with pulmonary TB; (ii) abnormal chest radiography; (iii) a history of untreated or inadequately treated TB; or (iv) a new infection (i.e., a recent conversion of TST).</P><P>Results</P><P>Of 209 renal recipients, 47 (22%) had a positive TST≥5 mm, 21 (10%) had a positive TST≥10 mm, 65 (30%) had a positive T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test, and 25 (12%) had an indeterminate T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test. The induration size of TST was significantly associated with a high positivity rate on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> (<I>P</I><0.001). Agreement between T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test and TST≥10 mm was fair (<I>k</I>=0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.36). However, neither univariate nor multivariate analysis showed any association between the clinical risk for LTBI and positivity on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> or TST.</P><P>Conclusion</P><P>T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test was more frequently positive than TST in renal transplant candidates. However, further longitudinal studies are awaited to determine whether the ability of T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> assay to detect LTBI in renal transplant recipients can better predict the development of TB than can TST after transplantation.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        S6K1 Phosphorylation of H2B Mediates EZH2 Trimethylation of H3: A Determinant of Early Adipogenesis

        Yi, S.,Um, S.,Lee, J.,Yoo, J.,Bang, S.,Park, E.,Lee, M.,Nam, K.,Jeon, Y.,Park, J.,You, J.,Lee, S.J.,Bae, G.U.,Rhie, J.,Kozma, Sara C.,Thomas, G.,Han, J.W. Cell Press 2016 Molecular cell Vol.62 No.3

        S6K1 has been implicated in a number of key metabolic responses, which contribute to obesity. Critical among these is the control of a transcriptional program required for the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocytic lineage. However, in contrast to its role in the cytosol, the functions and targets of nuclear S6K1 are unknown. Here, we show that adipogenic stimuli trigger nuclear translocation of S6K1, leading to H2BS36 phosphorylation and recruitment of EZH2 to H3, which mediates H3K27 trimethylation. This blocks Wnt gene expression, inducing the upregulation of PPARγ and Cebpa and driving increased adipogenesis. Consistent with this finding, white adipose tissue from S6K1-deficient mice exhibits no detectable H2BS36 phosphorylation or H3K27 trimethylation, whereas both responses are highly elevated in obese humans or in mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings define an S6K1-dependent mechanism in early adipogenesis, contributing to the promotion of obesity.

      • Syntheses, crystal structures, circular dichroism, and magnetic properties of chiral dinuclear and polymeric nickel(II) compounds

        Shin, J.W.,Son, H.J.,Kim, S.K.,Min, K.S. Pergamon Press 2013 Polyhedron Vol.52 No.-

        Chiral dinuclear nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(L<SUP>R,R</SUP>)(C<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>4</SUB>)Ni(L<SUP>R,R</SUP>)](ClO<SUB>4</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB>.4CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN (3) and [Ni(L<SUP>S,S</SUP>)(C<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>4</SUB>)Ni(L<SUP>S,S</SUP>)](ClO<SUB>4</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB>.4CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN (4) and chiral polymeric compounds, [Ni(L<SUP>R,R</SUP>)(CrO<SUB>4</SUB>)]<SUB>n</SUB>.2H<SUB>2</SUB>O.CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN (5) and [Ni(L<SUP>S,S</SUP>)(CrO<SUB>4</SUB>)]<SUB>n</SUB>.2H<SUB>2</SUB>O.CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN (6) have been synthesized and characterized (L<SUP>R,R/S,S</SUP>=1,8-di((R/S)-α-methylbenzyl)-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane). These chiral compounds were characterized by X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism, and molecular magnetism. The nickel(II) ions in 3 and 4 have a distorted octahedral geometry by coordination with four nitrogens of a macrocyclic ligand with chiral pendents in a folded conformation and two oxygens of an oxalate ion in the cis positions. The nickel(II) ions in 5 and 6 have a distorted octahedral geometry by coordination with four nitrogens of a macrocyclic ligand in a planar conformation and two oxygens of two chromate ions in the axial positions. Complexes 3 and 4 show strong antiferromagnetic interactions [3: g=2.36, J/k<SUB>B</SUB>=-29.9K (-20.8cm<SUP>-1</SUP>); 4: g=2.18, J/k<SUB>B</SUB>=-25.5K (-17.7cm<SUP>-1</SUP>)], while 5 and 6 exhibit weak antiferromagnetic couplings [5: g=2.25, J/k<SUB>B</SUB>=-1.20K (-0.83cm<SUP>-1</SUP>); 6: g=2.25, J/k<SUB>B</SUB>=-0.68K (-0.47cm<SUP>-1</SUP>)]. The former complexes occur strong antiferromagnetic interactions via the oxalato bridges within the nickel(II) dimers, the latter compounds are weak antiferromagnetic interactions through the chromate ions within the 1D polymers. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of 3 has exhibited two negative peaks at 336 and 533nm, and that of 4 has displayed an enantiomeric pattern. The CD spectrum of 5 has appeared a negative absorption above ca. 550nm, while that of 6 has shown an enantiomeric pattern in the same wavelength region.

      • Sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced Flk-1 transactivation stimulates mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation through S1P<sub>1</sub>/S1P<sub>3</sub>-dependent β-arrestin/c-Src pathways

        Ryu, J.M.,Baek, Y.B.,Shin, M.S.,Park, J.H.,Park, S.H.,Lee, J.H.,Han, H.J. Elsevier 2014 Stem cell research Vol.12 No.1

        Although recent findings showed that the bioactive lipid metabolites can regulate the ES cell functions, the physiological relevance of interaction between sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and Flk-1 and its related signaling molecules are not yet clear in ES cell proliferation. In the present study, S1P<SUB>1-5</SUB> receptors were expressed in mouse ES cells and S1P increased S1P<SUB>1-3</SUB> receptor expression level. S1P treatment stimulated the cellular proliferation in S1P<SUB>1/3</SUB>-dependent manner, located in lipid rafts. In response to S1P, β-arrestin was recruited to S1P<SUB>1/3</SUB> receptor and c-Src was activated. S1P also increased the binding of S1P<SUB>1/3</SUB> receptor with Flk-1. Similar to responses for VEGF, S1P increased Flk-1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by β-arrestin siRNA, and PP2, but not by VEGF-A<SUB>164</SUB> antibody or VEGF siRNA. In addition, S1P induced VEGF expression and VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor (SU1498) blocked the S1P-induced cellular proliferation. However, VEGF-A<SUB>164</SUB> antibody or VEGF siRNA partially blocked S1P-induced cellular proliferation, suggesting that both VEGF-dependent Flk-1 activation and VEGF-independent Flk-1 activation are involved in S1P-induced ES cell proliferation. S1P and VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK were blocked by pretreatment with SU1498. Moreover, inhibition of ERK and JNK blocked S1P-induced cellular proliferation. In conclusion, S1P-elicited transactivation of Flk-1 mediated by S1P<SUB>1/3</SUB>-dependent β-arrestin/c-Src pathways stimulated mouse ES cell proliferation.

      • Search for light tetraquark states in ϒ(1S) and ϒ(2S) decays

        Jia, S.,Shen, C. P.,Yuan, C. Z.,Adachi, I.,Ahn, J. K.,Aihara, H.,Al Said, S.,Asner, D. M.,Atmacan, H.,Aushev, T.,Ayad, R.,Babu, V.,Badhrees, I.,Bahinipati, S.,Bakich, A. M.,Bansal, V.,Behera, P.,Berge American Physical Society 2017 Physical review. D Vol.96 No.11

        <P>We search for the J(PC) = 0(--) and 1(+-) light tetraquark states with masses up to 2.46 GeV/c(2) in gamma(1S) and gamma(2S) decays with data samples of (102 +/- 2) million and (158 +/- 4) million events, respectively, collected with the Belle detector. No significant signals are observed in any of the studied production modes, and 90% credibility level (C. L.) upper limits on their branching fractions in Upsilon(1S) and Upsilon(2S) decays are obtained. The inclusive branching fractions of the Upsilon(1S) and Upsilon(2S) decays into final states with f(1)(1285) are measured to be B(Upsilon(1S) -> f(1)(1285) + anything) = (46 +/- 28(stat) +/- 13(syst)) x 10(-4) and B(Upsilon(2S) -> f(1)(1285) + anything) = (22 +/- 15(stat) +/- 6.3(syst)) x 10(-4). The measured chi(b2) -> J/Psi + anything branching fraction is measured to be (1.50 +/- 0.34(stat) +/- 0.22(syst)) x 10(-3), and 90% C. L. upper limits for the chi(b0;b1) -> J/Psi + anything branching fractions are found to be 2.3 x 10(-3) and 1.1 x 10(-3), respectively. For B(chi(b1) -> omega + anything), the branching fraction is measured to be (4.9 +/- 1.3(stat) +/- 0.6(syst) x 10(-2). All results reported here are the first measurements for these modes.</P>

      • Strategy for enhancing the solar-driven water splitting performance of TiO<sub>2</sub> nanorod arrays with thin Zn(O,S) passivated layer by atomic layer deposition

        Shin, S.W.,Suryawanshi, M.P.,Hong, H.K.,Yun, G.,Lim, D.,Heo, J.,Kang, S.H.,Kim, J.H. Pergamon Press 2016 ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA Vol.219 No.-

        An array of one dimensional (1D) TiO<SUB>2</SUB> nanorods (TONRs) has been regarded as an attractive candidate for electrochemical energy conversion and as storage device due to its large surface area, effiective light scattering, and undisturbed charge transport pathway. However, the high defect/trap densities on surface of the nanostructured morphology and architecture may generally hinder the performance enhancement by providing electron-hole recombination sites. Hence, the surface passivation of nanoarchitectures based photoelectrodes has recently received much attention as an effective strategy to enhance the charge-separation and charge-transfer processes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices. In particular, a coating layer with narrowing band gap materials can promote enhanced light harvesting in the UV-vis region as well as surface passivation, directly supplying a driving force for charge separation and charge transfer due to band alignment. In this paper, the surface of TONRs were passivated by 10 and 30nm thick Zn(O,S) layers with a relatively narrow band gap using an atomic layer deposition technique to modulate the thickness exactly. The 10nm Zn(O,S)/TONR array exhibits a significantly enhanced photocurrent density (J<SUB>sc</SUB>) of 5.94mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 1.23eV vs NHE and an incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 49% at 374nm compared with that of TONR arrays (J<SUB>sc</SUB> of 1.99mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 1.23eV vs NHE and an IPCE of 20% at 380nm). However, the PEC performance is worse in the 30nm Zn(O,S)/TONR arrays, showing a J<SUB>sc</SUB> of 3.09mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 1.23eV vs NHE and an IPCE of 29% at 374nm. To clearly demonstrate these PEC behaviors, the TONR and Zn(O,S)/TONR arrays were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit voltage decay (OCV) measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The above mentioned characterizations indicate that the enhanced PEC performance of the 10nm Zn(O,S)/TONR array resulted from the (i) increased light harvesting in the UV-vis region, (ii) lower charge transfer resistance and (iii) high value of valence band offset (VBO, -1.44eV) and conduction band offset (CBO, -1.2eV) than those of the TONR. However, the deterioration of J<SUB>sc</SUB> in the 30nm Zn(O,S)/TONR array is attributed to the negative value of VBO (-0.13eV) and positive value of CBO (+0.27eV), as well as the higher charge transfer resistance to the electrolyte than that of the TONR arrays, despite of the improved light absorption in the visible region. The photocurrent densities of 10nm Zn(O,S)/TONR and 30nm Zn(O,S)/TONR photocathodes decay to 4.718mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> (5.90mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 0min) and 2.212mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> (3.03mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 0min) after 90min, respectively, they retain of about~80% and 70% of its original values. These experimental results and discussions not only provide the physical insights into the surface passivation effect and band alignment but also can open a promising route to design the thin passivation layer having the narrowing band gap energy (1.0eV~2.5eV) on the 1D TiO<SUB>2</SUB> nanostructure for further enhanced performance and realization of a TiO<SUB>2</SUB> based PEC system.

      • Enumerating typical abelian prime-fold coverings of a circulant graph

        Feng, R.,Kwak, J.H.,Kwon, Y.S. North-Holland Pub. Co ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2009 Discrete mathematics Vol.309 No.8

        Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph coverings is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory (see [R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, J. Kim, J. Lee, Isomorphism classes of concrete graph coverings, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 11 (1998) 265-272; R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Typical circulant double coverings of a circulant graph, Discrete Math. 277 (2004) 73-85; R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Y.S. Kwon, Enumerating typical circulant covering projections onto a circulant graph, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 19 (2005) 196-207; SIAM J. Discrete Math. 21 (2007) 548-550 (erratum); M. Hofmeister, Graph covering projections arising from finite vector spaces over finite fields, Discrete Math. 143 (1995) 87-97; M. Hofmeister, Enumeration of concrete regular covering projections, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 8 (1995) 51-61; M. Hofmeister, A note on counting connected graph covering projections, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 11 (1998) 286-292; J.H. Kwak, J. Chun, J. Lee, Enumeration of regular graph coverings having finite abelian covering transformation groups, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 11 (1998) 273-285; J.H. Kwak, J. Lee, Isomorphism classes of graph bundles, Canad. J. Math. XLII (1990) 747-761]). A covering is called abelian (or circulant, respectively) if its covering graph is a Cayley graph on an abelian (or a cyclic, respectively) group. A covering p from a Cayley graph Cay(A,X) onto another Cay (Q,Y) is called typical if the map p:A->Q on the vertex sets is a group epimorphism. Recently, the isomorphism classes of connected typical circulant r-fold coverings of a circulant graph are enumerated in [R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Typical circulant double coverings of a circulant graph, Discrete Math. 277 (2004) 73-85] for r=2 and in [R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Y.S. Kwon, Enumerating typical circulant covering projections onto a circulant graph, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 19 (2005) 196-207; SIAM J. Discrete Math. 21 (2007) 548-550 (erratum)] for any r. As a continuation of these works, we enumerate in this paper the isomorphism classes of typical abelian prime-fold coverings of a circulant graph.

      • KCI등재

        한국잔디 수집계통들 중에서 우수계통들의 생육특성 비교

        임용우(Y. W. Rim),김기용(K. Y. Kim),김맹중(M. J. Kim),성병렬(B. R. Sung),임영철(Y. C. Lim),정의수(E. S. Chung),신홍균(H. K. Shin),김용선(Y. S. Kim) 한국잡초학회·한국잔디학회 2003 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.17 No.2,3

        2001년 수집된 한국잔디 133계통들 중에서 우수한 계통들을 선발하기위하여 밀도(품질),<br/> 피복성, 녹색기간, 내병성, 출수유무(종자수) 등의 주요특성과 그 외 생육특성들이 조사되었다. 생육특성이 우수한 6계통이 선발되었으며 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다.<br/> 수집된 133계통들 중에서 가장 녹색기간이긴 계통은 J01067으로 11월초까지 녹색도를 유지하였다. J01106 및 J01129 계통들은 엽폭이 각각 1.5mm 및 2mm 정도로 매우 좁으며, 밀도가 높고, 피복성도 좋은 것으로 나타났으며, 내병성도 강하였다. J01122 계통은 들잔디 계통들 중에서 유일하게 내병성이 강한 계통으로 선발되었다. J01128 계통은 엽폭이 3.2mm로 중엽에 속하였으며, 대비품종인 Sunburst 와 비슷하였다. 이 계통의 경우도J01106, J01129 계통들과 마찬가지로 밀도가 높고 내병성이 강한 것으로 나타났다.<br/> 수집된 133계통들의 형태적 분류를 위하여 5가지의 생육특성을 사용하여 크게 세가지 군집<br/> 으로 분류하였으며, 그 중에서 대비품종으로 사용된 6품종들과 선발된 우수 6계통의 분류는<br/> 다음과 같다. 제 1군집에 속하는 품종 및 계통은 Belare, Meyer, 안양중지(Anyang-jungji), J01067, J01112 등이 포함되었으며, 제 2군집으로는 S-94, J01105가 포함되었고, 제 3군집에는 Sunburst, 건희(Konhee), J01106, J01128, J01129 등이 포함되었다. Growth characteristics such as density(quality), covering speed, green period, disease resistance, heading existence(number of seeds) and other characteristics were examined for selection of superior lines among the 133 zoysiagrass lines collected in 2001. Six superior lines were selected and the results were summarized as follows.<br/> Superior line, J01067 was longest for green period among the 133 zoysiagrasses and stayed green until the beginning of November. Leaf width of J01106 and J01129 lines was very narrow as 1.5㎜ and 2㎜, respectively and superior for density(quality), covering speed and disease resistance. J01122 line was selected for strongest disease resistance among the lines of Zoysia japonica. Leaf width of J01128 was 3.2㎜ showing midium type and similar to standard cultivar, Sunburst. This line also showed higher density and strong disease resistance like J01106 and J01129.<br/> Five growth characteristics for morphological classification of 133 zoysiagrass lines<br/> was used and divided into 3 cluster groups. Of 133 lines, 6 standard cultivars and 6 superior lines were classified as follows. First cluster group contained Belare, Meyer, Anyang-jungji, J01067, J01122, and second group contained S-94 and J01105, and third group contained Sunburst, Konhee, J01106, J01128 and J01129.<br/> <br/>

      • KCI등재

        세관 양광주 방전에서 플라즈마 확산의 완전 해

        김동준,정종문,김정현,황하청,정재윤,조윤희,임현교,구제환,최은하,조광섭,Jin, D.J.,Jeong, J.M.,Kim, J.H.,Hwang, H.C.,Chung, J.Y.,Cho, Y.H.,Lim, H.K.,Koo, J.H.,Choi, E.H.,Cho, G.S. 한국진공학회 2010 Applied Science and Convergence Technology Vol.19 No.1

        관경이 수 mm인 세관 램프 내부에서 플라즈마의 확산을 조사하기 위하여 이극성(ambipolar) 확산방정식을 해하였다. 반경 방향의 확산에 의한 유리관 벽에서의 플라즈마 소멸 특성시간은 $\tau_r\;=\;(r_0/2.4)^2/D_a$로 주어진다. 반경 $r_0{\sim}1\;mm$이고 이극성 확산계수 $D_a{\sim}0.01\;m^2/s$ 이면, $\tau_r{\sim}17\;{\mu}s$이다. 이는 램프의 교류전원 구동에서 플라즈마를 유지하기 위한 구동 최소 주파수 ~30 kHz에 해당한다. 고전압이 인가되는 전극부에 발생한 고밀도의 플라즈마가 양광주로 확산되는 특성시간은 $\tau_z{\sim}0.1\;s$이다. 고밀도 플라즈마 경계에서의 시간에 대한 확산속도는 $t{\sim}10^{-6}\;s$일 때 $u_D{\sim}10^2\;m/s$이고, $t{\sim}10^{-3}\;s$이면 그 속도는 $u_D{\sim}1\;m/s$로 느려진다. 따라서 램프 길이 ~1 m에 대하여 전극부에서 생성된 고밀도 플라즈마가 양광주 전체로 확산되는 시간은 수 초가 걸린다. The ambipolar diffusion equation has been solved in a fine-tube lamp of a few mm in diameter. In the diffusion of radial direction, the plasma diffuses and vanishes away at the glass wall by recombination with the characteristic time of plasma loss is given by $\tau_r\;=\;(r_0/2.4)^2/D_a$. With the radius $r_0{\sim}1\;mm$ and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient $D_a{\sim}0.01\;m^2/s$, the vanishing time is calculated $\tau_r{\sim}10\;{\mu}s$ which corresponds to the least value of frequency 30 kHz for the sustaining the plasma in the operation of high voltage AC-power. In the diffusion of longitudinal z-direction, a high density plasma generated at the area of a high voltage electrode, diffuses into the positive column with the characteristic time $\tau_z{\sim}0.1\;s$. The plasma diffusion velocity at the boundary of high density plasma is $u_D{\sim}10^2\;m/s$ at the time $t{\sim}10^{-6}$ s and the diffusion velocity becomes slow as $u_D{\sim}1\;m/s$ at $t{\sim}10^{-3}\;s$. Therefore, for the long lamp of 1 m, it takes about several seconds for the high density plasma at the area of electrode to diffuse through the whole positive column space.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        <i>S100A9</i> and <i>EGFR</i> gene signatures predict disease progression in muscle invasive bladder cancer patients after chemotherapy

        Kim, W. T.,Kim, J.,Yan, C.,Jeong, P.,Choi, S. Y.,Lee, O. J.,Chae, Y. B.,Yun, S. J.,Lee, S. C.,Kim, W. J. Oxford University Press 2014 ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Vol.25 No.5

        <P>In our previous gene expression profile analysis, IL1B, S100A8, S100A9, and EGFR were shown to be important mediators of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of these gene signatures to predict disease progression after chemotherapy in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic MIBC. Patients with locally advanced MIBC who received chemotherapy were enrolled. The expression signatures of four genes were measured and carried out further functional analysis to confirm our findings. Two of the four genes, S100A9 and EGFR, were determined to significantly influence disease progression (P = 0.023, 0.045, respectively). Based on a receiver operating characteristic curve, a cut-off value for disease progression was determined. Patients with the good-prognostic signature group had a significantly longer time to progression and cancer-specific survival time than those with the poor-prognostic signature group (P < 0.001, 0.042, respectively). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, gene signature was the only factor that significantly influenced disease progression [hazard ratio: 4.726, confidence interval: 1.623-13.763, P = 0.004]. In immunohistochemical analysis, S100A9 and EGFR positivity were associated with disease progression after chemotherapy. Protein expression of S100A9/EGFR showed modest correlation with gene expression of S100A9/EGFR (r = 0.395, P = 0.014 and r = 0.453, P = 0.004). Our functional analysis provided the evidence demonstrating that expression of S100A9 and EGFR closely associated chemoresistance, and that inhibition of S100A9 and EGFR may sensitize bladder tumor cells to the cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The S100A9/EGFR level is a novel prognostic marker to predict the chemoresponsiveness of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic MIBC.</P>

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