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Objective: This study assessed the possible existence of genotype by environment interactions for milk, fat and protein yields in Holstein cattle raised in one of the most important milk production basins in Brazil. Methods: Changes in the genetic parameters and breeding values were evaluated for 57,967 animals from three distinct regions of southern Brazil, divided according to differences in climate. The genotype by environment interaction was determined by genetic correlations between regions, estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood, considering the animal model. Bull rankings were investigated to verify the ratio of coincident selected animals between regions for each trait. Results: The estimates of heritability coefficients were similar between two regions, but were lower in the third evaluated area, for all traits. Genetic correlations between regions were high, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99 for milk, fat and protein yields, representing the absence of a genotype by environment interaction for productive traits. The percentage of selection error between regions for the top 10% of animals ranged from 0.88% to 2.07% for milk yield, 0.99% to 2.46% for fat yield and 0.59% to 3.15% for protein yield. Conclusion: A slight change in genotype between areas was expected since no significant genotype by environment interactions were identified, facilitating the process of selecting Holstein cattle in southern Brazil.
A major theme in the Bible which also is the focal point of Proverbs 14:34, is righteousness. It is like a recurring decimal in the preaching of ministers in most church denominations in Nigeria. They especially do this when they emphasise its significance and the detriment of sin in determining the status or position of a nation which are reflected in its being exalted or reproached. Features that enhance the worth of a nation, righteousness or sin are portrayed in the biblical text for this paper and in other cognate texts. The socio-economic situation in Nigeria calls for urgent attention as people live in poverty and painfully below life expectation. Existing studies on Prov. 14:34 have focussed more on the spiritual interpretation of the text, mainly for devotional and liturgical purposes. They did not focus on critical exegetical consideration of how such features could be viable catalysts for socioeconomic development in the Nigerian context. This is the rationale for this work, and the contribution it will make to existing knowledge. The descriptive method of interpretation is adopted for this work. The study is premised on Giovanni E. Reyes' Modernisation Theory which he defines as a systematic process to move underdeveloped societies to an advanced and productive level of development. The Modernisation Theory stresses the importance of political development vis-à-vis the improvement of a nation's socio-economic condition; it also emphasises cultural reforms. Righteousness in this text, when read from and applied to the current national and socio-economic reality of Nigeria, hopefully, will stem the current lamentable socio-economic situation in the nation.
Efficient communication is a major requirement in crisis situations. This research is motivated by the need to develop new communication tools to enhance the coordination and response time of first responders. In this paper we present an application which enables group calls among different rescue entities. Additionally, we present a video application that provides a real time access to surveillance cameras. The objective is to provide a powerful communication tool that can be used over different network technologies. As opposed to other existing systems, our application provides a complete communication platform that relies on open standards. A prototype has been implemented and tested during a demonstration held in July 2007 in Luxembourg. In this paper we provide technical details on how the applications were realized and evaluate the outcome of the demonstration. We also propose future improvements based on the outcome to enhance the system.
So far, most research attempts to explain the mechanism of the action of acupuncture have focused mostly on mechanically-triggered active factors and have produced inconclusive findings. In this study, we investigate whether acupuncture might also involve nonmechanical, nonpsychological active factors originating in the therapist. In 30 individuals, an acupuncture needle was inserted in the acupoint PC6 using a special device without touching the needle. A second device was used to fix the needle rigidly in place, excluding any mechanical transmission of movement from the handle to the needle's tip. Each participant was exposed in random order to a control and a stimulation phase. During the stimulation phase, the free needle's end was held by the therapist to allow the transmission of Qi; during the control phase, it was left untouched. Participants' subjective sensations during the stimulation phase and the control phase were recorded using a questionnaire. Twenty-two of 28 (79%; p = 0.003) test participants believed that they had received stimulation when it had actually been performed, and 26 (93%; p < 0.001) sensed differences between the two experimental phases. Thus, participants were able to sense the transmission of therapeutic Qi in the absence of mechanical or psychological factors.
Planning a forming strategy to produce a complex geometry is still a challenge due to lack of intelligent software tools that support the designer. Finite element (FE) simulations can be used to predict material flow and feasibility of a metal forming process. In this work metamodels were used as a bridge to combine knowledge-based layout of forming steps and simulation-based process planning. This new approach makes it possible to suggest numerical validated process plans for a forming feature to the designer. The whole design space of possible process parameter variations was sampled regarding quality criteria (damage, topology deviations, maximum force) using computer experiments to get the support points of the metamodels. To handle this high workload of computer experiments an automated workflow was created based on scripts and FE tools. The fitted metamodels can be used to get hints regarding feasibility when no accurate numerical simulation results are yet available to the designer. Moreover the models can be used for fast optimization given the small computational cost of the function evaluation of metamodels. A computer aided process planning (CAPP) system was developed based on metamodels. The present concept is demonstrated for the forming feature “chimney extrusion”.