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The in-situ measurement of dilution during the laser surface alloying process is an enormously difficult task, due to the localized nature of laser energy and very short laser-material interaction time. Therefore, a computational approach (finite-element method and analysis of variance) was effectively employed to evaluate the dilution during the laser surface alloying process. Firstly, a finiteelement model based on COMSOL™ multiphysics was developed to predict the dilution of Mo with Al during non-equilibrium laser surface alloying process. Secondly, the optimization model based on Design-Expert® was developed to find the optimal laser surface alloying parameters (laser power, scanning speed, and fill spacing) to obtain a microstructure suitable for improved corrosion resistance that is primarily attributed to the formation of Al5Mo intermetallic phase (16.7 at% Mo). The present optimization model utilized the prior experimental and computational (finite-element) modeling data for the concentration of Mo (at%). The optimization analyses were carried out for the all the current datasets and the analysis revealed 44 optimal solutions that indicate the highest desirability. The confirmation runs were carried out to validate the optimization model. The experimental observation showed that the sample processed with optimal processing conditions demonstrates good corrosion resistance.
An in vitro cell study evaluating cell adhesion to hydroxyapatite (HA) coated prosthetic Ti-6Al-4V alloy via laser treatment is presented in comparison with uncoated alloy. Based on our previous in vitro biocompatibility study, which demonstrated higher cell attachment and proliferation with MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells, the present investigation aims to reveal the effect of laser coating Ti alloy with HA on the adhesion strength of bone-forming cells against centrifugal forces. Remaining cells on different substrates after centrifugation were visualized using fluorescent staining. Semi-quantifications on the numbers of cells were conducted based on fluorescent images, which demonstrated higher numbers of cells retained on HA laser treated substrates post centrifugation. The results indicate potential increase in the normalized maximum force required to displace cells from HA coated surfaces versus uncoated control surface. The possible mechanisms that govern the enhancing effect were discussed, including surface roughness, chemistry, wettability, and protein adsorption. The improvement in cell adhesion through laser treatment with a biomimetic coating could be useful in reducing tissue damage at the prosthetic to bone junction and minimizing the loosening of prosthetics over time.