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      • Temperature-programmed desorption study of NO reactions on rutile TiO<sub>2</sub>(110)-1×1

        Kim, Boseong,Dohná,lek, Zdenek,Szanyi, Já,nos,Kay, Bruce D.,Kim, Yu Kwon Elsevier 2016 Surface science Vol.652 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Systematic temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of NO adsorption and reactions on rutile TiO<SUB>2</SUB>(110)-1×1 surface reveal several distinct reaction channels in a temperature range of 50–500K. NO readily reacts on TiO<SUB>2</SUB>(110) to form N<SUB>2</SUB>O, which desorbs between 50 and 200K (LT N<SUB>2</SUB>O channels), which leaves the TiO<SUB>2</SUB> surface populated with adsorbed oxygen atoms (O<SUB>a</SUB>) as a by-product of N<SUB>2</SUB>O formation. In addition, we observe simultaneous desorption peaks of NO and N<SUB>2</SUB>O at 270K (HT1 N<SUB>2</SUB>O) and 400K (HT2 N<SUB>2</SUB>O), respectively, both of which are attributed to reaction-limited processes. No N-derived reaction product desorbs from TiO<SUB>2</SUB>(110) surface above 500K or higher, while the surface may be populated with O<SUB>a</SUB>'s and oxidized products such as NO<SUB>2</SUB> and NO<SUB>3</SUB>. The adsorbate-free TiO<SUB>2</SUB> surface with oxygen vacancies can be regenerated by prolonged annealing at 850K or higher. Detailed analysis of the three N<SUB>2</SUB>O desorption yields reveals that the surface species for the HT channels are likely to be various forms of NO dimers.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> N<SUB>2</SUB>O desorption from NO/TiO<SUB>2</SUB> is enhanced in the presence of oxygen vacancies (V<SUB>O</SUB>'s). </LI> <LI> Overall N<SUB>2</SUB>O yield saturates above a threshold NO dose. </LI> <LI> N<SUB>2</SUB>O yields on <I>h</I>-(or <I>r</I>-) TiO<SUB>2</SUB> are about the same with changes in desorption channels. </LI> <LI> Stabilization of NO in the presence of hydroxyls enhances LT and HT2 N<SUB>2</SUB>O channels. </LI> <LI> Oxidation of NO into NO<SUB>2</SUB> and NO<SUB>3</SUB> decreases the N<SUB>2</SUB>O desorption yield. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>

      • KCI등재

        Land Use Regression 모델을 이용한 수도권 초등학교 대기오염 노출 분석

        이지영(Ji-Young Lee),임종한(Jong-Han Leem),김환철(Hwan-Cheol Kim),황승식(Seung-Sik Hwang),정달영(Dal-Young Jung),박명숙(Myung-Sook Park),김정애(Jung-Ae Kim),이재준(Je-Joon Lee),박노욱(No-Wook Park),강성찬(Sung-Chan Kang) 한국대기환경학회 2012 한국대기환경학회지 Vol.28 No.5

        Epidemiologic studies of air pollution need accurate exposure assessments at unmonitored locations. A land use regression (LUR) model has been used successfully for predicting traffic-related pollutants, although its application has been limited to Europe, North America, and a few Asian region. Therefore, we modeled traffic-related pollutants by LUR then examined whether LUR models could be constructed using a regulatory monitoring network in Metropolitan area in Korea. We used the annual-mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in 2010 in the study area. Geographic variables that are considered to predict traffic-related pollutants were classified into four groups: road type, traffic intensity, land use, and elevation. Using geographical variables, we then constructed a model to predict the monitored levels of NO2. The mean concentration of NO2 was 30.71 ppb (standard deviation of 5.95) respectively. The final regression model for the NO2 concentration included five independent variables. The LUR models resulted in R<SUP>2</SUP> of 0.59. The mean concentration of NO2 of elementary schools was 34.04 ppb (standard deviation of 5.22) respectively. The present study showed that even if we used regulatory monitoring air quality data, we could estimate NO2 moderately well. These analyses confirm the validity of land use regression modeling to assign exposures in epidemiological studies, and these models may be useful tools for assessing health effects of long-term exposure to traffic related pollution.

      • Dye Binding Capacity of Commercial Chitin Products

        No, Hong Kyoon,Cho, Young In,Meyers, Samuel P. 대구효성가톨릭대학교 식품과학연구소 1996 식품과학지 Vol.8 No.-

        Dye binding capacity of different commercial chitins was investigated with two commercial chitin products and two dyes (FD&C Red No.3 and Yellow No.5). Dye binding capacity of chitin increased with increasing dye concentrations and was dependent on the chitin products and the specific dyes used. A slight decrease in dye binding capacity was noted with reduction in chitin particle sizes. Within a pH range of 3-9, dye binding capacity was relatively stable. After 24 h of settling, no dye was released from dyed chitin at pH 2 and 3. Above this range, release of dye increased with pH, up to 1.1 and 5.8% of bound red and yellow dye, respectively, at pH 9. Dye release was less noticeable in 1 h of settling.

      • KCI등재

        수용액상 니트로스아민의 UV 광분해에서 pH 영향

        심재구 ( Jae-goo Shim ),아프잘아킬 ( Afzal Aqeel ),최보미 ( Bo-mi Choi ),이정현 ( Jung-hyun Lee ),곽노상 ( No-sang Kwak ),임호진 ( Ho-jin Lim ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2016 한국물환경학회지 Vol.32 No.4

        N-nitrosamines are a class of carcinogenic chemicals that can pose significant hazards to the human life. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation is considered as one of the effective methods to reduce N-nitrosamines in the aqueous phase. This study aimed to investigate the pH influence on UV photodegradation of N-nitrosamines (i.e., N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR)) closely related to water treatment. Photodegradation rate constants of NDBA and NPYR remained between 3.26×10-2 L/W-min to 5.08×10-3 L/W-min and 1.14×10-2 L/W-min to 2.80×10-3 L/W-min at pH2-10, respectively. This study also focused on the formation of oxidized products (i.e., primarily NO2- and NO3-). Under slightly acidic and eutral conditions, NO2- formation was more prevalent than NO3- formation, while under strong acidic conditions, NO3- was more prevalent. There was no significant change in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), suggesting negligible loss of N-nitrosamines and degradation products from the system. NDBA was easily photodegraded than NPYR. This study also demonstrated that a lower pH is a favorable condition for photolytic degradation of N-nitrosamines in water.

      • KCI등재

        Sr(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> 용융염에서 이온교환이 K<sub>2</sub>O-TiO<sub>2</sub>-SiO<sub>2</sub> glass에 미치는 영향

        박노형,유은성,이회관,허훈,Park, No-Hyung,Yoo, Eun-Sung,Lee, Hoi-Kwan,Huh, Hoon 한국결정성장학회 2011 韓國結晶成長學會誌 Vol.21 No.5

        Fresnoite 결정화 유리는 최근 비선형 광학특성으로 인하여 널리 연구되어 지고 있다. 그러나, 이전 연구 결과를 통하여 투명결정화 유리의 화학 조성으로는 정량적으로 Fresnoite 구조에 유사한 조성을 조절하는 것에 한계가 있음을 확인 할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 $K_2O-TiO_2-SiO_2$ glass의 제조한 후, 제조된 유리를 $Sr(NO_3)_2$ 용융염에 담지하여 모유리의 표면에 Fresnoite 결정을 형성시키는 방법으로 투명결정화 유리를 제조하고, 이 때 Sr 이온이 비선형광학효과에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. XRD를 통하여 담지 시간에 따른 결정상 변화와 열처리를 통한 결정상 변화를 관찰하였으며, FE-SEM을 사용하여 생성된 결정의 미세구조와 Nd : YAG laser를 사용하여 2차비선형특성의 유무를 관찰하였다. A fresnoite glass-ceramics has been investigating considerably because of the second order nonlinearity as well as its permanent optical nonlinearity. However, the chemical compositions of transparent glass-ceramics examined in the previous studies have been limited to adjust the composition close to fresnoite stoichiometrically. In this study, to investigate the effect of strontium ions in glass-ceramics on second order nonlinearity, $K_2O-TiO_2-SiO_2$ (KTS) glasses soaked in molten $Sr(NO_3)_2$ were prepared. Crystalline phases of the soaked glasses were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as soaking times and additional heat treatment. The exchange of strontium ions into the glass was verified by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). And the phenomena of second order harmonic generation (SHG) was observed using Nd-YAG laser.

      • KCI등재

        일본 시코쿠 순례 속의 한국문화

        노성환(No, Sung-Hwan) 대한일어일문학회 2017 일어일문학 Vol.74 No.-

        This study examined the relationship between pilgrimage of 88 Shikoku holy site and Korea. The relationship can be largely summarized into 3 points. First, the relationship between founder Gong Hae and Korean peninsula. His paternal line is the Saekis who immigrated from Silla, and maternal line is the Ados who immigrated from Baekje. Also, Geunjo who was his teacher during Buddhist priesthood asceticism was from the Hatas of Silla-Gaya, and another teacher Gyeongjoon was descendant of the Hujis of Baekjae immigrants. And his spiritual master who was his model of asceticism, Haenggi was born between the Gosis of Baekje and the Hachidas. Besides, he once studied with Silla monk Hyeil, and he kept very close relationship with Sill monks so that Silla monks came to Japan twice to meet him. Likewise, from his birth to asceticism, he was in close relationship with Korean monks. Second, the relationship between 88 holy sites and Korean peninsula. Chwibongsa temple(no.36) and Geumchangsa temple(no.76) which is related to Wonjin serves Silla god, and Jonggansa temple(no.34) and Daebisa temple(no.44) enshrined Buddhist statue sculpted by Baekje sculptor or monk. Furthermore, there are 33 sites that are built by ore related to Japanese monk of Baekje line, and moreover, there are 7 holy sites which possess Joseon Buddhist paintings and Buddhist temple bell which are likely to be taken during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. Third, the relationship between Shikoku pilgrimage and Korea lasted during modern era. For example, during the Japanese colonial era, Japanese constructed downscale replica of 88 holy site of Shikoku pilgrimage trail in Busan, Masan, Mokpo. Incheon, Hambuk Gyeongseong, and Hambuk Cheongjin, and it was Korean woman who was the first foreigner to be qualified as chief Buddhist monk of holy site temple. Likewise, Korea is closely related to Shikoku 88 holy site pilgrimage in various ways. Considering this, the attitude of Japanese who discriminate against Korea and show anti-Korean attitude regarding Shikoku pilgrimage cannot be justified.

      • 一部 島嶼地域 住民의 死亡樣相에 關한 調査硏究(第2報)

        奇老錫 全北大學校 醫科大學附設 看護專門大學 1981 논문집 Vol.7 No.-

        This study carried out to evaluate the leading cause of death and mortality patterns of inhabitants in an Island area, which was isolated from mainland and was comptelely in defferent living status. There were consisted of 802 households comprising 4,078 persons and Forty-two events of death were occured during one year from January to December 1980 in this area. The results summarized were as follows ; 1. The composition of population by age-group was 41.2% in under 14 years old, 51.3% in 15~59years old, and was 7.5% in over 60 years old. Sex-ratio of inhabitant was 96.9, while total dependency ratio was 95.0. 2. Mean age of death was higher 54.7±20 years old in male than 41.5±29 years old in female. 3. In the educational level of death, males who were deal in group of no education were 50%, 46.2% in primary school, while females were 62.5% in primary school, 37.5% in no education. Especailly there were no females who graduated middle school. 4. Occupational status of death was 42.9% in no education, 30.9% in fishery and 24.1% in farming. 5. Comprehensive indicator of the level of health, PMI (Proportional Mortality Indicator) was 59.5% (male : 70.3%, female : 40.0%). It was higher in male than in female and revealed progressive promotion of level of health in Korea between 1960 to 1980. 6. Mortality patterns based on the cause of death showed that A group of international classification of disease, infectious diseases were 38.1%, B group, chronic regressive diseases were 54.8%, and D group, accidents poisonings, etc were 7.1%, respectively. 7. Main leading causes of death were apoplexy, pulmonary tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis, senility, malignant tumor, and accidents in order. 8. Exposure groups to physician during the period of onset of cause of death were 16 cases(38.2%) and non exposured groups were 26 cases (61.8%). 9. Types of therapy were each 33.3% in pharmacy and falk medicine, 21.5% in hospital or clinic and 4.8% in herb medicine, respectively. 10. Status of death registration showed that non medical certificate was the most at the rate of 92.9%, medical certificate was only 7.1%. 11. In the interval between onset of death and report to the authority by cause of death, 78.6% of all were reported within statutory period(1 month), 16.7% within 6 months and 4.7% over 7 months.

      • 벨라 바르톡 < 미크로코스모스 > 제 6 권의 분석 연구

        조치노 한국음악학회 1997 한국음악학회논문집 음악연구 Vol.16 No.1

        Be´la Barto´k(1881-1945; Hungary) published two thousand folk tunes, chiefly from Hungary and Rumania, these being only a part of all that he had collected in expeditions rainging over Central Europe, Turkey, and North Africa. He wrote books and innumerable articles on folk music, made settings of or based compositions on folk tunes, and developed a style in which he fused folk elements with highly developed techniques of art music more intimately than had ever been done. He was a virtuoso pianist and a teacher of a piano at the Budapest Academy of Music from 1907 to 1934. Between 1926 and 1939 Barto´k worked on Mikrokosmos, a set of 157 piano pieces published in six volumes. The pieces are grouped according to their difficulty, from simple pieces for beginners to extremely difficult compositions for virtuoso. The complete work gives an insight into Barto´k's particulars musical world; not only is it an encyclopedia of pianistic figures but also it is just as much a catalog of his compositional devices, for many pieces seem to be sketches for more extended compositions. Barto´k's ideal was to express, in twentieth-century terms, Bach's contrapuntal style, Beethoven's art of thematic development. Debussy's discovery of sonorous value of chords. Mikrokosmos are written in a variety of keys and furthermore they are not limited to the Major-Minor tonal system. Especially Barto´k used church mode and pentatonic scale more frequently. The rhythm of syncopation is used frequently which is derived from characteristic feature of Hungarian. Beginning with the volume 6, metrical changes in No. 140 and No. 141 are frequentry encountered. No. 140 seems to be a study in that respect for it contains thirty-seven changes of times. Additive or irregular rhythms appear in the No. 148-153. The textures of Mikrokosmos maybe prevailingly homophonic or be made up of contrapuntal lines carried on with secondary regard for vertical sonoroties. Harmony grows out of the character of the melodies, which may be based on pentatonic, modal, or irregular scales as well as the regular diatonic and chromatic scales. All kinds of chords appear, from triads to combinations more complex.

      • KCI등재

        K-IFRS 적용 확정급여형 퇴직급여 회계정보의 가치관련성

        노정희(Jung Hee No),최종서(Jong Seo Choi) 한국산업경제학회 2015 산업경제연구 Vol.28 No.6

        본 연구에서는 K-IFRS 제1019호의 도입 이후 확정급여형 퇴직연금제도를 채택한 기업을 대상으로 퇴직연금요소의 가치관련성에 대해 조사하였다. 이를 위하여 K-IFRS를 전면 도입한 2011년부터 2013년까지 3년간 확정급여형 퇴직연금제도를 채택한 상장기업 중 제조업을 대상으로 기업-연도 관찰치를 수집하였다. 분석 결과, 퇴직급여와 관련된 회계정보는 가치관련성을 가짐을 확인하였다. 구체적으로 살펴보면 퇴직연금의 적립수준을 나타내는 순확정급여부채는 주가와 유의한 음의 관계를 보였으며, 순확정급여부채의 구성요소인 확정급여채무와 사외적립자산은 각각 주가와 유의한 음과 양의 관계를 가짐을 확인하였다. 또한 주석에 공시되는 퇴직급여원가의 주요구성항목들도 검증한 결과, 주가와 가치관련성을 가지나 일부 항목은 일관된 결과가 보이지 않았다. 추가분석에서는 이들 퇴직급여원가의 구성 항목들이 주가와 비선형관계를 가질 가능성이 있음을 확인하였다. 본 연구는 국내 연구에서 거의 다루지 않은 퇴직급여와 관련된 회계정보의 가치관련성에 대해 체계적으로 검증하였다는 점에서 공헌점을 갖는다. 또한 퇴직급여와 관련하여 주석에 공시되는 세부정보에 대한 가치관련성을 검증함으로써 퇴직급여와 관련하여 주석에 공시되는 정보들도 정보효과를 가짐을 확인하였다. In this paper, we examine value relevance of accounting numbers pertinent to post-employment benefits under K-IFRS No.1019. K-IFRS No.1019 requires companies to use the projected unit credit method to estimate pension costs and pension liabilities, and to disclose separately several components of pension costs. In order to find out whether pension accounting numbers are valued by the stock market, we use a sample of KOSPI-listed manufacturing firms with defined benefit pension plan from 2011 to 2013. The major findings are : (1) We find, as expected, that pension liability(the present value of the defined benefit obligation) and pension assets(plan assets) are value relevant. (2) Pension expenses(defined benefit cost) are value-relevant, that is, estimation for the regression coefficient turns out to be significantly negative. Additionally we disaggregate the pension expenses into current service cost, interest expense and expected return on plan assets and so on. Contrary to expectations, the coefficients on interest expense and expected return on plan assets are significantly positive and negative respectively. This puzzling result, that has also turned up in additional analysis, could be attributable to nonlinear relationship between the pension cost components and stock price. Another possibility is that information users may discount or ignore information disclosed on the footnote. Overall, the results suggest that information on the post-retirement benefits is value relevant. This study highlights the importance of considering information on post-employment benefits in the valuation.

      • Effect of H<sub>2</sub>O on the Morphological Changes of KNO<sub>3</sub> Formed on K<sub>2</sub>O/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> NO<sub><i>x</i></sub> Storage Materials: Fourier Transform Infrared and Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction Studies

        Kim, Do Heui,Mudiyanselage, Kumudu,Szanyi, Já,nos,Hanson, Jonathan C.,Peden, Charles H. F. American Chemical Society 2014 The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part C Vol.118 No.8

        <P>Based on the combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H<SUB>2</SUB>O induces a morphological change of KNO<SUB>3</SUB> species formed on model K<SUB>2</SUB>O/Al<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H<SUB>2</SUB>O with NO<SUB>2</SUB> preadsorbed on K<SUB>2</SUB>O/Al<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO<SUB>3</SUB> species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H<SUB>2</SUB>O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO<SUB>3</SUB> is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H<SUB>2</SUB>O on such morphological change. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO<SUB>3</SUB> phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H<SUB>2</SUB>O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of rhombohedral KNO<SUB>3</SUB> phase only. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO<SUB>3</SUB> species with respect to NO<SUB>2</SUB> adsorption/desorption, H<SUB>2</SUB>O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> system, K<SUB>2</SUB>O/Al<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H<SUB>2</SUB>O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO<SUB>3</SUB> relative to Ba(NO<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB>.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/jpccck/2014/jpccck.2014.118.issue-8/jp410816r/production/images/medium/jp-2013-10816r_0008.gif'></P>

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