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Daylighting is a multi-disciplinary field that overlaps between aesthetic and performance which affects both designers and engineers alike. While the science of daylighting has improved significantly over the past several decades with the advent of improved metrics and tools to predict quantitative performance, the inclusion of these advancements into the mainstream architectural design has been limited. As a result, a disparity between the design and engineering of daylighting exists in today's architectural design practice. This research focuses on the daylighting simulation tools and its ease of use from the perspective of the architect, as a key criterion to integrate the science of daylighting into architectural practice. Ease of use is evaluated based on two points identified through existing literature, first, the evaluation of graphic user interface, and second, the level of integration with widely used architectural CAD platforms. Past and present daylighting analysis tools are evaluated based on these two criteria and represented in a matrix to identify shortcomings that limit its incorporation into architectural design.
This study evaluated the effect of Candida norvegensis (C. norvegensis) viable yeast culture on in vitro ruminal fermentation of oat straw. Ruminal fluid was mixed with buffer solution (1:2) and anaerobically incubated with or without yeast at 39°C for 0, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h. A fully randomized design was used. There was a decrease in lactic acid (quadratic, p = 0.01), pH, (quadratic, p = 0.02), and yeasts counts (linear, p<0.01) across fermentation times. However, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and ammonia-N increased across fermentation times (quadratic; p<0.01 and p<0.02, respectively). Addition of yeast cells caused a decrease in pH values compared over all fermentation times (p<0.01), and lactic acid decreased at 12 h (p = 0.05). Meanwhile, yeast counts increased (p = 0.01) at 12 h. C. norvegensis increased ammonia-N at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h (p<0.01), and IVDMD of oat straw increased at 8, 12, and 24 h (p<0.01) of fermentation. Yeast cells increased acetate (p<0.01), propionate (p<0.03), and butyrate (p<0.03) at 8 h, while valeriate and isovaleriate increased at 8, 12, and 24 h (p<0.01). The yeast did not affect cellulolytic bacteria (p = 0.05), but cellulolytic fungi increased at 4 and 8 h (p<0.01), whereas production of methane decreased (p<0.01) at 8 h. It is concluded that addition of C. norvegensis to in vitro oat straw fermentation increased ruminal fermentation parameters as well as microbial growth with reduction of methane production. Additionally, yeast inoculum also improved IVDMD.
Background Digital amputation is a common upper extremity injury and can cause significant impairment in hand function, as well as psychosocial stigma. Currently, the gold standard for the reconstruction of such injuries involves autologous reconstruction. However, when this or other autologous options are not available, prosthetic reconstruction can provide a functionally and aesthetically viable alternative. This study describes a novel technique, known as a tripod titanium mini-plate, for osseointegrated digit prostheses, and reviews the outcomes in a set of consecutive patients. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent 2-stage prosthetic reconstruction of digit amputations was performed. Demographic information, occupation, mechanism of injury, number of amputated fingers, and level of amputation were reviewed. Functional and aesthetic outcomes were assessed using the quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (Q-DASH) scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) score, respectively. In addition, complications during the postoperative period were recorded. Results Seven patients were included in this study. Their average age was 29 years. Five patients had single-digit amputations and 2 patients had multiple-digit amputations. Functional and aesthetic outcomes were assessed using the Q-DASH score (average, 10.4) and VAS score (average, 9.1), respectively. One episode of mild cellulitis was seen at 24 months of follow-up. However, it was treated successfully with oral antibiotics. No other complications were reported. Conclusions When autologous reconstruction is not suitable for digit reconstruction, prosthetic osseointegrated reconstruction can provide good aesthetic and functional results. However, larger series with longer-term follow-up are required in order to rule out the possibility of other complications.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is an underutilized food and forage crop with immense potential in improving global food security. In this study sequence data were mined at the database of NCBI with the aim of developing polymorphic nucleotide and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) simple sequence repeat markers. Successful amplification was visualized on 3 % agarose gel. The selected 12 candidate markers were further used to characterize available 155 core collections. A total number of 198 alleles with an average of 16.5 alleles per loci were discovered. Heterozygosity (H) ranged between 0.05 (UHSi-173) to 0.23 (UH-Si-487) with a mean average of 0.16. Gene diversity ranged from 0.15 (UHSi-766) to 0.96 (UHSi-500), with an average value of 0.80 across the populations. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.15 (UH-Si-766) to 0.96 (UH-Si-500) with a mean value of 0.79. A positive correlation (r = 0.720; P\0.01) was found between the PIC and the number of alleles. Weighted neighbor joining dendrogram generated seven major clusters. More polymorphism was detected with the nucleotides derived microsatellites when compared to the ESTs derived microsatellites. This result shows that the morphological and phenotypic descriptors used for the development of the 155 core collections of foxtail millet was optimal enough to capture as much diversity. The newly developed markers in this study are quite informative and recommended for future genetic studies in the species and close related genera.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This research is based on the information compiled on the occurrence of maritime casualties onboard ships registered under Central American Region (CAR) flag States. Due to nonexistence of writing reports in anyone of the countries that are integrating this Region, the information was compiled by the author through personal communication with the people involved in the casualties. The information was compiled by typing up the text and digitizing on the computer for the respective data base. For each casualty occurred, the following information was compiled, date and type of the casualty, position of the ship at the time of the casualty, dimension of the ship, number of people affected by the casualty, and cause and consequences of the casualty. Based on the number of people affected (death and disappear) by the casualties occurred was calculated the mortality rate by 100,000 persons and then compared with the Japanese mortality rate. Furthermore were analyzed the CAR maritime authorities competences and then were compared to that the Japanese counter part. In addition, the implementation rate of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions ratified by the CAR countries were analyzed. The objective of this research was to compiled and analyze the occurrences of maritime casualties happened on board the ships registered under the CAR Flag States, in order to determine the causes of these accidents. The results of the analysis enable us to better understand of the maritime safety situation of the ships that are registered under the CAR flag States. In order to reduce the occurrence of maritime casualties are proposed a series of measures based on the differences found then the comparison between CAR and Japan. Based on the results of this research, is possible to conclude that the inaccessibility of atmospheric information and the lack of safety measures onboard has been the main cause of the maritime casualties happened in the Pacific side of the CAR.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Since many years ago and in spite of the existence of national regulations and international conventions ratified by the countries that are conformed the Central American Region (CAR), the seagoing maritime sector of this Region, has developed its activity without any type of safety measures. Therefore, a large number of people are known to die, disappear and suffer from serious injuries each year. These maritime casualties devastate the families affected by these events, and severely impact the local social and economic well-being. While all these accidents occurred in this Region, non government or any other official records are available recording these casualties. Due to the lack of any historical written reports about maritime casualties occurred in this Region, the compilation of this type of accidents information and data was carried out directly by the researchers in the field. Also, all the information about the CAR Maritime Organization Components was too compiled by the authors from the respective National Maritimes Authorities. From the compiled information was elaborated the CAR maritime casualties data base and from the analysis of the above data base were determined the main causes of the maritime accidents occurred in the CAR. The lack of safety measures onboard and the ignorance of the presence and influence of atmospheric phenomena were among main factors that had been caused the maritime casualties in this Region. By other hand, from the analysis of the CAR maritime organization components, the existence of one level of organization very similar among them was determinate. The objective of this research was to analyze the role of the CAR maritime organization in the prevention of the occurrence of maritime casualties. The results of this study provides general understanding of the causes of this type of accidents in the CAR and basis for support in improving safety navigation system and measures so that the number of fatalities and maritime accidents may be reduced in the future.
Creatine supplementation has been widely used for athletes and in some studies it has been proved effective; however, there remain some moderator variables that still require meta-analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct such an analysis on the effects of creatine supplementation on biochemical, body composition, and physical performance variables. From a total of 120 experimental studies found in databases, only 55 studies (46 %) were considered appropriate and/or contained the necessary information to obtain effect sizes. Creatine supplementation produced biochemical changes, including increases in excretion parameters. Anthropometric variables, body fat percentage, and lean mass were favorably changed by creatine supplementation. Improved peak power, total work, force power, and a maximal repetition (1RM) were also found following creatine supplementation. There was an evident placebo effect in the variables meta-analyzed; however, there was a clear increase in total work beyond the placebo effect. In summary, creatine supplementation consistently showed positive biochemical, body composition, and power changes in humans.
In this work, as afirst step in a comprehensive strategy for the valorization of rice bran, the extraction ofoil using supercritical CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent has been studied. The effect of extractiontemperature (40 and 60 C), pressure (30 and 40 MPa) and amount of ethanol used (0, 5 and 10%) has beenconsidered. The quality extracted oil has been evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity, fatty acid profileand bioactive compounds such as phenolics,flavonoids, g-oryzanols, and tocopherols content. Results revealed that, using neat CO2, the best oil in terms of antioxidant activity was obtained at 40 Cand 30 MPa. However, the addition of ethanol as modifier significantly increased the amount of bioactivemolecules extracted and hence the overall antioxidant activity of the oil, which was maximum at 40 MPaand 10% ethanol, regardless the temperature. The use of ethanol also affected the amount of fatty acidsand g-oryzanols extracted.