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In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
The data for this research were collected by the standarized interview in the mountaneous National Park of Mt. Songni on October of 1982. F-test was applied to analyse the significant differences among the activities in the park by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits. Demand functions for the whole tourism and recreation experience of the national parks were taken by the OLS regression after multiplying the square roots of the populations to various variables. Demand functions for the national park were also taken by the regression. Finally the tourism and recreation values of the parks per user-day and for 1984 year were estimated by the main activities in the parks. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. In Mt. Songni, demands for the national park also differed at 1% significance level by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, camp, and by the purpose of visits: relaxation, mount climbing and camping. 2. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the whole experience was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person; R²=0.661. The demand functions for the whole experience by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, no overnight and by the purpose of visits: relaxation and mount-climbing were well explained by the variables of the round distances and the populations, but the demand for the whole experience of the users of camp and for camping was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person. 3. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the national park was well fitted by the added costs (in km); R²=0.946. The demand for the park was theoretically 1 person when the added cost was 1,097Km. The demand functions for the park by the type of accommodations were also well fitted by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,840km, Which was the largest, the demand for the activity to use the private house was theoretically 1 person. Those demand functions for the park by the purpose of visits were well explained by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,503km, which was the largest, the theoretical demand for the mount-climbing was 1 person. 4. In Mt. Songni, the tourism and recreation value of the national park by the total users was 209.09km per user-day and 225.51 million km for 1984 year. The tourism and recreation values of the park by the users and by the type of accommodations: inn, camp, private house, no over-night were respectively 371.14km, 116.16km, 420.38km, and 124.75km per user-day. The tourism and recreation value of the park for 1984 year was 100.22 million km in case of the users who used inn and 81.44 million km in case of the users who didn't stay overnight. By the purpose of visits, the users who visited the park for mount-climbing valued for the park the largest 225.03km and those for relaxation valued 222.71km per user-day. The largest value by the users for 1984 year among the purpose of visits was 99.15 million km in case of the users who visited the park for mount-climbing and the next largest value was 85.24 million km in case of the users for relaxation.
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
본 연구는 문화콘텐츠 비즈니스의 한 분야인 테마파크 비즈니스와 관련하여, 기존의 대규모 야외 복합 테마파크 중심의 접근에서 벋어나 소규모?소자본 전략의 실내 테마파크를 지향하는 흐름에 주목하고 있다. 기존의 대규모 야외 복합 테마파크가 수천억 원 규모의 자본과 고난이도의 기술력, 최신 운영 노하우 등을 필요로 함으로써 큰 리스크와 함께 높은 신규 진입장벽을 가지고 있는 것에 반해, 최근의 실내 테마파크들은 효율적인 리스크 관리와 탄력적인 시장전략으로 시장진입에 성공하고 있기 때문이다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 실내 테마파크들 가운데 새로운 시장인 국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크 시장의 현황을 살펴보고, 국산 캐릭터의 프로퍼티 가치 확장과 국내 테마파크 시장의 확산이라는 두 가지 확장의 측면에서 이 시장의 시장전략을 살펴보고자 한다. 이를 위해 테마파크에 관한 선행연구들을 검토하여 공간적 분류와 테마별 분류, 주 사용자층에 따른 분류 등을 기준으로 국내에 존재하는 테마파크의 유형을 나누어보았다. 또한 국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크 가운데 수도권 소재 5개소를 직접 방문하여 현황조사를 실시하였고, 수도권 소재 2개소와 지방 4개소는 업체 담당자를 통해 현황자료를 입수하여 분석하였다. 또 올 4월 25일 신규 개관한 ‘디보빌리지’ 청계천점을 방문한 관람객을 대상으로 만족도 조사를 시행하여 분석하였다. 이를 통해 현재 국산 캐릭터를 테마로 한 어린이 실내 테마파크 비즈니스의 구조를 분석하고 수행중인 시장전략의 유효성을 분석할 수 있는 토대를 제시하여 보았다. 본 연구를 통하여 테마파크 비즈니스의 틈새시장이라 할 수 있는 실내 테마파크 비즈니스에 대한 체계적이고 심도 있는 논의의 단초를 마련하여 소규모 지역밀착형 실내 테마파크들이 국내 테마파크 산업의 유력한 비즈니스 모델로 연구될 수 있기를 기대한다. 또한 캐릭터 비즈니스의 측면에서도 국산 애니메이션 캐릭터들의 프로퍼티 가치의 공간적?스토리텔링적 확장의 새로운 모델을 정립하는 계기가 될 수 있기를 바란다. Regarding the theme park business as an area of cultural content business, this study focuses on the trend of pursuing indoor theme parks as a small-scale?small capital strategy escaped from the existing approach oriented to large-scale outdoor complex theme parks. It is because although existing large-scale outdoor complex theme parks require the capital with the scale of hundreds of billion won and also high-level technique and the latest operational know-how that they have a great barrier for new entry as well as enormous risk, the rent indoor theme parks succeed in market entry with efficient risk management and flexible market strategies. Thereupon, this study examines the current status of the children’s indoor theme park market with Korean characters as their theme as a new market among the indoor theme parks and also investigates the market strategies of this market in the two aspects of expansion: the expansion of Korean characters’ property value and the expansion of the local theme park market. For that, this article reviewed the advanced researches on theme parks and divided the types of theme parks existing in Korea with the criteria of classification by space and theme or classification by main users. Also, among the children’s indoor theme parks with Korean characters as their theme, this study visited five ones located in the capital area to examine the current status. And about two located in the capital area and also four in the local area, the current data were received from the persons in charge of the companies for analysis. Also, with the subjects of spectators visiting the ‘DIBO VILLAGE, Cheonggye-cheon’ newly opened on April 25th, 2012, the research on satisfaction was conducted for analysis. Through that, this study analyzed the structure of the existing children’s indoor theme park business with Korean characters as their theme and suggested the ground to analyze the effectiveness of market strategies being implemented. It is expected that this study will establish the clues of systematic and profound discussion for the indoor theme park business that can be said to be the niche market of the theme park business and allow the small-scale areal indoor theme parks to be examined as a significant business model for the local theme park industry. In the aspect of character business as well, it is expected that this will give a chance to establish a new model of spatial?storytelling expansion in terms of the property value of Korean animation characters.
(연구배경 및 목적) 근린공원은 노인이 경제적 부담 없이 손쉽게 접근하여 다양한 신체활동을 실행할 수 있는 장소이며, 체력 증진 및 건강 유지가 이루어지는 도시시설이다. 그러나 우리나라의 많은 공원은 설계자의 주관적이고 일률적인 공원설계 기준에 의해 조성되어 있어 노인들이 이용하기에는 많은 불편함이 있다. 이에 본 연구는 노인들의 건강 유지 장소로서의 근린공원 이용 활성화를 위해 공원환경 평가지표를 선정하고, 대구광역시의 근린공원을 대상으로 평가지표를 적용하여 노인의 공원환경에 대한 인식을 분석하였으며, 노인의 개인적 특성에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이를 탐색하였다. (연구방법) 연구대상지는 노인인구비율이 14% 이상인 대구광역시 중구, 동구, 남구, 서구를 대상으로 하였으며, 연구 대상공원은 행정구별 1개의 근린공원을 선정하였다. 공원환경 평가지표의 선정은 총 10편의 선행연구 고찰 및 브레인스토밍 과정을 통해 이루어졌으며, 설문조사는 노인들을 대상으로 2차에 걸쳐 진행되었다. 설문데이터의 분석에는 기술통계 및 빈도분석, T-검정 및 F-검정(Scheffe 검증)이 활용되었다. (결과) 노인의 관점에서 공원환경 관련 선행연구 고찰 및 브레인스토밍 과정을 통해 ‘다양한 운동시설’, ‘운동시설의 안전성’, ‘충분한 휴게시설’, ‘휴게시설의 안락함’ 등 총 20개 지표가 선정되었다. 설문에 의해 수집된 290개 데이터를 통해 노인의 공원환경 인식을 분석한 결과, ‘공원까지의 거리’, ‘충분한 녹지면적’, ‘충분한 그늘’, ‘이동의 무장애성’ 등의 지표가 4.0점 이상으로 높은 환경 수준을 가지는 것으로 분석되었다. 반면, ‘원예활동지원 공간’, ‘다양한 볼거리’, ‘복지시설과의 연계’ 등의 지표는 3.2점 이하의 낮은 환경 수준으로 평가되었다. 또한, 노인의 개인적 특성에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이를 분석한 결과, 성별, 연령대, 교육수준, 소득수준에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이가 통계적으로 유의하게 분석되었다. 남성보다 여성이 전반적인 공원환경을 긍정적으로 평가하였으며, 60대는 동적 시설에 대한 인식이, 80대는 정적 시설에 대한 인식이 높게 나타났다. (결론) 본 연구에서 도출된 결과들은 노인인구 밀집지역의 근린공원 리모델링 사업, 주변 환경 개선 사업 등을 진행코자 할 경우 의미 있는 기초자료가 될 것으로 판단된다. (Background and Purpose) Neighborhood parks are places where the elderly can easily access and perform various physical activities without without financial burden and are urban facilities where they can improve physical strength and maintain health. However, many parks in Korea are built according to the subjective and uniform design standards of the landscape designers, so there are many inconveniences for the elderly to use them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to select the assessment indicators in order promote park use the elderly as a place for maintaining health, to analyze the perception of park environment by applying the indicators targeting the neighborhood parks of Daegu Metropolitan City, and to explore the differences in perception of park environment according to the individual characteristics. (Method) The study areas were Jung-gu, Dong-gu, Nam-gu, and Seo-gu of Daegu, where the ratio of the elderly population was 14% or more and one neighborhood park was selected for each administrative district. The assessment indicators of park environment were selected based on 10 previous studies and brainstorming and the questionnaire survey was conducted in two rounds for the elderly. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, T-test, and F-test (Scheffe’s method) were used to analyze the questionnaire data. (Results) Through the review and brainstorming related to the park environment from the perspective of the elderly, a total of 20 indicators were selected such as 'various exercise facilities', 'safety of exercise facilities', 'enough resting facilities', and 'convenience of resting facilities'. As a result of analyzing the perception of the elderly's park environment based on the 290 survey data, the indicators such as 'distance to the park', 'area of green space', 'shade by trees', and 'convenience of walk' had a high environmental level of 4.0 or more. On the other hand, the indicators such as 'horticultural support space', 'various attractions', and 'linkage with welfare facilities' were evaluated at a low environmental level of 3.2 points or less. In addition, as a result of analyzing the difference in perception of park environment according to the individual characteristics of the elderly, the differences according to gender, age group, education level, and income level were analyzed statistically significant. Women rather than men perceived the overall park environment more positively. Those in their 60s had positive perceptions of dynamic facilities and those in their 80s had positive perceptions of static facilities. (Conclusions) The findings from this study will be meaningful basic data to carry out a remodeling for a neighborhood park or a project for improving the neighborhood environment in the elderly concentration area.
In the past, the implementers (public enterprises or local public corporations) of projects in public development districts sold parking lot land to local governments for free or at cost. However, after the parking-lot law was amended in 1999, the land was sold to the private sector under a general competitive bidding method. As a result, the provision of parking lot land in public development project districts did not do more to ameliorate the parking shortage than when it was supplied to local governments. While there are a variety of reasons for this, the most significant cause is that the development of parking lots involved parking-only buildings, but in most cases collective building were built. In general commercial land, semi-residential, or residential areas, the requirements for establishing an aggregated building are clearly defined in the Collective Building Act, but the requirements for parking areas are applied differently. That is, the law was often misinterpreted. In the case of parking-only buildings for parking lots, it is necessary to establish a system of laws to better ensure the securing of parking lots from the perspective of pre-sale consumers. This study argues that the conditions of collective buildings must be met for parking-only buildings. Local governments stipulate the allowable range of additional facilities for parking lots by ordinance, but if the construction of parking-only buildings involves a collective building, it cannot be sold under the same concept as the general commercial building. This study concludes that revision of the Enforcement Rules of the Parking Lot Law is requires to protect these rights by securing the parking lot shares of those receiving pre-sale facilities.