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Each design on ceramics and pottery has historical value as written history, reflects every matter of social life. By studying ceramic and designs on ceramic, we are able to discover history of traditional handicraft village, development of skills as well as arts of manipulating. Ceramic and pottery are evaluated as highly valuable historical document for studying culture, social and history of ancient nation in pre-history, when handwriting had not been created. Phung Nguyen pottery has values as much as those values in studying the Pre-Hung Vuong period and Hung Vuong period. Especially, designs on Phung Nguyen pottery is not only included value of technique and arts, but showed thought of sience of Phung Nguyen's inhabitant by extreme symmetrical design. Alternatively, designs on Phung Nguyen pottery help to demonstrate the synchronic and diachronic relation between cultures in Pre-his tory-Early period, and distribute to demonstrate native culture of Vietnam.
Hydrotalcite-like compound containing metal cations such as Mg2+, Al3+ and Ni2+ was characterized using Ni K-edge EXAFS and in situ Ni K-edge XANES techniques for clarifying its bonding environment around Ni2+ sites and structure changes during calcination from room temperature to 550 oC, respectively. At the fixed molar ratio of Mg/Ni/Al of 2/1/1, the results obtained from EXAFS analysis showed a slight blue shift before and after the calcination at 550 oC and a reduction in white line peak; the best fits of the two samples revealed tiny change in coordination number about 7 for Ni-O path but considerable difference for Ni-Mg(Al) path from about 4.5 to 9.5, confirming a modification from brucite like to mixed oxide structure. On the other hand, bond distances of the Ni-O and Ni-Mg paths nearly fixed at about 2.06 Å to 3.0 Å reflected stability of the cationic bond order on each plane, but partial collapse and decomposition of the interlayer formed by water molecules and anion CO3 2− after the calcination. Linear combination fit extracted from the in situ Ni K-edge XANES also confirmed the changes along with the calcination such as slow and fast decreases of brucite fraction at 150 oC and 330 oC, respectively, in corresponding to the mixed oxide fraction increases. The achieved bonding structures were also applied to explain acid-base occurrence of the hydrotalcite-like material, especially the acid sites generated by different static charges along with the bonds. The explanation was illustrated by NH3-TPD method.
Effectiveness of online bearing status monitoring (OBSM) depends deeply on the online data processing ability and the sensitivity of data features used to recognize the mechanical-system dynamic response change. Focusing on these, we present a novel method of OBSM based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with the highlights as follows. A sensitive and stable multi-feature is discovered to better the ability to distill the valuable information in noisy and massive databases (NMDs) and process impulse-noise in them. The SSA-based high-frequency noise removal solution, the ANFIS’ interpolating and identifying capability, and the dual function of the proposed multi-feature are combined in a new algorithm named AfOBSM for building a system of OBSM through two phases, offline and online. The offline is to identify the mechanical-system in the presence of the typical kinds of bearing faults. The ANFIS is trained in this phase using a training dataset. Meanwhile, the online is to estimate online the real status of the bearing(s) based on the trained ANFIS and a monitoring dataset. Surveys from an experimental-system were performed. The obtained results showed the positive effects of the AfOBSM.