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Ricardo Lacava Bailone,Hirla Costa Silva Fukushima,Bianca Helena Ventura Fernandes,Luís Kluwe De Aguiar,Tatiana Corrêa,Helena Janke,Princia Grejo Setti,Roberto De Oliveira Roça,Ricardo Carneiro Borra 한국실험동물학회 2020 Laboratory Animal Research Vol.36 No.2
Much of medical research relies on animal models to deepen knowledge of the causes of animal and human diseases, as well as to enable the development of innovative therapies. Despite rodents being the most widely used research model worldwide, in recent decades, the use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model has exponentially been adopted among the scientific community. This is because such a small tropical freshwater teleost fish has crucial genetic, anatomical and physiological homology with mammals. Therefore, zebrafish constitutes an excellent experimental model for behavioral, genetic and toxicological studies which unravels the mechanism of various human diseases. Furthermore, it serves well to test new therapeutic agents, such as the safety of new vaccines. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic literature review on the most recent studies carried out on the topic. It presents numerous advantages of this type of animal model in tests of efficacy and safety of both animal and human vaccines, thus highlighting gains in time and cost reduction of research and analyzes.
Three different applications for monitoring displacements in underground structures using a BOTDR-based distributed optical fiber strain sensing system are presented. These applications are related to the strain measurements of (1) instrumented PVC tube designed to be attached to tunnel side wall and ceiling as a sensor; (2) rock bolts for tunnels; and (3) shotcrete lining under loading. The effectiveness of using the proposed strain sensing system is evaluated by carrying out laboratory tests, in-situ measurements, and numerical simulations. The results obtained from this validation process provide confidence that the optical fiber is able to quantify strain fields under a variety of loading conditions and consequently use this information to estimate the behavior of rock mass during mining activity. As the measuring station can be located as far as 1 km of distance, these alternatives presented may increase the safety of the mine during mining process and for the personnel doing the measurements on the field.
In a related paper the authors developed a robust dynamic compensation scheme for high performance servo drives based on a shaft angle control loop. First, this paper establishes the physical relationship between the state feedback of load and motor speed and position differences and the proportional and derivative actions of the proposed control loop. Based on this relationship and a sensitivity analysis on the Bode diagram, a setting procedure for the controller gains is developed. Evaluation is done in a 2-mass servo drive model that includes the delays and quantization due to digital implementation, and a full-order observer of the unavailable signals.
Seven potentially harmful bifunctional carbonyls were measured in particulate and gaseous phases at a roadside site and a suburban site in an area about 30 km north-northwest from Tokyo metropolitan area in the Kanto region in Japan. For the first time, these compounds were measured in both phases with a time resolution of 2 h. We found that wind direction is an important parameter that affects the collection of these compounds near the source, and it can cover the effects of other important variables. Our results confirmed that motor vehicles and especially diesel fuelled vehicles are important sources of these compounds. Photochemical generation is also an important source of these compounds in the gaseous phase. Transportation from the urban area is also important,particularly in the aerosol phase.
This paper investigates interport competition between the ports of San Antonio and Valparaiso, the main actors in the Central Chilean port range (CC), using a common institutional framework. The geographical closeness to Chile’s main consumption and production centres and the small distance between the ports places them in a competitive position for an identical hinterland. A slight variation of the original Matching Framework analytical tool is applied, for understanding the interport competition, within a common institutional framework, after a port devolution process: two periods are analysed for both main ports. During the last several years different strategies of port governance to cope with the changing conditions evolved in ports. A short empirical analysis on market power backed by a new institutional economics approach is used to understand the varying outcomes from the port devolution processes and in this growing competitive environment. Previous papers have focused on the development and emergence of hub ports in the region based on empirical data. We argue that the institutional approach and port governance strategies play a significant role and need to be integrated in the analysis of port competitiveness. A satisfactory behaviour of the infrastructure market (including port devolution matters) requires a smooth balance between the political stability and the flexibility needed to adapt industry conditions to changing circumstances. For two periods, the Matching Framework analysis illustrates the changes in the CC Port range, with two ports that serve a single market under competition in containerized trade, which have shown a great growth, and a strong competitive framework. The key issues of the port devolution process in each port provide some insights on the performance of both ports.
The eastern coast of northeastern Brazil (NEB), a coastal land-strip up to 300 km wide and stretching out from Rio Grande do Norte (5°S) State down to the south of Bahia State (17°S), experiences different rain producing systems, such as disturbances in the south-east trade winds, frontal systems penetration, land-sea breeze circulation and local convection associated with the topography and moisture flux convergence. The annual total rainfall ranges from 600 inland to 3000 mm on the coast. Rainfall totals 5 to 12 times the local climatic means were recorded in various regions of Alagoas state in January 2004. It was estimated that 46,000 people were homeless, with material damages exceeding US$10 million as a consequence of the ensuing floods.GOES infrared images analysis showed that the main weather system responsible for this anomalously high rainfall totals was an Upper Troposphere Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV), which formed at about a 27ºW e 12ºS and remained active for the entire month of January over NEB. 리오그랑디주에서 바이아주 남부까지 약 300 km에 이르는 길고 좁은 브라질 북동부 지역에서는 남동무역풍의 교란, 전선의 침투, 해륙풍 순환 그리고 지형과 수증기 플럭스에 기인하는 국지 대류와 같은 다양한 강수 시스템이 나타난다. 연간 총강수량은 내륙에서는 600 mm, 해안지역에서는 3000 mm의 분포를 보이고 있다. 지역 기후 평균에 5-12배의 강수량이 2004년 1월에 알라고아스주 여러 지역에서 기록되었다. 46,000명의 수재민이 발생했고, 10,000,000 US$의 재산 피해였다. 이 폭우는 27°W, 12°S에서 형성된 UTCV가 1월 내내 브라질 북동부 지역에 머물면서 영향을 미쳤기 때문이라는 것을 GOES 적외선 영상 분석으로 알 수 있었다.
Most of pedestrian inertial navigation system estimates displacement based on the integration of inertial sensors measurements. However, due to low-cost sensors and pedestrian dead reckoning inherent characteristics these systems provide huge location estimation errors. To suppress some of these limitations we propose a pedestrian inertial navigation system based on low-cost sensors and on information fusion and learning techniques. The proposed system introduces a step characterization module that characterizes the step according to the activity that the pedestrian is performing. This module performs three characterizations: terrain, direction and length. Thus, in this work are presented and evaluated several machine learning approaches that perform the terrain characterization. The inclusion of this machine learning module led to a significantly better performance of the pedestrian inertial navigation system.
A pulse classification technique for monitoring the type of discharges in an electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) process is presented in this research paper. The performance of an ECDM process is affected by many factors which make it hard for control strategies to be formulated for this process. The pulse classifier plays an important role to develop control strategies and later to improve the process. The proposed system uses the current and voltage waveforms measured through the gap as input signals for the classification system. A fuzzy inference system (FIS) is used to categorize both input signals into one of the four proposed pulse types, according to their specific behavior. For the experimental validation, data samples taken during the machining process were recorded to evaluate the performance of the pulse classifier with raw data. Raw data of the gap signals is properly classified based on the proposed FIS.
Objective: Airway obstruction after postoperative extubation is a dreaded but uncommon complication in patients undergoing circumferential cervical spine surgery (CCSS). The cuff leak test (CLT) has been utilized to assess air leak around the endotracheal tube which may reflect airway swelling. In this prospective observational study, we analyze the temporal evolution of CLT and perioperative factors that may influence it. Methods: Twenty patients undergoing single-stage CCSS were managed according to our extubation protocol. Patients were maintained intubated overnight following surgery. They were extubated if a CLT > 200 mL and both intensive care unit (ICU) and Neurosurgery teams agreed that it was safe. Patients extubated in the first postoperative day (8 of 20) comprised the early group, and the remaining patients (12 of 20) the delayed group. Patient and operative data were analyzed as a single group and comparing both groups. Results: The main indication for surgery was cervical deformity. Median number of levels fused was 5 anteriorly (range, 1–6) and 6 (range, 1–13) posteriorly. Patients were kept intubated for an average of 73.6 hours (range, 26–222 hours) and stayed in the ICU for 119.1 hours (range, 36–360 hours). There were 4 failed extubations and 3 patients (15%) required a tracheostomy. Patient profiles between both groups were very similar across most patient variables but differed significantly regarding infraglottic luminal area (p < 0.05). Patients with larger preoperative cuff leak values tended to have a shorter intubation period (p = 0.053). Conclusion: This study objectively demonstrates the difficulties in airway management following CCSS and provides useful insight for preoperative planning and counseling. Local anatomic factors influence airway outcome more than operative factors. The study format does not allow for testing of interventions but we suggest that patients with favorable anatomy (larger infraglottic luminal area) may benefit from a less strict airway management protocol.