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This study investigated the impacts of two different health claim regulatory systems, FoSHU (Foods for Specified Health Uses) and FFC (Foods with Function Claims) systems, in Japan on consumer evaluations of food products in terms of healthfulness. The FoSHU system was introduced in 1991 as an individual product approval system to allow product-specific health claims, while the FFC system was introduced lately in 2015 as a notification system like NLEA (Nutrition Labeling and Education Act) in the US. The latter system seems advantageous over the former in terms of shortening the product development period. However, the FoSHU system awards brand with a symbolic logo designed for FoSHU foods, whereas the FFC system does not. Which system leads to higher consumers’ healthfulness perceptions? The results of ANOVA showed that, if the health functions of the food product are not attributed to the product category, but to a specific food product brand, health claims have a strong impact on healthfulness. In contrast, if the health functions are attributed to the entire product category, health claims do not have a strong impact on healthfulness perception. In the latter cases, the FoSHU symbolic logo helps consumers to identify functional foods. Thus, in this study, it is suggested that, in Japan, the new US style health claim regulatory system is affective in the limited product categories. Public policy makers should recognize the important role of the symbolic logo for the previous system and consider introducing another logo to the new system.
Informative messages on product packages-especially on packages of food products-should be credible. Otherwise, the firm might experience a serious fall in brand equity. However, because nutrition intake and health promotion are “credence attributes”, it isdifficult for consumers to evaluate them. Moreover, if nutrition message or health claims were false or puffery, consumers might suffer a serious health damage. Regarding the problems, in 1991, Japanese Government took the initiative in the world by introducing the FoSHU (Foods for Specified Health Uses) system-a license system in which the government tries to control all health claims on packages of food products launched in the country. It should be noted that there are two factors which can be appeared on packages only with the permission of Japanese Government. One is health claims, of course, and the other is the “FoSHU seal”-a symbolic mark designed for FoSHU foods. Interestingly, these two licensed factors may have different effects on perceived product value in health. In this research, we conducted two studies to examine the difference of the effects on product value in health. The results showed that consumer evaluations of food products are affected by the FoSHU seal. The FoSHU seal has a strong signaling effects on evaluations of the particular food products for specified health uses. On the other hand, unlike the FoSHU seal, approved health claims themselves have no main effects on evaluations of the FoSHU products. This implies that health claims have positive external effects on evaluations of non-FoSHU products in the same category. The results showed that the external effects can be inhabited by product differentiation through the FoSHU seal and./or packaging.
<P>Coupling of various 4-substituted phenyl azides with two distinct quinone-containing N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) afforded the respective mono- and ditopic 1,3-disubstituted acyclic triazenes in moderate to excellent yields (38−92%). Depending on their pendant substituents (derived from the azides), the acyclic triazenes exhibited intense absorptions in the visible spectrum (359−428 nm), which were bathochromically shifted by up to Δλ = 68 nm upon reduction of the quinone moiety on the component derived from the NHC. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the aforementioned redox processes were reversible, and a related set of UV−vis spectroelectrochemical experiments revealed that bulk electrolysis may also be used to switch reversibly the colors exhibited by these triazenes.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/joceah/2011/joceah.2011.76.issue-9/jo200139f/production/images/medium/jo-2011-00139f_0008.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jo200139f'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
Gene and cell transfer technique will serve as a powerful tool for the genetic improvement of the poultry and to yield useful products. For avian transgenesis, Japanese quail may serve as an excellent animal model because of its small body size and fast growth rate. Recent progress was described on the manipulation of quail embryos such as the introduction of foreign genes and cells, and the subsequent culturing of the manipulated embryos yielding hatchlings. Intraspecific donor-derived offspring have been available in quail, however, further investigation will be required to obtain interspecific offspring with the aim of rescuing endangered species. Trans genesis will also be useful for improving the profitability and quality of poultry stocks and for developing stocks with novel uses. Considerable progress should soon be made toward the production of transgenic poultry. The key feature of the procedure described here is that embryos are initially taken out from the shell for ease of manipulation and then placed back in culture in addition to various operations midway during culture.
Genotoxic chemicals have increasingly being used in our daily life. 180-chemicals were screened to identify the priority of hazardousness from the point of view of their genotoxicity. Umu-test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of these chemicals. Some chemicals exhibited high genotoxic response. A scoring algorithm was developed to evaluate the hazardousness level of these chemicals based on their genoloxicity level and four other characteristics: biodegradation probability, soil adsorption coefficient (KOC), bioconcentration factor (BCF), Henry's Law constant (HLC). Then, these chemicals were sorted in a descending order of their hazardousness probability.
For using the NOAA/AVHRR images effectively, the geometric correction that transforms the AVHRR images from the image coordinate system into the map coordinate system is necessary. In this paper, we decide to improve the conventional systematic geometric correction methods. These methods did not take the geometric distortion by the elevation into consideration. Then, the result shows high positioning error in the area like Plateau of Tibet, where the elevation is 4000m or more. And so, the geometric distortion by the elevation effects is discussed; and the method of searching for the areas affected by the elevation in AVHRR imagery is proposed. Besides, the residual error acquisition method in the image coordinate system for the precise geometric correction is investigated. Finally, high precise correct processing is done by the Affine transformation by calculating the Affine coefficient based on measured residual errors.
かつて「七つの海」に雄飛した日本流業は, 新海洋法秩序下において傳統的遠洋漁業國としてはほとんどカツオ·マダロを殘すのみとなり, 世界でも有數の好漁場である日本近海をEEZにより確保し, そこに依據せざるをえなくなつたのである. 97年から實施されたTAC制度はその所産を見なされよう. 本稿はかかる世界漁業管理の動向を視野に收めながら日本の漁業管理, そして韓·中·日 が中心國として關わる東北アジアの漁業管理に關して考察し, 今後の漁業管理の在り方を深つてみ ることにする. 日本の周水域の漁獲量は97年で約512萬トンで, このろち多年性浮魚が190萬トン, 單年性浮魚 71. 5萬トン, そして底魚類が64. 9萬トンを占めている. 特に, 持續的利用を旱急に推進する體制を築く必要あると判斷せられるのが底魚類で, そのうち現在の漁獲しべルであれば現狀の資源しべルを維持できる漁種·系群の漁獲量が12萬トンであるのに對して, 現狀の資源しべルを維持するためには, 現在の漁獲しべルを引き下げる必要のある漁獲量が同樣に52. 9萬トンに達している. さらにこの 52. 9萬トンの漁獲しべルを維持するためには, 現在の漁獲しべルを40. 9萬トンまで, 約2割强ひき下げゐ必要があると試算されている. 要するに, 底魚類のうち, 8割以上は再生産關係において亂獲狀態にある. 韓·中·日の關係する海域において漁業管理組織が成立するためには, 管理組織による漁場の獨占的支配, 管理による共通の經濟的利益, そしてこれを實現する管理方法·技術の3者が不可缺である. しかし共通の經濟的利益を達成することの困難は韓中·日の漁業收益性が大きく異なる點にある. そのうえ, 管理方法·技術に關しても各國の社會經濟的條件を反映して異なり, 當然なことながら自國EEZ內に他國の入漁を認める際にも管理方法の相違として表面化しよう. 日韓·日中·韓中間の3協定ともに暫定水域の役割が大きいが, 漁業條件の異なる3國が「共存共榮」していくためには, 暫定水域內の漁獲に對して漁糧別·國別割當を早期に導入することが重要であろう. 世界一の水産物市場をもつ3國のなかで漁業競爭力最弱の日本は, 「經濟大國」としてまた漁業 リ, ダ, として, 管理コストを負擔する用意がなければならない. 一方, 世界的にも最强の中國漁業は何よりも, 長期的·大局的視點を踏まえた漁業管理=「自制」が求められよら. そして韓國は海域的·地理的に日本と中國をつなぐ位置にあり, 經濟的にも漁業的にも日·中の中間=接點となる韓國に, 兩者を「未來志向的」に結び付ける重要な役割が期待される.
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The average life expectancy in Japan has increased. Senior citizens with excessive curvature in the thoracic spine (kyphosis) and forward head posture have decreased their ability to maintain their balance and this can be one of the causes of falling down by accidents. In many cases, postures and health conditions including quality of life of senior citizens have remarkably improved through daily chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic care can be a good model to show how preventive medicine can benefit senior citizens. This study will show the postures of elderly people of 60 years or more improved with chiropractic treatments and care. Measurements of head tilt and knee tilt on lateral views were documented for comparisons. The results showed an overall increase in height of a patient due to a decrease of head and knee tilt.