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Background : Microvascular angina or syndrom X is heterogenous and encompasses different pathogenetic entities. Several studies suggest that microvascular angina have good prognosis and occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women. Lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, homocystein, CRP and fibrinogen are the independent risk factor of acute coronary syndrome and are the chief underlying cause of atherosclerosis. We investigated clinical characteristics and markers in patients with microvascular angina. Methods : We studies 23 patients diagnosed with microvascular angina and 16 control group with negative treadmill exercise test and no significant coronary angiogram. We investigated clinical characteristics in patients group and evaluated symptom during a follow-up period of 4.2± 2.5 month. Exercise time in treadmill exercise test was compared between patients and control group. We assessed the level of markers, such as lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, homocystein, CRP and ESR in two groups. Results : There is no difference in age between two groups. Patients group had a tendency to increase in female, hypertension, DM, and smoking history, but there was no statistical significance difference. Exercise duration time was significantly decreased in patients with microvascular angina (p<0,05). Serum lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholestrol, Triglyceride, ESR, Fibrinogen and Homocystein value were no significant difference between microvascular angina and control group. Only CRP was significantly high in patients with microvascular angina (p<0.05). Conclusion : There was no statistical significance difference in age, sex, hypertension, DM and smoking history between two groups but patients group had a tendency to increase the prevalence in hypertension, DM and smoking history, female. Also, Symptom improvement and disappearance in follow-up was presented in 11 patients of 19(57.9%). Exercise tolerance was worse in patients group than control group. CRP value was significantly higher in patients group than control group. There was no statistical significance difference in lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, homocystein, ESR and Fibrinogen between two groups.
As modem society becomes more diverse and complicated, the need of administrative law which is more professional and technical than the legislative law is required. The enlargement and technicalization of the administrative function has made not only that the legislative law cannot carry an effective deed but also that it is not appropriate to be dealt in the administrative work. In the case of the violation of restrictive discretion, than activity is illegal. But free discretion activity is not an object of judicial review. According to the deviation and abuse of the administrative powers, the legislative body looks for a principle of law relating to the same activity of administrative power and has to make extentions for individual understanding. And the limits of administrative discretion are not related to unification, so the administrative powers need to be restrained by procedural control and public good. For guaranting efficient administrative activity and security of the individual rights at the same time, administrative discretion will admit that proper discretion will be used in all matters no matter small or seemingly insignificant the scope may be. And within the limits of administrative discretion, pertinent administrative powers will be exercised and then the efficiency of administrative and democratization of administration will be established.
A referendum system is not intended to nullify the indirect democratic system of representation but to enhance and improve the latter s effectiveness. It does connote all kinds of inherent problems. It can cause residents to decide illogically to remove the good aspect of a representative system and to be unnecessarily concerned. It can bring about administrative confusion by the misuse of votes. And although it provides a way for the executors of the referendum to tackle issues head-on, it may provide a means for the head of local government and local assembllymen to evade responsibility. On the other hand, a referendum system has advantages that residents, as the ultimate rulers of the local administration, can take part in the local administration, adress problems and any opposition for themselves, make a law concerning major issues, and call to account a law that they passed. It also allows residents to improve concern for local autonomy, to bring about effective political education, and to advance residents elementary political knowledge. As mentioned above, the referendum system has merits and faults at the same time. Therefore we cannot draw a conclusion about the definite value of the referendum system. If the system has advantages, it also has its week points. And if anyone wants to abuse the system, he or she can abuse it. In any case, we introduce a direct democratic system to compensate for the faults of an indirect democratic system, the discontent of the administration and the politics of an indirect democratic system. It is a problem of how well we can use the functions of a referendum system. When we examine the application of the referendum system by other countries, we can see that each country enforces the referendum uniquely and specifically. For example, in the United States, an administration area or local government charter must execute a referendum for any important articles. So, the United States is called a country coercive about referendum . In Japan, there are two systems. One is formal referendum; the other is a practical referendum. Of the first is the constitutional referendum of regulations. Also in the case of other countries, the referendum system is alive and well. However, in the case of Korea, referendum awareness has been insufficient up to the present time. These days, one of the rules of local government is about the introduction of referendums, Article 13-2. But some necessary laws are missing. A country that makes the pertinent law of refemdum must consider several things: the basic purpose of the referendum and the laws pertinent to the referendum process. First, residents have to have a sense of mastery and responsibility because they are the primary subjects of local govemmnt. Second, since the local assembly in a democratic system is a fundamental institution of local government, it must unify and mediate the needs of residents actively and with diversity. Third, since the referendum system allows room for abuse, the prod& system has to be repaired and information must be open. Fourth, Articles that clearly define and include the legalization of referendum, referendum object, referendum procedure, referendum initiative and referendum force are necessary. Fifth, the referendum laws should produce articles of a general nature; it is reasonable to entrust free judgment to local governments concerning more specific articles. And the opening of information, under the recognition that administrative information is not the private property of the government office but the public property of citizens and the government office, includes both sides, the opening of information and public relations. The one is the side that the government office admits its duty to respond in such a case as citizens ask for the opening of information. The other is the side that government office positively provides information for citizens. To build a free and rich society, the opening of information will have to be developed into the following direction. Firstly, the law system of the opening of information has to be established. Secondly, administrative public relations must be performed in the stage of decision-making, not in the stage of policy implementation as a means of obtaining citizens cooperation. So to speak, for the realization of ideals of the true citizen participation, citizens right for opening of information must be guaranteed and a more positive information supply should also be ensured. Thirdly, the management of official documents and data should be improved to be proper to the goal of the opening of information. And finally, civil servants and citizens behavior on the opening of information must be led to become positive toward the opening of information through local administration and experience education in the real training field.
Three anticancer agents which are different in time or dosage dependence, as well as in phase specificity namely mitomycin and adriamycin from natural products and widely used synthetic drug 5 FU, were evaluated for their chemosensivitivy on the five different cancer cell lines ; Four epidermoid carcinomas originated from larynx, cervix, skin and gut were used together with one osteosarcoma as the target cells of single and combined administration of anticancer drugs. Semiautomated tetrazolium dye assay(MTT) appears to offer an attractive option for chemosensitivity of the head and neck cancers since it is a simple, valid and inexpensive method of assessing chemosensityvity for large sample in a short time. The results obtained from this study were as follows. l. Good correlations were obtained with the results of the MTT test and those of ^3H thymidine uptake assay. 2. LD_50 values of HIST and St.Ca, which showed relatively high doubling time on adriamycin were 30㎍/㎖ and 15 ㎍/㎖ while those of HeLa, HEp-2 and KHOS/NP were 2.1㎍/㎖, 4.8㎍/㎖, and 6.8㎍/㎖ respectively. 3. The LD_50 value of 5-FU five cancer cells on were very high ranging from 15㎍/㎖ to almost indefinite number, which means 5 FU is very resisitant to epidermotd carcinomas or osteosarcoma examined in this study. 4. Mitomycin was relatively effective showing 80% cancer cell killing effect on HeLa, 70% on St.Ca, and 50% on HEp-2 at the high concentrations used. 5. Adriamycin was the most effective showing 90% cancer cell killing effect on KHOS/NP, 98% on Hela, 80% on HEp-2, and St. Ca. The least susceptible cancer cells towa adriamycin was HIST having only 55% cell killing effect at the high concentration. 6. Combined therapy of adriamycin and 5-FU was more effective than single administration in all the cases, examined. Most effective synergism was observed on St. Ca. At the low concentration, showing 21 times higher than each single administration.
Fatigue life of base and weld metal of 0.17C-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel have been investigated in synthetic seawater under smooth and notched conditions at frequencies of 4Hz and 30Hz. Most data for the alloy steel agree with that for HY-100 steel. The form of a simple power relation can be suggested as a conservative design criteria for the fatigue life in aggresive environments.
To study the lipid adsorption characteristic of chitosans with different molecular weights and the degrees of deacetylation, in vitro test and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis have been performed for the measurement of lipid adsorption characteristics of chitosan. The degrees of deacetylation in chitosans were 70%, 85%, and 92% at different deacetylation times (1 hr, 2 hrs, 3 hrs), respectively. The molecular weight of each chitosan was controlled by enzymatic hydrolysis, and then the molecular weight of the chitosan was 4 kDa. The bulk density, water holding capacity and fat binding capacity of each chitosan powder were 96.2-504.0%, 374.4-1217.9%, and 307.0-659.3%, respectively. The higher molecular weight of chitosan was exhibited the lower bulk density and the higher water and fat binding capacities. Binding capacities of chitosan powders to bile salts, cholesterol and linoleic acid were 41.2-63.3%, 40.8-67.4%, 42.6-72.6%, respectively. In NIR spectrum of lipid adsorbed chitosan the occurrence static eletronical binding between chitosan and lipid was identified by NIR spectrum peak induced from combination of carboxylic group in lipid and amino group in chitosan. In conclusion, the higher degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan showed the higher lipid binding capacity and the lipid adsorption of chitosan were occurred by combination of carboxylic group in lipids and amino group in chitosan
NIR spectroscopic analysis was used for the measurement of deproteinization and deacetylation to apply the merits of NIR spectroscopic analysis to the quality management in the process of chitin and chitosan production. In measuring squid pen and red snow crab shell, which are raw materials of chitin and chitosan by NIR, there were typical peaks in 1200 nm, 1510 nm, 2050 nm and 2180 nm. Squid pen had somewhat higher peak than red snow crab shell. In producing chitin, amount of protein was decreased. Measuring it by NIR, reduction of protein caused by deproteinization was identified in producing chitin. Chitosan is a derivative material made from chitin by processing the deacetylation. During this processing, acetyl groups were removed and amid bends were appeared. From NIR spectra, peaks at 1530 nm and 2030 nm indicated amide II peak of chitosan, and these peaks were used for identifying the differences of structure between chitin and chitosan. The error in measurement of nonidentified sample was below 1% and the error in the standard curve was below 0.006. These errors were very low and the accuracy of NIR was considered to by superior to the existing methods.
미래 사회를 대비하기 위한 개인의 개성을 존중과 창의적인 능력을 지닌 인간을 양성을 목적으로 충청남도 지역의 초 ㆍ 중고등학생들을 대상으로 한 창의력 경연대회가 공주대학교 과학교육연구소에서 개최되었다. 충청남도 초 ㆍ중 ㆍ 고등학생들을 대상으로 실시한 창의력 경연대회는 창조적 아이디어를 내어 스스로 문제를 해결해 나갈 수 있는 교육 프로그램을 제공하는 좋은 기회였음이 확인되었으나, 일부의 팀에서만 참신하고 재미있는 아이디어들이 제안되었다. 여학생의 참가자 수가 상당히 증가하였으며, 대체적으로 입상권의 학생들의 상당 부분이 여학생이라는 것이 특이할만하다. 학년이 올라감에 따라서 창의적인 아이디어를 내는 양이나 질에 있어서 뒤떨어지는 것으로 분석되었으며, 토론 학습의 적응력이 미흡하고 발표력 및 청취력에 있어서도 떨어지는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 중 ㆍ고등학교의 학교교육에서도 학생들에게 프로젝트형 탐구학습 프로그램의 적용은 물론 토론식 수습을 통한 학생들의 사고의 전환의 기회를 제공해야 할 것으로 사료된다. The creativity competition was held to foster the creativity of elementary and secondary school students in the Institute of Science Education, Kongju national University. It was found that the creativity competition effected on the improvement of inventing creative ideas and problem solving activities. But, only some competitors participated in semifinal and final contests, presented original and interesting ideas. More female students participated in competition than last year. More female participants were awarded a prize than males. Totally, participants were defective in discussion and communication, and presentation and listening ideas. Increasing grades correlated inversely with creativity and originality. There is need of inquiry project teaming programs and presenting opportunities of conversion of thinking by discussing instructions in school