http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
본 논문은 현재까지 창작되고 있는 현대시조가 ‘과연 정형시인가’라는 질문과 함께, ‘음보(音譜)’라는 개념의 불분명함을 논의하면서 현대시조의 형식론적 계승을 검토하였다. 음절수가 아닌 음량(mora)으로 음보율을 설명하려는 의도에서 우리는 음량이라는 단위는 객관적 실체로 입증하지 못한 채 막연한 심리적 경향으로 제시될 수밖에 없으며, 보편적 언어 체계 안에서 변별적 자질로 인정되기 어렵다. ‘등장성(等張性)’이라는 개념과 발음에 따른 음성학적 휴지에 의한 음보라는 개념에는 이미 통사적으로나 음성학적으로나 심리적 혹은 무의식적 배려가 작동하고 있음을 알 수 있다. 또한 통사적 구분에 따라 나눠지는 경계와 설정된 음보는 정확하게 일치하지도 않으며, 시의 특성과 시인 개별 발화 그리고 독자 모두와 상관없는 추상적인 마디 설정을 그 한계로 떠맡는다. 시의 의미와 상관없는 통사 구분은 시의 호성(ambiguity)과 결정불가능성(undecidability)의 기회조차 박탈해버리고, 하나의 음보 단위 안에 해석의 여지를 가둬버린다. 이에 따라 종장의 제2음보가 초중장의 음보보다 ‘과(過)’한 구조라는 것만 규칙으로 확정지을 수 있다. 고시조에서는 강한 정서적 중량을 가진 어사가 종장 제1음보를 이뤘으나, 현재에 이르면서 종장 제1음보는 3음절이라는 조건만 남게 되었다. 탈형식의 방식으로 시조가 현재까지 변형되며 지속되어 왔기 때문이다. 따라서 새로운 시조의 음보론이 요청되며, 현재 논의되고 있는 일반 자유시에 대한 리듬 연구에서도 마찬가지로 음보에 대한 논의는 계속 새롭게 씌어져야 한다. This study examined formalistic succession of modern sijo, discussing the ambiguity of the concept of ‘metre(音譜)’ as well as questioning ‘Is modern sijo still being composed until now really a fixed verse?’ Because of the intention that foot meter is explained not by the number of syllables, but by mora, the unit of mora can not help being presented as a vague psychological tendency without any objective reality, and it is difficult to recognize the mora as a distinctive feature in universal linguistic system. It is verified that the concept of metre by phonological pause according to the concept of ‘isometricity(等張性)’ and pronunciation is already operated by psychological or unconscious consideration in terms of syntax or phonetics. In addition, boundary by syntactic division didn’t exactly match with set metre. The characteristics of the poem, the poet’s own individual articulation, and the reader all took the limitation of irrelevant abstract foot set-up. Regardless of the meaning of the poem, syntactic division deprived the chances of poetic ambiguity and undecidability and confined any other choice of interpretation inside of one single foot unit. Accordingly, it is possible to make a rule that the second foot of the last of the 3 verses sijo is ‘more(過)’ stretched structure than the other verses. Although Ancient Korean sijo had the first foot of the last verse with more emotional tone, there has remained only the rule that the first foot of the last verse has 3 syllables up to modern times. It is because the trend of avoiding the formalism has transformed and continued to be reflected on the modern sijo. Therefore, it is necessary to suggest that a new theory of sijo metre is required, and rhythm research with present discussion on the general free verse should be reviewed in terms of metre as well.
Purpose: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common site of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which is increasing in incidence, but there is no established optimal treatment modality. Thus, this study was investigated the clinicohistologic feature, the therapeutic modalities, and the prognosis for GI-NHL, as well as the factors affecting it. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 45 patients who had been diagnosed as having GI-NHL and had been followed up from July 1994 to February 2005 at Soonchunhyang University Hospital. The patients were divided into groups according to the site of origin and to various other features, and the survivals of the various groups were compared. The modified Ann Arbor system and WHO classification were adopted for staging and histopathologic classification, respectively. Results: GI-NHL of the stomach, small bowel, ileocecal region, and colon occurred in 28 patients (62.2%), 5 patients (11.1%), 3 patients (6.7%), and 8 patients (17.8%), respectively, In one patient, the entire gastrointestinal tract was diffusely involved. The median age of patients was b5 years (25~78 years), and male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. Fourteen patients were in stage Ⅰ, 24 in stage Ⅱ, 4 in stage Ⅲ, and 3 in stage Ⅳ. Surgical resection was performed in 19 patients, and combination chemotherapy was performed in 43 patients. Surgical resection only was performed in 4 patients, Chemotherapy only was performed in 26 patients. The expected overall 5 year survival of 45 patients was 39.6%, and there was a significant survival difference between the stages, but between sites of origin (p=0.842). The most important factors influencing the survival was the stage and other factors were not significant. Conclusion: The stomach was the most common site of GI-NHL. Most GI-NHL were localized Stage was the most important prognostic factor. However, Prospective randomized studies are needed to approve the therapeutic modality.
Neuronal apoptotic events, consequently resulting in neuronal cell death, are occurred in hypoxic/ischemic condition. This cell death has been shown to be accompanied with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can attack cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins and phospholipid. However, the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis induced in hypoxic/ischemic condition and its treatment methods are unsettled. Cobalt chloride (CoCl_(2)) has been known to mimic hypoxic condition including the production of ROS. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). a green tea polyphenol, has diverse pharmacologial activities in cell growth and death. This study was aimed to investigate the apoptotic mechanism by CoCl_(2) and effects of EGCG on CoCl_(2)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Administration of CoCl_(2) decreased cell survival in dose- and time-dependent manners and induced genomic DNA fragmentation. Treatment with 100 µM EGCG for 30 min before PC12 cells were exposed to 150 µM CoCl_(2), being resulted in the cell viability and DNA fragmentation being rescued. CoCl_(2) caused morphologic changes such as cell swelling and condensed nuclei, whereas EGCG attenuated morphologic changes by CoCl_(2). EGCG suppressed the apoptotic peak and a loss of Δψ_(m) induced by CoCl_(2). CoCl_(2) decreased Bcl-2 expression but Bax expression was not changed in CoCl_(2)-treated cells. EGCG attenuated the Bcl-2 underexpression by CoCl_(2). CoCl_(2) augumented the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytoplasm and increased caspase-8, -9 and caspase-3 activity, a marker of the apoptotic executing stage. EGCG ameliorated the incruement in caspase-8, -9 and -3 activity, and cytochrome c release by CoCl_(2). NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a scavenger of ROS, attenuated CoCl_(2)-induced apoptosis in consistent with those of EGCG. These results suggest, that CoCl_(2) induces apoptotic cell death through both mitochondria- and death receptor-dependent pathway and EGCG has neuroprotective effects against CoCl_(2)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. 신경세포자멸사는 저산소 및 허혈환경에서 일어나며 이러한 세포죽은 reactive oxidant species (ROS) 생성을 동반함이 알려져있다. 그러나, 저산소 및 허혈환경에서 일어나는 세포자멸사의 기전 및 그 치료방법은 아직 정립되어 있지 않다. CoCl_(2)는 ROS를 생성하는 등 저산소환경과 유사한 조건을 초래하는 것으로 알려져 있다. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)는 녹차의 polyphenol 성분으로서 세포성장과 죽음에 다양한 약리학적 효과를 나타냄이 알려져 있다. 본 연구는 PC12 세포에서 CoCl_(2)에 의한 세포자멸사기전을 밝히고 이에 미치는 EGCG의 효과를 조사하는데 목적이 있다. Cell viability는 MTT 측정으로 조사되었고, DNA fragmentation은 DNA laddering으로 조사되었다. Bcl-2와 Bax발현 정도는 RT-PCR로, caspase-3와 -9의 활성은 spectrophotometer, caspase-8의 활성은 flow cytometry에 의해 측정되었다. 미토콘드리아에서 세포질로 분비된 cytochrome c는 western blot으로, 분해된 DNA 양과 미토콘드리아 세포막전위 (Δψ_(m))는 FACScan으로 조사되었다. CoCl_(2)투여로 PC12 세포수는 용량 및 시간 의존형태로 감소하였고, genomic DNA fragmentation이 발생하였다. CoCl_(2)투여로 야기된 cell viability의 감소와 DNA fragmentation은 EGCG 전처치에 의해 억제되었다. CoCl_(2)은 세포용적팽창과 condensed nuclei 같은 형태적 변화를 일으켰으며, apoptotic peak, Δψ_(m)감소 및 cytochrome c 유리를 야기하였다. EGCG는 CoCl_(2)에 의한 세포형태변화, apoptotic peak, Δψ_(m)소실 및 cytochrome c 유리를 억제시켰다. CoCl_(2)는 Bcl-2 발현을 감소시켰지만, Bax 발현에는 영향을 미치지 않았다. EGCG는 CoCl_(2)에 의해 야기된 Bcl-2 발현 감소를 억제시켰다. CoCl_(2)는 caspase-3, -8, 그리고 -9의 활성을 증가시켰으며, EGCG는 CoCl_(2)에 의한 세포자멸사를 억제시켰다. 본 실험결과는 PC12 세포에서 CoCl_(2)가 미토콘드리아 의존 및 death receptor의존 기전으로 세포자멸사를 일으키며, EGCG는 세포자멸사기전을 억세지킴으로 신경보호기능을 가짐을 시사하였다.
2000년 4월경부터 (수온7-13℃) 우리나라 동해안과 남해안 육상 수조에서 사육되던 넙치에서 체색흑화, 복수저류, 비장종대의 육안적 소견을 보이는 질병이 발생하여 대량폐사를 불러왔다. 병리조직학적 소견으로, 비장과 신장의 조혈조직에서 괴사병변이 주로 나타났다. 비장과 신장의 간질조직에서 괴사소가 관찰되었으며, 임파구, 괴사세포의 침윤이 나타났다. 비장 조직의 전자현미경적 관찰에서 변성혈구 내 세포질에서 탄환형의 바이러스 입자가 관찰되었는데 직경과 길이가 각각 약 50nm, 170nm였다. 이상의 결과로 본 질병은 rhabdovirus에 의한 질병으로 판단되었다. On April of 2000 and February of 2001, a disease characterized by darkening, ascites and enlargement of the spleen occurred in flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, farmed near northern and eastern coasts of Korea. Various degree of necrosis including liquefactive-type was observed mainly in hemopoietic tissue of spleen and kindney. Certain tissue such as branchial soft tissue including epithelium showed a similar necrotic findings. But some tissues such as intentine had several necrotic clusters of wandering cells, being possibly leukocytes. Necrotic evidences of blood cells were evident in various tissues including hemopoietic tissues. Necrobiotic bodies were frequently encountered in blood smear preparations. Bullet type-virious were detected in the spleenic cells. Each virion was about 500 nm in diameter and 170nm in length. From these results, this disease was thought to be a rhabdoviral disease.
Background and objectives : The long-term survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) after conventional dose chemotherapy is about 35% and the rest of the patients tend to have relapse. So, in relapsed or refractory NHL, we compared the outcome of patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(APBSCT) with only salvage chemotherapy of cisplatin, dexamethasone, mitoxantrone, and etoposide(CDME). Materials and methods : From June 1993 to December 1999, 25 patients with relapsed or resistant NHL were treated with CDME regimen as salvage chemotherapy. Twelve patients were received four cycles of CDME chemotherapy, and 13 patients were received high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT following two cycles of CDME chemotherapy. Results : The median follow-up duration was 12.8 months(range:4-68). The overall response rate was 41.7% (complete response rate 25%, partial response rate 16.7%) in 12 patients with CDME only. Thirteen patients who were treated with high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT achieved 61.5% complete response rate and 15.4% partial response rate, with an overall response rate of 76.9%. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival rate was significantly higher among patients who received high-dose therapy than patients who received CDME only(41.5% vs 20.0%, p<0.05). And, 3-year overall survival rate was significantly higher among patients who received high-dose therapy(51.3% vs 25.0%, p <0.05). Conclusions : In relapsed or refractory NHL, CDME chemotherapy is an effective salvage chemotherapy and allow peripheral blood stem cell collection. Also, high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT following CDME is superior to CDME salvage chemotherapy only.
Background : Malignant melanoma in Korea has been increasing as in other countries, but there is no nationwide survey of malignant melanoma in Korea. Objective : The aim of this study was to document the clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous melanoma in Korea. Methods : The Dermatopathology Research Group conducted a review of nationwide collection of109 primary cutaneous melanomas, diagnosed at 23 institutes over a recent 3-year period. Clinical records and pathology slides of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion : 1. The peak age was the 7th decade with the mean age of 58.1 years. Korea has a higher rate of acral melanoma and much lower rate of lentigo maligna melanoma. 2. Major component tumor cell was spindle cell type. 3. Clark level of tumor was Ⅲ or more and Breslow depth was 2 ㎜ or more at the time of the first diagnosis in many cases (62%). 4. Pre-existing melanocytic nevus was present in a few cases (3 cases). 5. All these features suggest that the racial difference between the Korean and the Caucasian is evident. We also suggest that an early detection program is very important to cure this malignant tumor. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(1) 43∼47)
Background : The relative frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of lymphomas vary according to geography and race. Data on the features of cutaneous lymphoma in Korea we limited. Objective : The aim of this study was to document the relative occurrence, the clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous lymphomas in Korea. Methods : The Korean Dermatopathology Research Group conducted a review of nationwide collection of 80 cutaneous lymphomas, diagnosed at 23 institutes over recent 3-year period. Clinical records and pathology slides of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion : 1. Korea has a higher rate of T-cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma and a much lower rate of cutaneous B cell lymphoma. 2. The relative frequency of the major diagnostic group according to WHO classification was as follows mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome, 42.5%; anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 19%; nasal and nasal type NK/T cell lymphoma, 15%; subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, 11%; peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified, 7.5%; follicular lymphoma, 3%; marginal zone Iymphorna, 1%; angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, 1%. 3. Compared with Western countries, the rate of nasal and nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma were much higher. Therefore, The EORTC classification is not effective in dealing with Korean cases of cutaneous lymphoma. We consider the principles of the WHO classification are applicable to the Korean cases of cutaneous lymphoma. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(1) : 48∼57)
Thymoma is associated with myasthenia gravis, Pure red cell aplasia, and autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. It's association with aplastic anemia is rare and aplastic anemia appearing after surgical removal of thymoma is especially rare. The authors hereby report a case of aplastic anemia occuring in a patient who was diagnosed with thymoma and myasthenia gravis and had the tumor surgically removed. The patient was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin, cyclosporin, and prednisolone, and showed partial remission with hematologic improvements after 12 months.