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      • KCI등재

        페르시아어 ra 연구 : 격 표지와 주제화 표지로서의 역할을 중심으로

        곽새라 ( Sae Ra Kwak ) 한국외국어대학교 중동연구소 2010 중동연구 Vol.29 No.2

        This paper is to show how Persian "ra" functions in sentences both in grammatical Level and pragmatical level. In Persian traditional grammar, and even in the recent grammar books, "ra" has been introduced as a direct object marker, later as a definite direct object marker. However, several linguistic data show that this element can go with Persian indefinite marker "ye(k)" and "-i", which is the counter example of a definite direct object marker. We witness that Persian "ra" follows nouns or pronouns which are specific. All nouns which are definite are specific. Moreover, for indefinite nouns, if the nouns are only familiar to speakers, not to hearers, the nouns are specific. In sum, ra" can occur following specific direct objects. Another function of "ra" is its pragmatical function, which is topicalization marker. Topicalization is the strategy which expresses given information. Again, this topicalization also implies specificity. However, I argue that even though both functions imply one coommon characteristic, we cannot see "ra" in both cases as a functional marker, which is a specific marker. The facts that "ra" cannot follow subject position and this element is not a necessary condition for topicalization proves the argument. To sum up, Persian "ra" has two functions - one as a specific object marker, and the other as a topicalization marker, and thess two functions cannot be considered as one marker, such as specificity marker.

      • KCI등재

        Retinoic acid induces expression of Ig germ line α transcript, an IgA isotype switching indicative, through retinoic acid receptor

        Mi-Hee Park,박석래,Mi-Ra Lee,Young-Ha Kim,Pyeung-Hyeun Kim 한국유전학회 2011 Genes & Genomics Vol.33 No.1

        Retinoic acid (RA) is considered to possess an activity of IgA isotype switching. Thus far, TGF-β1 is known to be the most powerful IgA isotype switch factor. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the Ig germ line (GL) α transcriptional regulation by RA, we constructed three different sizes of mouse GLα promoter reporters; short-GLα(-130/+14), middle-GLα(-448/+72) and long-GLα(-3028/+72). Based on luciferase assay, RA increased the activity of all three GLα promoter reporters by approximately 2-fold and the effect was further enhanced by TGF-β1. Overexpression of Smad3/4 increased TGF-β1-induced GLα promoter activities but had no effect on RA-induced GLα promoter activities. In order to analyze the characteristics of the RA-inducible GLα promoter region,we also constructed two mutant reporters: Smad3 binding elements (SBEs)-substituted short-GLα (short-GLα mSBE)and Runx3 binding elements (RBEs)-substituted short-GLα(short-GLα mRBE) promoter reporters. Promoter activities of the two mutant reporters to RA were comparable to that of wild type reporter, while those of the two mutant reporters to TGF-β1 were markedly diminished as compared to that of WT short-GLα. Finally, RA-induced GLα transcription was virtually disappeared by LE540, an antagonist of RA receptor (RAR). Taken together, these results suggest that RA induces GLα transcription mainly through RAR pathway, where neither Smad3/4 nor Runx3 is involved.

      • KCI등재

        류마티스관절염 환자의 인슐린 저항성 결정인자

        이정욱 ( Joung Wook Lee ),박영은 ( Young Eun Park ),조미라 ( Mi Ra Cho ),백승훈 ( Seung Hoon Baek ),김근태 ( Geun Tae Kim ),이준희 ( Jun Hee Lee ),김성일 ( Sung Il Kim ) 대한류마티스학회 2009 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.16 No.2

        Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased cardiovascular events. These may be related to insulin resistance (IR). We evaluated status of IR and analyzed the relationship between IR and clinical and laboratory characteristics in patients with RA. Methods: We examined 52 RA patients (43 females) and 52 age and sex matched healthy controls. We measured Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) IR, calculated according to fasting serum glucose and insulin. Results: In patients, age was 50.8±10.2 years old, disease duration was 42.1±30.9 months. In controls, HOMA IR was 0.62±0.30 and in patients, it was 1.28±0.50. This difference was highly significant (p<0.001). Patients with early RA (disease duration is less than 36 months) were 28, and established RA (more than 36 months) were 24. HOMA IR was significantly higher in patients with established RA (1.42±0.45) than those with early RA (1.16±0.45) (p=0.03), and significantly correlated with disease duration (r=0.36, p=0.01), BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001), total cumulative prednisolon dose (r=0.34, p=0.01). Disease duration and BMI were independent predictors for HOMA IR (p<0.01, p=0.03). Conclusion: In patients with RA, IR measured by HOMA IR was more significantly increased than that of healthy control and significantly correlated with disease duration, BMI, and total cumulative prednisolon dose; however, the determinants of HOMA IR in RA patients were disease duration and BMI.

      • Retinoic acid enhances lactoferrin-induced IgA responses by increasing betaglycan expression

        Lee, Jeong-Min,Jang, Young-Saeng,Jin, Bo-Ra,Kim, Sun-Jin,Kim, Hyeon-Jin,Kwon, Bo-Eun,Ko, Hyun-Jeong,Yoon, Sung-il,Lee, Geun-Shik,Kim, Woan-Sub,Seo, Goo-Young,Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun CHINESE SOCIETY OF IMMUNOLOGY 2016 CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY Vol.13 No.6

        <P>Lactoferrin (LF) and retinoic acid (RA) are enriched in colostrum, milk, and mucosal tissues. We recently showed that LF-induced IgA class switching through binding to betaglycan (transforming growth factor-beta receptor III, T beta RIII) and activation of canonical TGF-beta signaling. We investigated the combined effect of LF and RA on the overall IgA response. An increase in IgA production by LF was further augmented by RA. This combination effect was also evident in Ig germ-line alpha (GL alpha) transcription and GLa promoter activity, indicating that LF in cooperation with RA increased IgA isotype switching. We subsequently found that RA enhanced T beta RIII expression and that this increase contributed to LF-stimulated IgA production. In addition to the IgA response, LF and RA in combination also enhanced the expression of the gut-homing molecules C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and alpha 4 beta 7 on B cells. Finally, peroral administration of LF and RA enhanced the frequency of CCR9(+)IgA(+) plasma cells in the lamina propria. Taken together, these results suggest that LF in cooperation with RA can contribute to the establishment of gut IgA responses.</P>

      • KCI우수등재

        엉겅퀴 뿌리 물 추출물의 류마티스 관절염 동물 모델에 대한 개선 효과

        노종현(Jong Hyun Nho),이현주(Hyeun Joo Lee),이에나(E Na Lee),우경완(Kyeong Wan Woo),장지훈(Ji Hun Jang),김선라(Sun Ra Kim),조현우(Hyun Woo Cho),노세응(Se Eung Noh),정호경(Ho Kyung Jung) 한국약용작물학회 2020 韓國藥用作物學會誌 Vol.28 No.6

        Background: The roots of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense (RCJ) have been used as traditional medicine in Korea for hematuria and hematemesis. These extracts exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by scavenging for free radical and regulating the inflammatory response. However, the effect of RCJ on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the water extract of RCJ (WRCJ) using type II collagen-induced RA models. Methods and Results: RA was induced by immunization with type II collagen. All experimental materials were orally administered daily for three weeks. The positive control group was administered with 0.2 ㎎/㎏ methotrexate (n = 7), while the experimental group was administered with WRCJ (100 or 500 ㎎/㎏, n = 7). Serum levels of TNF-alpha, Interleukin 6 (IL-6), and type II collagen IgG (CII) were measured using ELISA. Administration of 500 ㎎/㎏ WRCJ decreased the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and CII. Moreover, WRCJ treatment diminished swelling of hind legs and infiltration of inflammatory cells in RA models’ synovial membrane. Conclusions: These results indicate that WRCJ could improve RA, reduce inflammatory indicators and synovial inflammation. However, further experiments are required to determine how WRCJ can influence the signal transduction pathway in RA.

      • KCI등재

        증례 : 류마티스관절염과 만성 호산구성 폐렴에 동반된 호산구성 흉막삼출 1예

        지용관 ( Yong Gwan Jee ),라상호 ( Sang Ho Ra ),박유미 ( Yu Mi Park ),차재황 ( Jae Whang Cha ),강용석 ( Yong Seok Kang ),박정하 ( Jeong Ha Park ),강태영 ( Tae Young Kang ) 대한류마티스학회 2013 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.20 No.5

        만성 호산구성 폐렴은 드물지만 류마티스관절염에서 동반 될 수 있는 질환이며 호산구성 흉막삼출이 동반되는 경우는 두 질환 모두에서 드문 경우이다. 저자들은 류마티스 관절염과 만성 호산구성 폐렴에 호산구성 흉막삼출이 동반된 환자를 진단하였으며, 스테로이드와 항류마티스 약제의 사용으로 효과가 있었던 예를 경험하였기에 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. We describe a 48-year-old man with family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affected by chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) with severe peripheral eosinophilia. CEP might develop as a complication of longstanding active RA. The patient with 5 months history of seropositive RA and chronic respiratory symptoms, alveolar and blood eosinophilia, peripheral pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest imaging. The lung may be involved as an extraarticular manifestation of RA. However, CEP is not recognized as a typical lung manifestation of RA, and the two diseases rarely coexist. The effusion was an eosinophil predominant exudates and was characterized by low pH, and glucose level and high lactic dehydrogenase. The patient responded rapidly to combination of steroids and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

      • Poster Session : PS 0691 ; Rheumatology ; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Equivalence Trial Comparing the Etanercept Biosimilar, Hd203, to Reference Etanercept, in Combination with Methotrexate (MTX) in Korean Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

        ( Sang Cheol Bae ),( Jinseok Kim ),( Jung Yoon Choe ),( Won Park ),( So Ra Lee ),( Yong Ho Ahn ) 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2014 No.1

        Background: Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein that blocks TNF. HD203 is a biosimilar of etanercept with demonstrated comparability across pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate equivalence in effi cacy and compare safety of HD203 with reference etanercept, in combination with MTX in patients with RA. (ClinicalTrials. gov NCT01270997). Methods: Korean patients (male or female aged =20 years) with active RA were randomized (1:1) to 25 mg HD203 or reference etanercept, administered subcutaneously twice weekly with MTX for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving ACR20 at week 24. Secondary endpoints included ACRn, DAS28, andEULAR response at week 24 and 48, safety and immunogenicity. Results: In total, 294 patients were randomized: HD203, n=147; reference etanercept, n=147. The proportion of patients achieving ACR20 at week 24 was not signifi cantly different between HD203 and reference etanercept. Equivalent effi cacy was demonstrated within predefined margins. There were no significant differences between proportions achieving ACR20 at week 12 and 48. ACR50 and ACR70 displayed similar trends. There were no signifi cant differences between groups for ACRn, DAS28, and EULAR response. Safety set analysis (HD203, n=147; reference etanercept, n=146) revealed no signifi cant difference for treatment-emergent (all-causality) adverse events (AEs): HD203 76. 87% vs. reference etanercept 78. 08% (p=0. 8040). No significant differences between HD203 and reference etanercept were observed for adverse drug reactions, serious AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs. Few patients tested positive for anti-drug antibodies. Conclusions: The study met the primary endpoint of demonstrating equivalent effi cacy of HD203 compared to reference etanercept. HD203 was well tolerated, with a safety profi le comparable to reference etanercept in this population of patients with RA.

      • KCI등재

        Network Analysis을 이용한 류마티스관절염 활액 대식세포에서 유전자 발현 연구

        지종대 ( Jong Dae Ji ),김태환 ( Tae Hwan Kim ),이빛나라 ( Bit Na Ra Lee ),최성재 ( Sung Jae Choi ),이영호 ( Young Ho Lee ),송관규 ( Gwan Gyu Song ) 대한류마티스학회 2011 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.18 No.2

        Objective. We wanted to investigate the mechanisms that could account for the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, so we examined the different expressions of the genes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid macrophages as compared with that of normal peripheral blood (PB) monocyte-derived macrophages using microarray and bioinformatic analysis. Methods. We examined the expression of genes by using a gene expression oligonucleotide microarray. The differences of the gene expressions between the RA synovial macrophages and the normal PB monocytes-derived macrophages were analyzed using bioinformatic tools, including cytoscape and its plugin. Results. In this study, we found that 899 genes (464 genes up-regulated and 435 genes down-regulated) were differentially expressed between the two groups. Among the 899 genes, 552 genes were included for gene ontology analysis and network analysis. Based on biological process ontology, they were categorised mainly into immune response processes, responses to stimulus and signaling and regulation of biological processes. In addition to the genes related with STAT1 and AP-1 signaling, we found that the genes involved in the antigen processing and the cell cycle are abundantly expressed in RA synovial macrophages, suggesting that these genes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. Conclusion. Our study suggest that this approach using integration of the gene expression profile with the protein interaction data may help to find several important pathogenic mechanisms in RA.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        3′‐Sialyllactose as an inhibitor of p65 phosphorylation ameliorates the progression of experimental rheumatoid arthritis

        Kang, Li‐,Jung,Kwon, Eun‐,Soo,Lee, Kwang Min,Cho, Chanmi,Lee, Jae‐,In,Ryu, Young Bae,Youm, Tae Hyun,Jeon, Jimin,Cho, Mi Ra,Jeong, Seon‐,Yong,Lee, Sang‐,Rae,Kim, Wook,Yang John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2018 British journal of pharmacology Vol.175 No.23

        <P><B>Background and Purpose</B></P><P>3′‐Sialyllactose (3′‐SL) is a safe compound that is present in high levels in human milk. Although it has anti‐inflammatory properties and supports immune homeostasis, its effect on collagen‐induced arthritis (CIA) is unknown. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of 3′‐SL on the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in <I>in vitro</I> and <I>in vivo</I> models.</P><P><B>Experimental Approach</B></P><P>The anti‐arthritic effect of 3′‐SL was analysed with fibroblast‐like synoviocytes <I>in vitro</I> and an <I>in vivo</I> mouse model of CIA. RT‐PCR, Western blotting and ELISA were performed to evaluate its effects <I>in vitro</I>. Histological analysis of ankle and knee joints of mice with CIA was performed using immunohistochemistry, as well as safranin‐O and haematoxylin staining.</P><P><B>Key Results</B></P><P>3′‐SL markedly alleviated the severity of CIA in the mice by reducing paw swelling, clinical scores, incidence rate, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibody production. Moreover, 3′‐SL reduced synovitis and pannus formation and suppressed cartilage destruction by blocking secretion of chemokines, pro‐inflammatory cytokines, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_metalloproteinases and osteoclastogenesis <I>via</I> NF‐κB signalling. Notably, phosphorylation of p65, which is a key protein in the NF‐κB signalling pathway, was totally blocked by 3′‐SL in the RA models.</P><P><B>Conclusions and Implications</B></P><P>3′‐SL ameliorated pathogenesis of CIA by suppressing catabolic factor expression, proliferation of inflammatory immune cells and osteoclastogenesis. These effects were mediated <I>via</I> blockade of the NF‐κB signalling pathway. Therefore, 3′‐SL exerted prophylactic and therapeutic effects and could be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.</P>

      • KCI등재

        New Records of Marine Rhodophyta from the Pacific Coast of Mexico [Note]

        Ra?l Aguilar-Rosas,Catalina Mendoza-Gonz?lez,Luz Elena Mateo-Cid,Luis E. Aguilar-Rosas 한국조류학회I 2007 ALGAE Vol.22 No.3

        Two species of marine red algae, Jania ungulata (Yendo) Yendo f. brevior (Yendo) Yendo and Peyssonnelia japonica (Segawa) Yoneshigue (Rhodophyta) were collected for the first time from Mexican Pacific coast. Their vegetative and reproductive structures are described, as well as the habitat where they were found and their geographical distribution along the Pacific coasts of Mexico. Jania ungulata f. brevior is a commonly growing epiphytic and Peyssonnelia japonica is epiphyte. The fact that we found this new records in Mexican coast is noteworthy, due that this species are originally described in Japanese coast. The absence of records of this species in the Mexican coast is likely related in part to the lack of specific collections and the fact that the specimens are small and delicate, and may commonly be unnoticed during samplings.

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