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Background: Orthopedic residents in our institute have the opportunity to participate in navigation-assisted spine surgery during their residency training. This paves the way for a new dimension of learning spine surgery, which the previous generation was not exposed to. To study this in detail, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive survey among our residents to analyse their perception, understanding, and competency regarding pedicle screw application using spinal navigation. Methods: We selected orthopedic residents (n = 20) who had completed 3 years of training that included at least one rotation (4–6 months) in our spine division. They were asked to respond to a four-part questionnaire that included general and Likert scale-based questions. The first two parts dealt with various parameters regarding spinal navigation and free-hand technique for applying pedicle screws. The third part dealt with residents’ opinion regarding the advantages and disadvantages of spinal navigation. The final part was an objective analysis of residents’ ability to identify the pedicle screw entry points in selected segments. Results: We found that our residents were better trained to apply pedicle screws using spinal navigation. The mean Likert scale score for perception regarding their competency to apply pedicle screws using spinal navigation was 3.65 ± 0.81, compared to only 2.8 ± 0.77 when using the free-hand technique. All residents agreed that spinal navigation is an excellent teaching tool with higher accuracy and greater utility in anatomically critical cases. However, 35% of the residents were not able to identify the entry points correctly in the given segments. Conclusions: All selected residents were perceived to be competent to apply pedicle screws using spinal navigation. However, some of them were not able to identify the entry points correctly, probably due to overreliance on spinal navigation. Therefore, we encourage residents to concentrate on surface anatomy and tactile feedback rather than completely relying on the navigation display monitor during every screw placement. In addition, incorporating cadaveric and saw bone workshops as a part of teaching program can enhance better understanding of surgical anatomy.
Study Design: A retrospective study of radiographic parameters of patients who underwent lumbar spinal pedicle screw insertion. Purpose: The optimal length of pedicle screws is often determined by the lateral radiograph during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Compared with open techniques, measuring the precise length of screws or assessing the cortical breach is challenging. This study aims to ascertain the optimal pedicle screw lengths on intraoperative lateral radiographs for L1–L5. Overview of Literature: Research has revealed that optimal pedicle screw length is essential to optimize fixation, especially in osteoporotic patients; however, it must be balanced against unintentional breach of the anterior cortex, risking injury to adjacent neurovascular structures as demonstrated by case reports. Methods: We reviewed intra- and postoperative computed tomography scans of 225 patients who underwent lumbar pedicle screw insertion to ascertain which of the inserted screws were ‘optimal screws.’ The corresponding lengths of these screws were analyzed on postoperative lateral radiographs to ascertain the ideal position that a screw should attain (expressed as a percentage of the entire vertebral body length). Results: We reviewed 880 screws of which 771 were optimal screws. We noted a decreasing trend in average optimal percentages of insertion into the vertebral body for pedicle screws going from L1 (average=87.60%) to L5 (average=78.87%). The subgroup analysis revealed that there was an increasing percentage of screws directed in a straight trajectory from L1 to L5, compared to a medially directed trajectory. Conclusions: During MIS pedicle screw fixation, this study recommends that pedicle screws should not exceed 85% of the vertebral body length on the lateral view for L1, 80% for L2–L4, and 75% for L5; this will minimize the risk of anterior cortical breach yet maximize pedicle screw purchase for fixation stability.
Study DesignRetrospective review.PurposeTo determine the accuracy of thoracolumbar pedicle screw insertion with the routine use of three-dimensional (3D) intraoperative imaging and navigation over a large series of screws in an Asian population.Overview of LiteratureThe use of 3D intraoperative imaging and navigation in spinal surgery is aimed at improving the accuracy of pedicle screw insertion. This study analyzed 2,240 pedicle screws inserted with the routine use of intraoperative navigation. It is one of very few studies done on an Asian population with a large series of screws.MethodsPatients who had undergone thoracolumbar pedicle screws insertion using intraoperative imaging and navigation between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) images acquired after the insertion of pedicle screws were analyzed for breach of the pedicle wall. The pedicle screw breaches were graded according to the Gertzbein classification. The breach rate and revision rate were subsequently calculated.ResultsA total of 2,240 thoracolumbar pedicle screws inserted under the guidance of intraoperative navigation were analyzed, and the accuracy of the insertion was 97.41%. The overall breach rate was 2.59%, the major breach rate was 0.94%, and the intraoperative screw revision rate was 0.7%. There was no incidence of return to the operating theater for revision of screws.ConclusionsThe routine use of 3D navigation and intraoperative CT imaging resulted in consistently accurate pedicle screw placement. This improved the safety of spinal instrumentation and helped in avoiding revision surgery for malpositioned screws.