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Marine harbor sediments are frequently polluted with significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) some of which are naturally toxic, recalcitrant, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. To stimulate biodegradation of PAHs in PAH-contaminated sediments collected from near Gwangyang Bay, Korea, lactate was chosen as a supplementary carbonaceous substrate. Sediment packed into 600 ml air-tight jar was either under no treatment condition or lactate amended condition (1%, w/v). Microbial community composition was monitored by bacteria-specific and archaea-specific PCR-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in addition to measuring the residual PAH concentration. Results showed that lactate amendment enhanced biodegradation rate of PAHs in the sediment by 4 to 8 times, and caused a significant shift in archaebacterial community in terms of structure and diversity with time. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 archaeal clones with distinctive RFLP patterns among 288 archaeal clones indicated that majority of the archaeal members were closest to unculturable environmental rDNA clones from hydrocarbon-contaminated and/or methanogenesis-bearing sediments. Lactate amendment led to the enrichment of some clones that were most closely related to PAH-degrading Methanosarcina species. These results suggest a possible contribution of methanogenic community to PAH degradation and give us more insights on how to effectively remediate PAH-contaminated sediments.
The light-transmission technique has been applied to a slit rheometer for measuring red blood cell aggregation as well as blood viscosity over a range of shear rates. For measurement of blood viscosity and aggregation, instantaneous pressure and transmit-light intensity are measured with time. Using a precision pressure measurement, one can determine the shear stress and shear rate. In addition, a transmitted light through a blood sample indicates degree of RBC aggregation. With abruptly flowing with high shear rate, RBCs rapidly disaggregate and the intensity of the transmitted light becomes low. When continuously flowing with decreasing shear rate, RBCs tend to re-aggregate and the corresponding transmit-intensity gradually increases with time. The light intensity as a degree of RBC aggregation is plotted against shear rate and compared with blood viscosity. The advantages of this design are dual measurement at a time, simplicity, i.e., ease of operation and no moving parts, low cost, short operating time, and the disposable kit which is contacted with blood sample.
Rollover accident is one of the serious traffic accident and rollover accident takes high portion of all accident. The most common type of rollover is a tripped rollover which occupy 95% of all type of single-vehicle rollover. Tripped rollover occurs when a vehicle leaves normal road way and tripped by loose gravel, soil of fixed object such as guard rail, curbs and ditches. And the rest of the type of rollover is un-tripped rollover. An un-tripped rollovers that occurs during high-speed collision avoidance maneuvers. In this paper, presents the explanation of the un-tripped rollover test method and procedure, additionally this paper deals with various occurrence in the un-tripped test such as occurring excessive tire camber in the un-tripped test, tire side-wall contact with road surface and roll oscillation. And this paper analyzes the analysis of the roll rate amplitude in specific frequency through the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and the roll angle at the steering reverse timing which is the Fishhook test roll rate feedback time. Finally, this paper analyzes the relations between the estimated steady state roll gain and rollover stability.