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In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
Due to the development of the medical and science technology, people’s life expectancy has increased and accordingly, people’s interest in physical activity and health promotion is steadily increasing. However, modern people are too busy that most of them have difficulties in having separate time to exercise. Therefore, an environment must be prepared which induces people’s physical activity naturally and substainably. Meanwhile, New York City in the U.S. presented Active Design Guidelines that suggests urban and building design strategies which resulted in reducing the rate of obesity and adult diseases of the citizens. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze domestic urban parks based on the NYC ‘Active Design Guidelines’ and to suggest more effective ways of active design to our domestic urban parks. The importance of health promotion activities for modern people and the NYC ‘Active Design Guidelines’ were analyzed. Among the checklist of active design guidelines in NYC, category items that are suitable for domestic urban parks were extracted and a checklist for domestic urban parks was derived. Based on the reorganized checklist, a field investigation was conducted on three domestic urban parks located in Mapo-gu: Haneul Park, Noeul Park, and Nanjicheon Park. Lastly, a conclusion was drawn through the analysis on the application of active design in domestic urban parks based on the checklist. The results are as follows. First, all the three domestic urban parks had convenient and various facilities. However, they should be supplied various places in order to increase the citizens accessibility and to increase the frequency or duration of visits to the parks. Second, the opening hours were different, and it was difficult to secure stability for pedestrians because the pedestrian roads and automobile roads were not physically separated. Therefore, the adjustment of the opening hours and the physical separation of roads are necessary to allow citizens to access to the parks safely at any time. Third, in the case of information provision, maps and signs existed in all three domestic urban parks, but were not giving detailed information. Bicycle roads were provided around the park making people accessible to the park, but were not well provided inside the park. Therefore, more specific and diverse information should be given to pedestrians and bicyclists using parks. If active design guidelines for Seoul and Seoul citizens are presented in the future, domestic urban parks will be reformed which will eventually help citizens to improve their health.
Forest parks are regarded as one of the scientific ways to keep the forest sustainably developed, meanwhile deliver the benefits to the general public. The development of forest parks in China has experienced simply more than 20 years and both the exploitation and management institutions haven’t been set up systematically, which, in reality, reflects as inadequate legislative and policy framework. Without the regulatory guidance and collaborating assistance of environment relating governmental sectors at both national and local levels, it’s inevitable that the development of forest parks in the country would face constant problems and conflicts. Therefore, it might be helpful to sort out this conflicts and problems and further more to work out how to solve the barriers. The research in this report started with introducing the IUCN Protected Areas Categories, the overall current situations in China and compared the definition of forest parks in the country and that in international experience. It is to aim to find out the real usufruct rights conflicts during the exploitation and management of forest parks and the method used in this report is field visit, previous investigation, collecting secondary materials, interview, analysis and comparison. The research result in this report couldn’t cover all the conflict situations during the forest parks’ exploitation and management in China but will provide the analysis of this problem from the legal perspective. Practical application and concerning suggestion will be fully discussed in Part 5 in terms of legislative, social and environmental effects.
본 연구에서는 역사와 문화를 품고 있는 목포 삼학도공원의 재정비계획 수립과정에서 이용만족도를 높이기 위한 계획 및 설계에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하고자, 공원 이용자들을 대상으로 만족도 분석을 진행하였다. 구체적으로 먼저, 역사적인 측면에서 삼학도공원의 특징을 살펴본 후, 공원시설의 구성과 운용실태에 대해 살펴보았다. 다음으로 삼학도공원의 이용과 만족도 조사를 시민과 관광객을 대상으로 실시한 결과로는 첫째, 삼학도공원은 주말을 이용해서 가족 및 친구와 함께 여가를 즐기기 위한 공간으로서 근린공원의 특징을 보이고 있는데, 이는 시민들이 삼학도공원을 근린공원의 이미지로 인식하는 것과 맥락을 같이 하고 있다. 둘째, 삼학도공원을 찾는 관광객들은 전남지역에 거주하는 사람들이 많았고, 연령층은 시민과 비슷하게 40대와 50대가 가장 높은 것으로 나타났고, 이들은 가족과 함께 관광목적으로 방문한 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 시민과 관광객 모두 삼학도공원의 이용 및 시설에 대해서는 대체로 만족하는 것으로 나타났으며, 시민은 그 이유로 편안한 쉼터와 좋은 자연환경이라고 응답하였다. 넷째, 시민과 관광객 모두 삼학도공원 이용 시 관리실, 화장실, 매점 등 안내 및 편의시설의 부족하다는 문제점을 제기하고 있으며, 삼학도에 새롭게 만들어졌으면 하는 시설과 사업에 대해시민과 관광객들은 섬의 정체성을 나타내기 위해 특색 없는 다리를 대신하여 육지와 삼학도를 이어주는 가동교 설치를 원하는 것으로 나타났다. 이용자간 만족도를 고려한 공원 공간개선 방향은 정리하면, 첫째 매립지의 기존 공원Zone(A)은 현재 공원시설을 최대한 활용함을 원칙으로 하고 이용측면에서 제기된 문제점을 개선하면서 지역 정체성을 살리고 최근의 트렌드에 맞는 새로운 아이템을 도입하는 방향으로 설계한다. 둘째, 삼학도 활용 Zone(B)은 복원된 삼학도를 적극적으로 활용하는 방향으로 설계한다. 셋째, 공원입구 Zone(C)는 공원의 위치 등 인지도 향상을 위한 안내 홍보 및 가동교 등 랜드마크 설치, 동선 유도책 등이 필요하다. 넷째, 목포내항 삼학도 해안 Zone(D)는 우수한 조망점이라는 특징을 적극 활용하고, 내륙과 내항측에서 접근이 용이한 동선 및 시선 유도계획 방향으로 설계한다. 본 연구의 결과를 통해 섬을 활용한 공원을 조성할 시 시설이용도 및 이용자 만족도를 높이 기 위해 일반적인 근린공원으로 그 역할을 제안하는 것보다는 해당 공원을 통해 지역의 문화와 정서를 담고 섬만의 정체성을 살리는 전략과 계획이 필요하며, 이러한 방식이 섬을 활용한 공원의 지속가능성을 보장할 수 있을 것이다. In this study, the author analyzed satisfaction with Samhak Island Park among park users with an aim to provide basic data essential to be applied in the planning and design phases in a way that enhances their satisfaction in the process of setting up the reorganization plan of this park entailing both the history and culture of Mokpo City. As a first step, the author first examined the characteristics of this park in terms of history and closely looked into the organization and features of park facilities. Secondly, the direction of space improvement plans was proposed based on the findings of the survey on satisfaction among residents and visitors at Samhak Island Park. To summarize the ways to improve park space considering satisfaction among park users, the current park Zone(A) at Mokpo landfill should be designed to address problems in terms of visiting, uphold the local identity, and introduce popular and trendy items, while maintaining the principle of making the best use of the present park facilities. Second, Zone(B) should be designed in a way that takes greater advantages of the restored Samhak Island. Third, Zone(C) representing an entrance requires tasks such as promotional activities to make public its location, landmark installments such as a movable bridge, and improved path guidance. Fourth, Zone(D) by the ocean of this island at the inner harbor should be designed to reflect its outstanding view point in the way that the users are allowed to have easier access from land as well as from the inner harbor as part of its view-attracting plan. The findings revealed that when it comes to building new parks using existing islands, strategies and plans to maintain its identity as an island while upholding its culture and feeling are needed rather than proposing its role as an ordinary neighborhood park to boost facility use and user satisfaction. This way is expected to successfully ensure sustainability related to parks using existing islands.
(연구배경 및 목적) 근린공원은 노인이 경제적 부담 없이 손쉽게 접근하여 다양한 신체활동을 실행할 수 있는 장소이며, 체력 증진 및 건강 유지가 이루어지는 도시시설이다. 그러나 우리나라의 많은 공원은 설계자의 주관적이고 일률적인 공원설계 기준에 의해 조성되어 있어 노인들이 이용하기에는 많은 불편함이 있다. 이에 본 연구는 노인들의 건강 유지 장소로서의 근린공원 이용 활성화를 위해 공원환경 평가지표를 선정하고, 대구광역시의 근린공원을 대상으로 평가지표를 적용하여 노인의 공원환경에 대한 인식을 분석하였으며, 노인의 개인적 특성에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이를 탐색하였다. (연구방법) 연구대상지는 노인인구비율이 14% 이상인 대구광역시 중구, 동구, 남구, 서구를 대상으로 하였으며, 연구 대상공원은 행정구별 1개의 근린공원을 선정하였다. 공원환경 평가지표의 선정은 총 10편의 선행연구 고찰 및 브레인스토밍 과정을 통해 이루어졌으며, 설문조사는 노인들을 대상으로 2차에 걸쳐 진행되었다. 설문데이터의 분석에는 기술통계 및 빈도분석, T-검정 및 F-검정(Scheffe 검증)이 활용되었다. (결과) 노인의 관점에서 공원환경 관련 선행연구 고찰 및 브레인스토밍 과정을 통해 ‘다양한 운동시설’, ‘운동시설의 안전성’, ‘충분한 휴게시설’, ‘휴게시설의 안락함’ 등 총 20개 지표가 선정되었다. 설문에 의해 수집된 290개 데이터를 통해 노인의 공원환경 인식을 분석한 결과, ‘공원까지의 거리’, ‘충분한 녹지면적’, ‘충분한 그늘’, ‘이동의 무장애성’ 등의 지표가 4.0점 이상으로 높은 환경 수준을 가지는 것으로 분석되었다. 반면, ‘원예활동지원 공간’, ‘다양한 볼거리’, ‘복지시설과의 연계’ 등의 지표는 3.2점 이하의 낮은 환경 수준으로 평가되었다. 또한, 노인의 개인적 특성에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이를 분석한 결과, 성별, 연령대, 교육수준, 소득수준에 따른 공원환경 인식의 차이가 통계적으로 유의하게 분석되었다. 남성보다 여성이 전반적인 공원환경을 긍정적으로 평가하였으며, 60대는 동적 시설에 대한 인식이, 80대는 정적 시설에 대한 인식이 높게 나타났다. (결론) 본 연구에서 도출된 결과들은 노인인구 밀집지역의 근린공원 리모델링 사업, 주변 환경 개선 사업 등을 진행코자 할 경우 의미 있는 기초자료가 될 것으로 판단된다. (Background and Purpose) Neighborhood parks are places where the elderly can easily access and perform various physical activities without without financial burden and are urban facilities where they can improve physical strength and maintain health. However, many parks in Korea are built according to the subjective and uniform design standards of the landscape designers, so there are many inconveniences for the elderly to use them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to select the assessment indicators in order promote park use the elderly as a place for maintaining health, to analyze the perception of park environment by applying the indicators targeting the neighborhood parks of Daegu Metropolitan City, and to explore the differences in perception of park environment according to the individual characteristics. (Method) The study areas were Jung-gu, Dong-gu, Nam-gu, and Seo-gu of Daegu, where the ratio of the elderly population was 14% or more and one neighborhood park was selected for each administrative district. The assessment indicators of park environment were selected based on 10 previous studies and brainstorming and the questionnaire survey was conducted in two rounds for the elderly. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, T-test, and F-test (Scheffe’s method) were used to analyze the questionnaire data. (Results) Through the review and brainstorming related to the park environment from the perspective of the elderly, a total of 20 indicators were selected such as 'various exercise facilities', 'safety of exercise facilities', 'enough resting facilities', and 'convenience of resting facilities'. As a result of analyzing the perception of the elderly's park environment based on the 290 survey data, the indicators such as 'distance to the park', 'area of green space', 'shade by trees', and 'convenience of walk' had a high environmental level of 4.0 or more. On the other hand, the indicators such as 'horticultural support space', 'various attractions', and 'linkage with welfare facilities' were evaluated at a low environmental level of 3.2 points or less. In addition, as a result of analyzing the difference in perception of park environment according to the individual characteristics of the elderly, the differences according to gender, age group, education level, and income level were analyzed statistically significant. Women rather than men perceived the overall park environment more positively. Those in their 60s had positive perceptions of dynamic facilities and those in their 80s had positive perceptions of static facilities. (Conclusions) The findings from this study will be meaningful basic data to carry out a remodeling for a neighborhood park or a project for improving the neighborhood environment in the elderly concentration area.