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The bench-scale chlorine exposure study was performed to investigate the effect of pretreatment by free chlorine and monochloramine (NH2Cl) on the performance of RO membranes made of polyamide (PA). Feed monochloramination at 2㎎/L did not cause significant productivity loss compared to free chlorine. However, metal coagulants reacted with monochloramine, the PA membrane suffered from a gradual loss of membrane integrity by chlorine oxidation, which was characterized as a decrease in salt rejection. Especially, RO membranes exposed to alum coagulants with monochloramine revealed the salt rejection lower than those exposed to iron coagulants. XPS membrane surface analysis demonstrated that the chlorine uptake on the membrane surface increased and carbon peaks were shifted significantly when exposed to alum coagulants with monochloramine.
Mobile IPv6(MIPv6)에서 핸드오버가 수행된 후에 Mobile Node(MN)와 Correspondent node(CN)간에 직접 통신하기 위해 RO(Route Optimization)이 수반되어야 하며 이를 위해서는 Binding Update(BU)전에 Return Routability(RR) 과정이 수행되어야 한다. Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6(FMIPv6)에서도 RO를 사용하기 위해서는 MIPv6와 동일하게 Fast 핸드오버 후에 BU전에 RR 과정이 수행되어야 한다. 그러나 RR 과정을 수행하는데 소요되는 시간이 매우 길기 때문에 핸드오버에 많은 지연을 발생하게 한다. 따라서 본 논문은 FMIPv6에서 RO 지연을 감소시킴으로써 FMIPv6에서 핸드오버 지연을 감소시키기 위한 방안을 제안한다. In Mobile IPv6 handover should be followed by RO(Route Optimization) to support direct communication between a MN(Mobile Node) and CN(Correspondent Node). For this RR MIPv6 must perform RR(Return Routability) procedure before BU(Binding Update) to CN. The Fast Handover for MIPv6(FMIPv6) also performs the RR test for MN to communicate with CN directly. However, Return Routability test has long latency resulting in handover delay in MIPv6. This paper proposes the method to reduce the handover deay by reducing RO latency in FastMobile IPv6.
<▼1><P>Incorporation of single-layer graphene oxide into a highly porous support layer provides a thin-film composite reverse osmosis membrane with superior water flux.</P></▼1><▼2><P>In this study, we demonstrated that a reduction in solely the concentration of the polymer solution for preparation of the support layer effectively enhances the water flux of a thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. However, a decrease in the polymer concentration caused the sub-surface structure of the support layer to become too porous, which unavoidably weakened the mechanical strength of the support layer. To overcome the problem, we prepared a highly porous support layer with improved mechanical strength by incorporating graphene oxide (GO) platelets. The thickness of the GO platelets was controlled by adjusting the mechanical energy input per volume of the precursor solution. We confirmed that well-exfoliated GO platelets (mean thickness: about 1.5 nm) are more effective in enhancing the mechanical properties of the support layer. The TFC RO membrane made of the GO composite support layer had almost 1.6 to 4 times higher water flux with comparable salt rejection compared to both the current upper bounds of the RO membranes prepared by modification of the active layer and commercial RO membranes.</P></▼2>
Renal transplantation is increasingly used to deal with end-stage renal failure. There should be adequate nursing interventions to take care of renal transplantation recipients. The ultimate goal of nursing care for renal transplantation would be to raise quality of life of its recipients. In addressing this issue, this study examined the level of quality of life, and sociodemographic and health factors influencing quality of life among 100 renal transplantation recipients. These recipients were aged between 30 and 59 years, who were chosen by a convenience sampling technique from the renal transplantation recipients at two university hospital in Seoul. Data were obtained through personal interviews, self-report questionnaires, and medical records during the period of August to November of 1993. Quality of life(QL) was measured by using the Quality of Life scale developed by Ro(1988). As to statistical tests, ANOVA, t-test, Scheffe test, Pearson Correlation Coefficients, and Stepwise multiple regression were used through the software package SAS.Renal transplantation is increasingly used to deal with end-stage renal failure. There should be adequate nursing interventions to take care of renal transplantation recipients. The ultimate goal of nursing care for renal transplantation would be to raise quality of life of its recipients. In addressing this issue, this study examined the level of quality of life, and sociodemographic and health factors influencing quality of life among 100 renal transplantation recipients. These recipients were aged between 30 and 59 years, who were chosen by a convenience sampling technique from the renal transplantation recipients at two university hospitals in Seoul. Data were obtained through personal interviews, self-report questionnaires, and medical records during the period of August to November of 1993. Quality of life(QL) was measured by using the Quality of Life scale developed by Ro(1988). As to statistical tests, ANOVA, t-test, Scheffe test, Pearson Correlation Coefficients, and Stepwise multiple regression were used through the software package SAS. The results are summarized as follows : 1. The mean of the QL was 155.95 with arrange between 94 to 207 on the scale ranged from 47 to 235. Of the 6 dimensions of the QL, the score for family relationship was highest(3.52), which is followed by self-esteem(3.41), relationship with neighbors(3.37), emotional state(3.34), physical state and function(3.26), and economic life(3.18). 2. The QL score was positively associated with higher educational level (F=5.50, P=.00) and with having no complication(F=5.35, P=.00). The association between the dimension of the QL and sociodemographic factors are following. 1) Higher score for emotional state was found among the married(t=2.16, P=.04), college graduated(F=3.81, P=.03), and those experiencing no complication(F=5.51, P=.01). 2) Those having religion(t=2.18, P=.03), college graduates(F=4.81, P=.01), and those earning a higher income(F=3.14, P=.05) tended to have better economic life. 3) College graduates revealed higher self-esteem than high school graduates(F=6.06, P=.00). 4) Those experiencing no complications showed better physical state and function(F=15.77, P=.00). 5) Better relationship with neighbors was correlated with being a woman(t=2.10, P=.03), having a religion(t=2.83, P=.01), and earning a higher income(F=3.41, P=.04). 6) Those earning a higher income showed better family relationship than their counterparts(F=3.31, P=.04). 3. With regard to overall QL score, those with grater score tended to perceive their health better than those with lower score(r=.5123, P=.0001). 4. As to hematologic laboratory findings, the mean score of Hb was 12,86g/dl, of Hct 37.82%, of BUN 27.59mg/dl, of Creatinine 1.06mg/dl, and of Cyclosporine 226.36ng/ml. 5. Of the sociodemographic and health factor studied here, perceived health state explained the largest amount of the variance of the QL(26.31%). Educational level accounted for 12.65% of the remaining variance of the QL to be explained. 6. When compared to those healthy adult examined by Ro(1988), each dimensional score of the QL was similar between the two groups. By contrast, the subjects of the present study perceived their health state as poorer than those health adults did.
Rö,nsberg,,David,Debbab,,Abdessamad,Má,ndi,,Attila,Vasylyeva,,Vera,Bö,hler,,Philip,Stork,,Bjö,rn,Engelke,,Laura,Hamacher,,Alexandra,Sawadogo,,Richard,Diederich,,Marc,Wray,,Vict American Chemical Society 2013 Journal of organic chemistry Vol.78 No.24
<P>Four tetrahydroxanthone dimers (<B>1</B>–<B>4</B>) and four biogenetically related monomers (<B>5</B>–<B>8</B>), including the new derivatives <B>4</B>–<B>6</B>, were isolated from the endophyte Phomopsis longicolla. The absolute configurations of <B>2</B>–<B>4</B> were established for the first time by TDDFT electronic circular dichroism calculations, and that of phomoxanthone A (<B>1</B>) was revised by X-ray crystallography. Phomoxanthone A (<B>1</B>) showed the strongest pro-apoptotic activity when tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines, including cisplatin-resistant cells, whereas it was up to 100-fold less active against healthy blood cells. It was also the most potent activator of murine T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages, suggesting an activation of the immune system in parallel to its pro-apoptotic activity. This dual effect in combating cancer cells could help in fighting resistance during chemotherapy. Preliminary structure–activity studies of isolated compounds and derivatives obtained by semisynthesis (<B>9a</B>–<B>11</B>) hinted at the location of the biaryl axis and the presence of acetyl groups as important structural elements for the biological activity of the studied tetrahydroxanthones.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/joceah/2013/joceah.2013.78.issue-24/jo402066b/production/images/medium/jo-2013-02066b_0011.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jo402066b'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
Background : Androgenetic alopecia is considered to be a genetically determined disorder influenced by age and androgen. The proportion of patients with androgenetic alopecia among the total number of patients with alopecia seems to be gradually increasing. Objective : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the family history, clinical and endocrine status of the patients with androgenetic alopecia. Method : 1113 patients with androgenetic alopecia who had visited the Department of Dermatology, Yongsan Hospital, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University during the 3 years (1995.1-1998.12) have been examined. Results : The results are summarized as follows 1) The incidence of androgenetic alopecia among the total number of alopecia patients was 64.5, showing recent increment. 2) There were 855 male and 258 female patients being most prevalent in the third decade in both sexes and the patients younger than 30 years old with premature androgenetic alopecia, made up 70.3 of the male patients and 48.8% of the female patients with androgenetic alopecia. 3) While Norwood's type IIa was the most common and following type II, III vertex, and IV in the male AGA, Ludwig's type II was the most common in female AGA 4) There was a family history of baldness in 53.5% of first degree relatives in male patients and 51.6% in female patients. 5) Associated diseases were observed in 565(66.8%) of the male patients and 219 (84.8%) of the female patients : diseases associated with androgen such as seborrheic dermatitis and acne vulgaris occupied 39.1%. Conclusion : Based on our findings, those who want to treat androgenetic alopecia at the earlier ages are gradually increasing and it seems to be reasonable to believe that the age, genetic factors, localized effects of androgens on the scalp and the density and/or functional activity of androgen receptors may influence the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia.
Bleomycin, a tumoricidal antibiotic agent, may produce unusual cutaneous manifestations such as pigmentation scleroderma, and gangrene. We report a case of the development of linear streaky pigmentation and cutaneous scleroderma in a patient treated with bleomycin for choriocarcinoma of undescented testis. The patient was 45-year-old male presented with linear brown and slate gray streaking over the trunk and extremities after three cycles of chemotherapy(bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatine). After the fourth cycle of the same chemotherapy, 18 weeks after initiation of bleomycin, the development of cutaneous scleroderma-like conditions was observed involving the same sites. Histopathologic examination showed increased basal pigmentation and thick collagen bundles through the entire dermis, extending to the subcutis. Herein, we describe a case of streaky pigmentation and scleroderma in association with bleomycin anticancer chemotherapy simultaneously in a patient.
Lichen nitidus(LN) is an uncommon chronic inflammatory disease of shiny, flat-topped, flesh-colored uniform papules most commonly located on the penis, forearms and wrists, lower abdomen, and thighs. LN almost has localized distribution, but in rare cases, it may become generalized. In Korea, three cases of generalized LN were reported. We report here three cases of generalized lichen nitidus in 31-year-old man, 8-year-old boy, and 6-year-old girl who had generalized numerous pinhead-sized, erythematous to flesh-colored, shiny papules. Microscopically, they had typical appearance of LN.