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This paper provides a consistent and synthetic time-series data for the Korean economy during the twentieth century. The data being covered are value-added, employment, and capital stocks by industries during the period of 1911-99. The main sources of data are Mizoguchi and Umemura (1988) for the colonial period (1911-38) and Pyo (1998) and Pyo and Kwon (1999) for post-war period (1953-99). The data for the interim period (1939-52) are either compiled from alternative sources of data or imputed by econometric method of estimating missing observations. In order to link pre-war data with post-war data of the Republic of Korea. the pre-war data are divided between South and North Korea. The examination of long-run data provides the evidence that the continuous capital accumulation and the increase in labor productivity through industrial structural adjustment were the main sources of its late industrialization. We find the growth of the Korea economy during the twentieth century has been basically of input-driven nature with very little contribution of total factor productivity reaffirming Krugman (1994) and Pyo and Kwon (1999). But the relative contribution of total factor productivity in Mining and Manufacturing sector has not been insignificant implying that the input-driven growth was made possible through both inter-industry and intra-industry capital transformation in mainly Manufacturing sector.
Yeo-Pyo,Yun,Munkhtsetseg,Tudev,박은석,Won-Shik,Kim,Il-Ho,Lim,Mi-Yea,Lee,Heesoon,Lee,Jae-Kyung,Jung,Jin-Tae,Hong,유환수,Myung-Koo,Lee,Myoung-Yun,Pyo,Yeo,Pyo,Yun,임용 대한약학회 2011 Archives of Pharmacal Research Vol.34 No.7
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in the formation and progression of intimal thickening in early-phase atherosclerosis and in restenosis after vascular injury. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is released from macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions and from neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells after balloon-injury. Obovatol, a major biphenolic component isolated from the Magnolia obovata leaf, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. The goal of this study was to examine the cardioprotective effects of the obovatol derivative OD 78 on the TNF-α-induced proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). The antiproliferative effects of OD 78 on RASMCs were examined by cell counting and [³H]-thymidine incorporation assays. Treatment of cells with 1-4 μM OD 78 inhibited the proliferation and DNA synthesis of TNF-α-stimulated RASMCs in a concentration-dependent manner, without cytotoxicity. Treatment with OD 78 inhibited TNF-α-mediated p38 phosphorylation, but did not change the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Furthermore, treatment with OD 78 decreased TNF-α-induced levels of cyclin E, cyclin D1, CDK2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, but not the CDK4 expression level. Also, OD 78 inhibits the migration of TNF-α-induced RASMC in transwells. OD 78 treatment strongly decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in a dose-dependent manner, but the MMP-2 expression was unchanged. These results show that OD 78 may be developed as a potential antiproliferative agent for the treatment of angioplasty restenosis and atherosclerosis.
우리나라는 1968년 제1차 국부통계조사를 실시한 이후 1997년까지 매 10년마다 4차(1968, 1977, 1987, 1997)에 걸쳐 실사에 의해 국부를 추계해왔다. 그러나 1997년 이후에는 실사에 의한 국부추계가 종료되고 간접추계에 의해 국부추계가 시도되어야 하며, 그 결과는 한국은행의 국민대차대조표 추계와 연계되어야 한다. 본 연구는 표학길(2003)의 후속 연구로서 국부통계조사결과를 다항식기준년접속법(polynomial benchmark year estimation method)의 기준년도 자료로 활용하여 생산성 국제비교가 용이하도록 EU KLEMS 프로젝트의 가이드라인을 따라 11개 자산(무형고정자산 포함) 및 72개 산업 분류에 맞추어 추계한 총고정자본형성 및 순자본스톡 추계 결과를 수록하였다. 또한 거시 모형에 사용할 수 있는 분기별 순자본스톡 자료도 함께 추계하였다. 이 과정에서 종전에는 사용하지 못하였던 총고정자본형성배분표(한국은행의 산업연관표 부속표)를 사용하였다는 점이 가장 큰 특징으로 볼 수 있다. 자본스톡자료를 이용하여 Hayashi-Prescott(2002)이 일본경제(1960~2000)의 전산업 자료에 시도한 성장회계 모형을 한국경제(1970~2005)의 72개 산업에 적용한 결과를 소개한다. National Statistical Office (NSO) of Korea have conducted direct National Wealth Survey (NWS) four times every ten years from 1968. However, since 1997 they have switched from direct survey to indirect estimation. Their indirect estimates have to be linked to estimates of non-financial assets in the national balance-sheet which is in preparation by the Bank of Korea. The present study is a follow-up of Pyo(2003) in the sense that we are using the same polynomial benchmark year estimation method four-time benchmark year`s NWS. But the present study differs from Pyo (2003) in the details of both asset coverage and industry classification. We have used EU-KLEMS Project Guidelines to compile data on eleven capital assets including ICT capital and Intangible Assets and 72 industries for the purpose of international comparison of productivities. We have also added quarterly net stocks for the users of macroeconomic models. For the break-down of 72 industries, we have used Gross Capital Formation Matrix which are attached to Input-Output Tables by the Bank of Korea (2000)(2003). The paper also presents the estimates of Hayashi-Prescott type growth accounting model to 72 sectors in Korea.
자산별·산업별로 세분화된 분기별 자본스톡 자료는 잠재 GDP를 추정하는 데 있어서 필수적인 자료들 중 하나이다. 우리나라는 일본(1970)과 함께 국부통계조사 (1968, 1977, 1987, 1997)를 실시한 국가들 중 하나로, 국부통계조사 결과를 활용하면 자본스톡을 추계할 때 재생산 가능한 고정 자산들의 수명을 넘어선 장기 시계열 투자 자료를 필요로 하는 영구재고법을 사용하는 대신 수정된 기준년 접속법의 적용이 가능하다. 본 논문의 첫 번째 목적은 순(생산적)자본스톡에 대한 기존의 연도별 추정결과들(표학길(1988, 1998, 2003)과 표학길·정선영·조정삼(2007))을 확장하고 갱신하는 데 있으며, 총고정자본형성 행렬을 이용하여 분기별 추정결과들을 제시하고, 또한 RAS 방법을 적용하여 마지막 기준년(1997년) 이후의 추정치를 도출하는 데 있다. 본 연구에서는 또한 한국은행의 자산별·산업별 투자비중의 분기자료를 활용하여 자산별·산업별 총고정자본형성 행렬을 분기별로 추계하였다. 본 논문의 두 번째 목적은 잠재 GDP를 두 가지 방식 - 실업률을 증가시키지 않는 수준의 물가 상승률(NAIRU) 추정치에 기초한 생산함수 접근법과, 칼만 필터를 활용한 소규모 개방경제의 다양한 구조적 상태공간 시계열 모형 - 으로 추정하는 데 있다. 추정 결과, 1997∼1998년 외환위기의 경우 실질 GDP를 비롯한 일부 시계열 구조모형의 잠재 GDP는 음의 성장률을 나타낸 반면, 생산함수를 통해 도출한 잠재 GDP 성장률은 양의 성장을 보였다. 반면 2008년 글로벌금융위기를 전후로 한 잠재 GDP 성장률은 감소하였으나 생산함수와 시계열 모형 모두 양의 성장을 한 것으로 나타났다. 이는 IMF 외환위기로 인해 유발된 경기침체가 글로벌 금융위기의 그것보다 강도가 크다는 점을 시사하고 있다. One of the crucial data requirements in estimating potential GDP is the availability of quarterly capital stock by both types of assets and industries. The Republic of Korea (hereinafter called Korea) belongs to a few countries which had conducted national wealth surveys(1968, 1977, 1987 and 1997) together with Japan (1970). The existence of national survey results makes it possible to apply a modified benchmark-year estimation method avoiding the perpetual inventory method which requires long time series of investment data beyond the life-time of reproducible fixed assets. The first purpose of this paper is to extend and update earlier yearly estimates(Pyo(1988)(1998)(2003) and Pyo, Jung and Cho(2007)) of net(productive) capital stock and present quarterly estimates using the Bank of Korea``s Gross Fixed Capital Formation Matrix and applying RAS method to generate yearly estimates beyond the last benchmark-year(1997). We have also generated quarterly gross fixed capital formation matrix by assets and industries using quarterly investment share by assets and industries. The second purpose of the paper is to estimate potential GDP by two alternative methods: a production function approach based on the estimation of NAIRU(Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment) and a variety of structural state-space time-series models of a small open economy using Kalman filter. While the estimates based on production function approach show positive potential growth rates after the financial crisis of 1997-1998, some of the estimates based on structural time-series models show negative potential growth rates in 1998. On the other hand, estimates of potential GDP growth rates in years after the global financial crisis of 2008 based on both production function and time-series models show lower but positive growth rates implying the magnitude of the financial shock was greater in 1997-1998 than in 2008.
Jung-Pyo Hong. Department of Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Effect of Oriental & Western Anti-Stress Agents on the Changes of the Salivary Gland of Rats under Restraint Stress. Proceedings of International Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 162-171, 1999.-Stress caused the changes in the neural, vascular and immune system of the body. If stress is mild so as not to exceed the adaptability of the body to it, the homeostasis of the body is maintained. Otherwise psychological and physical disturbances of the body may occur, ample evidence suggests that stress causes apoptosis of the cells, inducing morphological and functional changes of the tissue as the result of tissue destruction. These disorders are also frequently observed in the orofacial region(dentistry), including not only such paychological oral lesions as Iichen planus and geographic tongue but stress-related diseases like temporomandibular disorder and xerostomia. It is, Therefore, possible that anti-stress medicines and stress-reliving activities may prevent and treat the psychosomatic disorders. In the study, we intended to check whether anti-depressant and anti-stress drugs such as Fluoxetine, Bunsimkium and Bohyulanshintang(oriental herbal medicine) can prevent pathologic changes of the salivary gland under the restraint condition. Seven-week old sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups.: Group Ⅰ, normal control;GroupⅡ,rats were under the restraint stress placed in the stress cages; GroupⅢ, rats were administrated Fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day), p.o., under the restraint stress; GroupⅣ,rats were administrated Bunsimkium, p.o., for 10 days before applying the restraint stress also.; Group Ⅴ,rats were administrated Bohyulanshintang, p.o., for 10 days before they were placed under the restraint stress. The rats were sacrificed at day 0,1,3,5,7 of the experiment. The submandibular glands of the rats were sampled immediately. The levels of clusterin protein and mRNA in the tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry and Northen blot analysis respectively. Our results were as follows. 1. Restraint stress induced apoptosis of the submandibular gland. 2. Restraint stress induced the expression of clusterin. The expression of clusterin reached the maximum level when the cellular apoptosis apparent and decreased after then. 3. Apoptosis was occurred on the acinar cells earlier than ductal cells by restraint stress. 4. In the Northern blot and immunohistochemistry, noremarkable difference of clusterin was found in between the normal control group and the Fluoxetine administrated-restraint stress group. 5. In Bunsimkium administrated-restraint stress group, apoposis was delayed. 6. In the Bohyulanshintang administered-restraint stress group, expression of clusterin increased with time and reached the maximum level at day 5 of the experiment and decreased after then. But apoptosis did not occurthrough all days of the experiment. The overall results suggenst that stress can induce pathologic changes in the salivary glands. By an early response to stress, clusterin is expressed in the glands to protect the glandular cells form the stress. But if stress is so strong and prolonged as to exceed the stress adaptability of the cells, then the cells may undergo apoptosis instead of producing clusterin. Administration of stress-relieving drugs such as Fluoxeting, BunsimKium and Bohyulanshintang may be useful in preventing and treating stress-related salivary glands diseases. Our results are thought to be useful to identify the mechanism of stress-related salivary gland diseases such as xerostomia. Hereafter, among the anti-stress medicines such as western medicine and traditional herb medicine, Bohyulanshintang with minimal side effect could be applied to effectively prevent and treat psychosomatic disease.