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In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
The data for this research were collected by the standarized interview in the mountaneous National Park of Mt. Songni on October of 1982. F-test was applied to analyse the significant differences among the activities in the park by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits. Demand functions for the whole tourism and recreation experience of the national parks were taken by the OLS regression after multiplying the square roots of the populations to various variables. Demand functions for the national park were also taken by the regression. Finally the tourism and recreation values of the parks per user-day and for 1984 year were estimated by the main activities in the parks. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. In Mt. Songni, demands for the national park also differed at 1% significance level by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, camp, and by the purpose of visits: relaxation, mount climbing and camping. 2. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the whole experience was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person; R²=0.661. The demand functions for the whole experience by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, no overnight and by the purpose of visits: relaxation and mount-climbing were well explained by the variables of the round distances and the populations, but the demand for the whole experience of the users of camp and for camping was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person. 3. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the national park was well fitted by the added costs (in km); R²=0.946. The demand for the park was theoretically 1 person when the added cost was 1,097Km. The demand functions for the park by the type of accommodations were also well fitted by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,840km, Which was the largest, the demand for the activity to use the private house was theoretically 1 person. Those demand functions for the park by the purpose of visits were well explained by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,503km, which was the largest, the theoretical demand for the mount-climbing was 1 person. 4. In Mt. Songni, the tourism and recreation value of the national park by the total users was 209.09km per user-day and 225.51 million km for 1984 year. The tourism and recreation values of the park by the users and by the type of accommodations: inn, camp, private house, no over-night were respectively 371.14km, 116.16km, 420.38km, and 124.75km per user-day. The tourism and recreation value of the park for 1984 year was 100.22 million km in case of the users who used inn and 81.44 million km in case of the users who didn't stay overnight. By the purpose of visits, the users who visited the park for mount-climbing valued for the park the largest 225.03km and those for relaxation valued 222.71km per user-day. The largest value by the users for 1984 year among the purpose of visits was 99.15 million km in case of the users who visited the park for mount-climbing and the next largest value was 85.24 million km in case of the users for relaxation.
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
마곡워터프론트 조성계획은 한강르네상스계획과 연계하여 마곡지구를 특화된 수변도시로 발전하기 위하여 정책적으로 제시된 공모로 시작되었다. 도시 환경과 공원의 특성을 살려 제안 당선된 Heart of Magok is Nature of Living Water안은 다음과 같은 특성을 지닌다. 첫째, 유수지, 청정호수, 주운수로, 생태공원 등의 시설을 중심으로 테마형 공원을 구성한다. 둘째, 녹색제방(Green Levee)이 공원의 중심 기능을 담당하며, 상징적 역할을 한다. 셋째, 공원의 순환동선, 물에너지의 순환 등이 종합적인 공원의 지속가능성을 확보하고 있다. 넷째, 공원과 주변도시와의 접근성을 높여 이용의 편의성을 고려한다. 다섯째, 시간에 따라 성장하는 공원의 이상을 제안하고 있다. 이상과 같은 계획 특성은 공원의 이용성을 높이며, 워터프론트로서의 역할에 젓실하고, 도심에서 공원의 역할을 한 단계 높이는 역할을 기대하게 하였다. 그러나 이후 도시환경의 변화에 따라 다양한 발전 전략을 모색하게 되었으며, 특히 경제성, 환경성 등을 중심으로 각각 육상공원의 확보, 업무·상업기능의 강화, 그리고 공원의 환경성 강화 등의 방안이 고려되고 있다. The development plan of Magok waterfront has begun with the public design contest with an intention that the Magok District is to advance into a specialized waterside city in connection with the Hangang Renaissance Plan. The winning work, the ‘Heart of Magok is Nature of Living Water’ plan, contained the characteristics of urban environment and park as follows. First, it builds up the theme park around the facilities of detention reservoir, clean lake, navigation channel, ecology park and others. Second, the green levee undertakes the central function of the park as well as symbolic role thereof. Third, it secures the sustainability of a general park with the circulation of park, circulation of water energy and the like. Fourth, it considers the convenience of utility by enhancing the accessibility with parks and surrounding cities. And fifth, it proposes the more than a simple park that grows in time. The foregoing plan characteristics heightens the utility of park, substantiate the role as water front, and expects to have the role to one notch upgrade in the roles of urban parks. And, along with the effort, following the changes of Magok District, base facilities and urban environment, the changes of Magok Water Front may be sought with respect to change into ground park, plan to strengthen the environment, strengthening of commercial and office functions, and this is considered in relations to the comprehensive development plan of Magok District. This is considered as a part of seeking for diverse improvement plan in accordance with the changes in urban environment, and it seeks for possibilities through seeking changes of program together with the physical changes in lake parks and ground parks.
The purpose of this investigation is to propose a planning method for the possibility of accepting a housing as a utilization plan of a long term unexecuted park site. Currently, the park has been neglected due to lack of financial resources of the local government. In 2009, It is possible to develop a certain area as a non-park facility under condition that the park is built and donated. In the several cities, various projects for development of parks are being carried out, so the standard for securing the publicness of the park is needed. So, I would like to solve the problems such as social conflict with existing residents due to privatization of the park site and formation of park without considering the conditions of the park, and to study how to effectively utilize the park. To do this, we examine the conditions such as location condition, proximity to public transportation, site size, topography, and contact conditions. And we will present realization methods such as land use, development density, appropriate development method considering landscape, efficient housing type, and type of community facility.
마곡중앙공원 조성계획은 기존 마곡워터프론트 계획이 백지화 된 이후 다양한 논의를 거쳐 보타닉가든으로 방향성이 결정되었으며, 식물원과 공원이 결합되는 새로운 타입의 도시공원으로 방향이 제시되었다. 마곡이 가지고 있는 지형적 특성과 역사적 의의, 그리고 도시공간에서의 입지특성은 공원조성을 위한 기본 철학과 조성원칙으로 발전하였으며, 공간계획으로 구체화 되었다. 이와 같은 개념은 식물원, 호수공원, 열린숲공원, 생태천이원 등 4개의 존으로 영역화하여 세부공간계획으로 구체화 된다. 특히 식물원 부분은 핵심적인 공간으로 약 128,000㎡의 규모로 조성되어 새로운 명소가 될 것으로 기대하며, 도시공원에서 경험할 수 있는 호수와 잔디마당은 도시민들이 쉴 수 있는 여가의 공간으로 조성될 것이다. 또한 마곡중앙공원은 내ㆍ외적 성장의 개념을 바탕으로 조성될 것이며, 100년의 시간을 통해 성장하게 될 것이다. 이와 같은 종합적인 계획은 기존 선행하여 연구되었던 현대공원설계의 특성에서 제안한 여섯 가지 전략과 밀접하게 연관성을 갖고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. After the Magok Waterfront Plan was annulled, discussions led to the decision to develop Magok Central Park as a botanical garden. It was proposed that the botanical garden and park be combined to create a new type of city park. The geographical characteristics and historical implications of Magok and the location’s urban spatial characteristics were developed into a basic philosophy and a composition principle for a park design and then shaped into a spatial plan. The concept divides the space into four zones, including a botanical garden, a lake park, an open forest park, and an ecological succession area, which are given shape through a detailed spatial plan. The botanical garden, in particular, as a core space that occupies 128,000㎡, is expected to become a new attraction. A lake and a lawn in the city park will become a leisure area where citizens can relax. Moreover, Magok Central Park will be built based on the concept of internal and external growth, and it will grow over 100 years. It was identified that this comprehensive plan is closely related to six strategies for modern park design as delineated in existing studies.