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인간안보는 지구적 불확실성을 이해하기 위한 새로운 패러다임으로서 안보의 적절한 대상이 국가보다는 개인이 되어야 함을 주장함으로써 ‘국가안보’(national security)라는 전통적 정의에 문제를 제기하고 있다. 인간안보는 안보의 인간중심적 관점이 국가적, 지역적 그리고 지구적 안정성에 필요하다고 주장한다. 인간안보는 국가체제와 비정부기구(NGOs)의 협력을 통해 국제사회를 통치하고자 하는 시스템인 글로벌 거버넌스의 핵심이 될 필요가 있다. 북한을 제외한 동북아시아는 국가건설의 특징이 된 경제발전으로 인해 인간안보를 증진하는데 상당히 적합한 위치에 있다. 동남아시아의 경우 아세안(ASEAN) 10개 국가들은 하위 지역 거버넌스 시스템내에서 다루어야만 하는 인간안보 의제의 필요성을 인식하고 있다. 특히 한국의 경우 인간안보는 김대중 정부와 노무현 정부의 중심에 있었지만 이명박 정부가 출범하면서 변화되었다. 글로벌 거버넌스에서 인간 안보는 동아시아 국가들의 경험으로부터 추론될 수 있을 것이다. 인간안보의 증진과 강화에 초점을 둔 동아시아 지역 질서는 적어도 이론적으로는 구성될 수 있을 것이라는 것이 이 글의 결론이다. Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security advocates hold that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability. Human security needs to be the main focus of Global Governance, which is the system of governing the international society through the cooperation of states system and non-governmental organizations. Northeast Asia stands to be in a more competent posture to promote human security for its people due to the economic development that has become a hallmark of nation-building, with the exception of North Korea, of course. As for Southeast Asia, the ten members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) recognize the necessity for issues of human security to be tackled in a sub-regional system of governance. For South Korea, specifically, human security has been the locus of the governments of Kim Dae Jung and Rho Moo Hyun but changed course when the Lee Myung Bak’s government was inaugurated. Human security in global governance could be inferred from the experiences of the countries in East Asia. It can be concluded that an East Asian regional architecture that focuses on the promotion and enhancement of human security can be designed at least theoretically.
The inhibition of Brønsted acid sites by nitrogen-containing molecules was quantified under industriallyrelevant hydrocracking conditions. This was achieved by testing bifunctional catalysts based on HUSYzeolite in cyclohexane hydroconversion. For ammonia partial pressures within 0.2-2.8 kPa, thepercentage of inhibited Brønsted sites was superior to 98% at 623 K. Significant reduction in theammonia content caused rather moderate variations on the number of available sites. Conversely, atemperature raise from 600 to 640 K triplicated the vacant Brønsted sites due to the significantendothermicity of ammonia desorption. The inhibiting effect of ammonia can be therefore easilymodulated by temperature.
In this study, we reviewed many reasons for residential mobility in later life. For many resource-limited households, residential mobility is largely unplanned and unpredictable, and is often a result of factors including family stress and breakup, the inability to pay rent and bills, and poor or unsafe housing quality. The relationship between residential mobility and tenure status has been identified in a number of studies. Results of those studies suggest that residential mobility is negatively related to home ownership; subsequent mobility is much higher for renters than it is for those who own their homes. Dimensions of decision-making related to individual health and functioning, individual beliefs and attitudes, physical environment, and social pressures have applied relevance to other significant late-life decisions such as undergoing hip replacement surgery or relinquishing driving. The residential mobility decision described here instigated an environmental change to address physical body, internal expectations, and external pressures.
A 77-year-old woman presented with a trauma to the scalp caused from the blade of a windmill. The condition was persistent from the past 50 years. At the initial examination, a deep, foul-smelling and well-circumscribed ulcer was apparent on the head region, involving the majority of the cranium. Skin biopsy specimens of the lesion were non- specific. The bone biopsy showed extensive necrotic areas of bone and soft tissues, with lymphocytic exudate foci. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed bone destruction principally involving both the parietal bones, and parts of the frontal and occipital bones. Streptococcus parasanguis was isolated from the skin culture, and Proteus mirabilis and Peptostreptococcus sp. were identified in the cultures from the bone. A long-term treatment with amoxicillin- clavulanic acid (1 g/12 h) and levofloxacin (500 mg/ day) was prescribed, but even after 6 months, the lesion remained unchanged. The frequency of occurrence of scalp ulcers in dermatological patients is less, principally because of the rich blood supply to this area. We have not found any similar case report of a scalp ulcer secondary to chronic osteomyelitis discovered more than 50 years after the causal trauma. We want to highlight the importance of complete cutaneous evaluation including skin and bone biopsies, when scalp osteomyelitis is suspected. (Ann Dermatol 23(S3) S364~S367, 2011)
Low temperature waste heat is spare in nature and its amount is huge. The heat pump system in this research is based on the hybrid combination of compression and absorption systems in order to recycle various kinds of industrial waste heat effectively. The objective of this paper is to analyze the combined heat and mass transfer for ammonia-water absorption process within a plate heat exchanger. Bubble absorption process is considered with a cocurrent flow between the liquid and the vapor flow. NH₃/H₂O solution is used as the working fluid and water as the cooling fluid. The initial flow conditions applied on the working fluid are crucial on how the system works. It is found that the heat transfer of the cooling water has more influence than that of ammonia solution on the system performance.