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This study was performed to characterize the chromosomal metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica isolated from Korea and to propose a clustering method of BlaB and GOB MBLs based on their amino acid similarities. Chromosomal MBL genes were amplified by PCR from 31 clinical isolates of E. meningoseptica. These PCR products were then cloned into a vector and electrotransformed into E. coli DH5α. Nucleotide sequencing was performed by the dideoxy chain termination method using PCR products or cloned DNA fragments. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method. PCR experiments showed that all 31 E. meningoseptica isolates contained both the blaB and the blaGOB genes. DNA sequence analysis revealed that E. meningoseptica isolates possessed seven types of blaB gene, including five novel variants (blaB-9 to blaB-13) and 11 types of blaGOB gene, including 10 novel variants (blaGOB-8 to blaGOB-17). The most common combination of MBL was BlaB-12 plus GOB-17 (n=19). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem and meropenem for the electrotransformants harboring novel BlaB and GOB MBLs were two- or four-fold higher than those for the recipient E. coli DH5α. BlaB and GOB MBLs were grouped in three and six clusters including fifteen novel variants, respectively, based on amino acid similarities.
The strategy of the International Council for Coach Education (ICCE) has placed the development of sport coaching as a profession at the core of the mission of the organisation. The authors examine the basis for this aspiration against criteria associated with established professions, taking into account the unique features of sport coaching. It is concluded that, at a global level, sport coaching does not meet a number of the traditional hallmarks of a profession, primarily due to its current position on key descriptors such as purpose, knowledge base, organisation and ethics. In addition, the lack of fit of traditional ‘right to practice' provisions within the established professions is identified as problematic. Sport coaching status categories include volunteer coach, professional coach, and the preparatory category of pre-coach. It is suggested that sport coaching should define its future identity as a blended professional area, operating within the wider field of sport and physical activity. A series of actions is proposed to advance the international agenda, as part of an on-going process of professionalization. The implications for the future research and strategy of ICCE are also identified.