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Intertidal macroalgae are exposed to many abiotic stress factors, and they must regularly react to changes in their environment. We used RNA-seq to describe how Porphyra umbilicalis (Rhodophyta) changes gene expression patterns to interact with different habitats. Tissue samples were taken from a typical habitat along the open-coast of the Northwest Atlantic, as well as from a rare, atypical habitat in an estuarine tidal rapid environment. Differential gene expression analyses suggest that pathogic bacteria and viruses may be a significant factor influencing the transcriptome in the human-impacted estuarine environment, but the atypical habitat does not necessarily induce more stress in Porphyra umbilicalis growing there. We found genes related to nitrogen transport are over-expressed in tissue from the open-coastal site compared to those from the estuarine site, where environmental N levels approach hypertrophic levels. Low N levels impede growth, but high levels are toxic to cells, and we use qPCR to show this species regulates expression of a putative high-affinity NH<sub>4</sub> <sup>+</sup> transporter under low and high N conditions. Differences in expression of this transporter in these habitats appear to be inherited from parent to offspring and have general implications for adaptation to habitat in other species that are capable of asexual reproduction, as well as more specific implications for this species' use in aquaculture.
Purpose: The Oceania region suffers in the area of referee and coach education due to many differing factors. It is a region which differs considerably from the other four global regions in the sport (i.e., the Pan-American, European, Africa, and Asia regions) due to the variations in socio-economic environments in the countries falling under this regional organization. The outcomes of this research is to improve sport Taekwondo educational programs, become more innovative in program delivery, raise the standard of officiating, and increase participation in officiating and coaching in the sport in the region. Methods: The research methodology and model are context specific and need to be developed in situ. The research methodology followed an interpretive case study approach using a phenomenological methodology to gain internal (organization) and external (course participants) perspectives of the educational program needs of the region's Member National Associations (MNAs). The reason for conducting phenomenological interviews is to capture privileged knowledge of those who are or were involved with this research issue in relation to their culture, history, and experiences. Consequently, the goals were to analyze and address experiential gaps, make precise meanings of those experiences with the current Taekwondo education delivery, and identify any shortcomings. Interviews were conducted with a set of coaches and referees (n = 17) at locations suitable to the participants. The interviews were conducted over 30-40 min, and participants were free to leave at any time without any obligation. Results: Varying factors and situations with differing cultures can considerably affect the delivery of regional educational programs. Cultural tendencies influence the way students individually participate in educational interactions. The more compelling features about culture are basic expectations which influence thinking, emotions, and actions which in turn have direct impacts on the educational program and its delivery and uptake. To increase the success of the region's education programs requires further and deeper understanding of cultural patterns and beliefs of the sport's participants and stakeholders, due to the cultural impact in the delivery and participation in the MNA's educational program. There exists many differing cultures that need to be addressed, not only the culture within the sport itself, but also the differing cultures that exist with and within each MNA in the region. These cultures affect the relationship between the course participants and the regional governing body (OTU) with the delivery of its education program. Conclusions: This work has identified the need for further investigation into the varying factors and situations with the differing cultures within the Oceana region, and subsequently reviewed the existing educational programs and developed a suitable framework to manage the delivery of Taekwondo sport education to the region's coaches and referees. The benefits of this research project to the region are immediate and long term in so much that it would provide an education model that would allow greater flexibility and availability of educational resources as well as reduce costs from both the perspectives of the hosts for an educational seminar and for the individual participants. The proposed framework could be expanded or replicated to the other regions as well as the world governing body (i.e., the World Taekwondo Federation; WTF) in their education programs, and, with some modifications, to other sports.
In mechanical manufacturing, the state of a machined part surface is very crucial, particularly in aeronautics, and as a result, great care must be exercised in its measurement. Over the past few years, many research studies have been carried out to mitigate the disadvantages (contact, off-line inspection, speed of limited measurement) inherent in the classic measurement of the roughness by contact with a stylus. The contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of the contactless inspection of part surface roughness using an optical microscope. Unlike most works in the domain that use image average of grey level and the average cycle of the texture, a new image characteristic named the gradient factor of the image is defined and used to estimate the part roughness parameters. The effect of the vision system parameters on image quality is investigated then the statistical characteristics of the images best describing the machined surface are determined and used to estimate the roughness parameters. The study shows that several roughness parameters (Ra, Rq, Rv, Rt and Rz) can be estimated using only image-extracted features and models, without the need to know the machining parameters used to generate the surface. The results obtained with the vision system are comparable to those obtained with a stylus contact surface roughness measurement system, and could help in the online monitoring of the surface roughness.
In wireless communication, efficient spectrum usage is an issue that has been an attractive research area for many technologies. Recently new technologies innovations allow compact radios to transmit with power efficient communication over very long distances. For example, Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) are an attractive emerging platform to connect the Internet-of-Things (IoT). Especially, LoRa is one of LPWAN technologies and considered as an infrastructure solution for IoT. End-devices use LoRa protocol across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s) connected to the internet which acts as a bridge and relays message between these LoRa end-devices to a central network server. The use of the (ISM) spectrum sharing for such long-range networking motivates us to implement spectrum sensing testbed for cognitive radio network based on LoRa and GNU radio. In cognitive radio (CR), secondary users (SUs) are able to sense and use this information to opportunistically access the licensed spectrum band in absence of the primary users (PUs). In general, PUs have not been very receptive of the idea of opportunistic spectrum sharing. That is, CR will harmfully interfere with operations of PUs. Subsequently, there is a need for experimenting with different techniques in a real system. In this paper, we implemented spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks based on LoRa and GNU Radio, and further analyzed corresponding performances of the implemented systems. The implementation is done using Microchip LoRa evolution kits, USRPs, and GNU radio.
저온 혹은 유리가 녹는 온도 아래에서 소성하는 유리질의 에나멜들은,전통적으로 납을 함유한 유리 혼합물로 사용되었다.도자 식기류를 포함한 식기산업을 위하여 제조된 에나멜들은, 고온에서도 성공할 수 있고 또한 유리와도 접목될 수 있다.도자 착색제들과 고온소성 에나멜들은 유리의 레이어들(layers)위에 채색할 수도 있고,그리고 퓨징(fusing)의 과정에서 유리의 레이어들이 숙성되도록 소성할 수 있다.도자 착색제들,도자 색분필들,특별한 도자용 수채색상들과 연필들과 같은 또 다른 도자 장식용 재료들이 유리와 함께 사용될 수 있다. 그러나 예술가는 유리는 단지 레이어들 사이에서 혹은 유리의 표면 위에서 하나의 “함유물”로서 소량의 안료만을 허용한다는 것을 반드시 고려하여야 한다.예술가는 반드시 유리와 점토 사이에 발생하는 재료의 한계에 대한 지식을 알아야 하며,그 지식은 이러한 매개물들로 작업을 할 때 필수적이다. 본질적으로,유약에서 특별한 색상을 만들고자 사용된 안료들은 도자 오브제란 결과를 낳고, 또한 동일한 안료들이 유리에서 유사한 색상들을 만들고자 사용될 수 있다.이 연구의 요점은 이 두 그룹;스튜디오와 산업체 두 곳에서 도자예술가들,그리고 자신들의 작품에 이미지를 표현하고 자신들의 아이디어들이 혁신적이고 서정적으로 뚜렷한 개성을 드러내는 작업으로 추진하여 자신들의 작품을 매력적으로 만들고자 하는 유리예술가들에게 어떤 재료들이 유용하고 그리고 사용될 수 있는가를 제시하는 것이다.