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이 글은 전지구화 시대에 캐나다에서 주변화된 존재로 살아가는 캐나다한인 이주자를 서발턴(subaltern)의 관점에서 바라보며, 그들의 삶의 질 추락과 거주 공간의 분리에 대해 캐나다한인소설을 중심으로 고찰하였다. 캐나다한인들은 보다 높은 삶의 질을 추구하기 위해 자발적으로 이민했지만 이민은 오히려 그들의 삶의 질을 떨어뜨렸으며, 계급적 추락을 초래하게 만드는 아이러니한 결과를 나타냈다. 즉 이주 후 캐나다한인들의 사회경제적 위치는 모국에서의 중산층적 지위보다 한층 낮아졌고, 오히려 타자화(otherness)와 주변화(marginalization)가 심하게 일어났다. 캐나다한인소설에는 캐나다한인들이 저임금의 막노동이나 자영업에 종사하는 현실, 백인들의 유색인종 이민자에 대한 차별적 태도, 그리고 거주 공간이 분리된 상황 등 서발턴으로서의 주변화된 삶이 재현되어 있다. 그야말로 캐나다한인소설은 캐나다한인들의 주변화된 삶을 형상화한 서발턴의 서사라고 할 수 있다. 캐나다한인 작가들은 그 자신들이 한국문학과 캐나다문학 그 어느 곳의 중심에도 속하지 못하는 주변적 존재, 즉 서발턴이다. 하지만 그들은 한국에서 높은 교육을 받은 고학력자들로서 이민 이후 캐나다에서 한인문단을 조직하고, 한국어로 그들의 주변화된 삶을 그려내며 자신들의 서발턴의 지위에 꾸준히 저항하여 왔다. 그들이 자신들의 문학을 통하여 정체성을 질문하고, 자신들의 스토리를 구성해 왔다는 것은 의미 있는 일이다. 하지만 그것만으로는 부족하다. 그들은 캐나다 공용어로 작품을 발표함으로써 주류사회를 향해 그들의 목소리(independent voices)를 보다 적극적으로 낼 수 있어야 한다. 그래야만 서발턴으로서의 주변화된 위치를 벗어나는 데 도움이 될 수 있다. This article at hand approaches the Korean Canadian immigrants who are living marginalized lives in Canada from a subaltern perspective, and examines the decline in their quality of life and the segregation of living space as represented in Korean-Canadian novels. The Korean Canadians voluntarily immigrated into Canada to pursue a higher quality of life, yet ironically the consequences were contradictory: a decline in the quality of life and the fall of social status. That is to say, the socio-economic status of early Korean-Canadian immigrants fell far below the middle-class standing that they once had in their homeland, and they were instead faced with severe marginalization. The Korean-Canadian novels represent the unhappy life of the Korean Canadians as subalterns: their reality of working in lowwage physical labor or self-employed jobs, their suffering from the local white community’s discriminatory attitude toward the colored immigrants, and the segregation of living space. The Korean- Canadian novels can truly be called the narratives of the subalterns that give shape to the marginalized lives of the Korean Canadians. The Korean-Canadian writers themselves can be thought of as being marginalized, that is, as subalterns who cannot identify themselves as belonging to either Korea or Canada. Nevertheless, they are people who took their higher education in Korea. Since they immigrated into Canada, they have organized Korean literary circles in Canada, written their marginalized lives in the Korean language, and consistently resisted their subaltern status. It is indeed meaningful that they questioned their identity through their novels and created their own stories. Yet it is far from enough. They should be able to voice their independence more actively into mainstream literature and society by publishing their works in an official language of Canada. Only then can they help themselves get out of their marginalized status as subalterns.
이 논문은 나혜석의 문학연구의 현황을 살펴보고 앞으로의 연구 방향과 과제에 대해서 논의하였다. 나혜석은 현재 남겨진 자료의 관점에서 보면 화가로서보다는 문학가로서의 정체성이 더 확고하다. 나혜석의 문학연구가 동시대의 다른 여성작가보다 더 진전된 이유가 전집이 먼저 발간된 데 있다고 보고, 신뢰할 수 있는 전집이 나오기까지의 과정을 살펴보았다. 또한 <나혜석기념사업회>가 결성되어 심포지엄을 매년 개최함으로써 나혜석 연구의 활성화가 가능했다. 나혜석 연구의 현황을 단행본과 학위논문, 소논문 별로 살펴보았다. 그런데 나혜석만을 단독 연구대상으로 삼은 박사논문은 아직 나오지 않았다. 이는 나혜석 작품의 양적 빈곤과 작가의 문학사적 비중이 낮은 데 이유가 있다. 나혜석에 관한 소논문은 1980년대부터 100여 편이 발표되었는데, 1990년대에 접어들어 활발해지다가 2000년대 이후 양산되었다. 나혜석 문학연구는 우리나라의 페미니즘 비평이 활발해진 시기와 맞물리며 전개되었는데, 연구 결과 나혜석은 근대를 대표하는 페미니즘 문학가로 평가되었다. 나혜석 연구는 글쓰기의 표현방식과 페미니즘이라는 주제의 양 측면으로 이루어졌다. 그리고 나혜석 연구는 소설 「경희」 한 편에 치중하는 양상을 보이는 한편, 외국의 여성작가와 비교하는 논문이 18편이나 나와 있다는 점도 특이하다. 그간 나혜석의 주요 연구자들의 연구 성과를 살펴보았는데, 특히 일문학자들은 국문학자들이 접근하기 어려운 일본문학의 자료들을 통하여 나혜석의 페미니즘 형성에 영향을 미친 서구 및 일본의 영향관계를 밝히는 데 기여하였다. 나혜석은 근대기를 대표하는 여성작가로서 주제적 측면에서 페미니즘이라는 계몽의식에 투철한 작품을 썼고, 그 의식의 첨단성은 오늘날에도 새로움을 느낄 만큼 혁명적이다. 하지만 여성문학사가 아니라 주류 문학사에서도 나혜석이 기술되기 위해서는 페미니즘을 넘어서는 다양한 방법론으로 그의 문학이 재조명되고, 그 문학적 가치를 인정받을 때에 가능할 것이다. This study has a character like a history of research that says the process of study on Na Hyeseok`s works. She keeps identity more as a writer than as a painter from the viewpoint of remaining materials. The reason why the study about her works have made more progress than contemporary other female writers` is that her complete works were released earlier than others. We looked over the process of making two reliable complete works, Lee Sang-kyung`s in 2000 and Seo Jeong-ja`s in 2001. And another reason is, making ``the Foundation for Na Hye-seok``, we could hold ``the symposium for knowing about Na Hyeseok correctly``. We figured out the fruits of the symposium. I looked over books and theses concerning Study on Na Hye-seok, there are 21 books and 40 master`s theses. And she is treated as one of the female writers in early modern ages in around 10 doctor`s theses. Comparing other female writers, she has been shed on in regard to some subjects like eroticism, sexuality, and modernity. However, nobody studied solo, writing a doctor`s thesis, because she has just 6 short stories, 6 poems, and 1 play, respectively, moreover, most of her works are essays related to feminism and art which are not enough for a subject of literature works. In brief, I figured out that it came from quantitative shortage in works and in her low reputation in history of literature. Around 100 article on Na Hye-seok have been published from 1980`s, it was getting popular entering 1990`s, and it has been growing tremendously since 2000. Study on Na Hyeseok`s works began to develop the time when feminist criticism was getting popular, Na Hyeseok became regarded as a representative feminist writer. Studies focusing on the way how to write feminine writing, autobiographical writing, confession literature, and thematic sides such as feminism, modernity, the experience of colonization, images of female intellectuals, images of modern girls, sexuality, eroticism, and Christian observance were released. These studies are dealt within a big framework, feminism. And we can see that studies about Na Hye-seok concentrate on only the novel, 「Kyunghee」, on the other hand, there are already 18 comparative literature theses which are comparing her as a feminist writer with foreign female writers. Meanwhile, there have been principal researchers, Lee Sang-kyung, Seo Jung-ja, Song Myung-hee, Jeong Sun-jin, Choi Hye-sil, Lee Deok-hwa, An Suk-won, Noh Young-hee, and Kim Hwa-young, and so on. Especially, Noh Young-hee and Kim Hwa-young have contributed to showing the effect relations between the West and Japan which affected her formation of feminism with materials of Japanese literature which are hard to approach for scholars of Korean literature. Na Hyeseok, as a representative female writer in modern times, wrote thoroughly enlightening works which have the theme regarding feminism, and the recentness of the enlightenment was very innovative as we can feel newness of it today. But, to be treated not only in the history of female literature but also in the mainstream history of literature, it`s not possible until her works are described in various ways beyond feminism, and the literary value achieves recognition.
This is a review of Korean-American literature based on the literature arena in eastern Washington, U. S. A. Because of the locality and that their work belongs to neither American literature nor Korean literature and because of the estrangement that they experience as outsiders and as members of a minority race in America and the identical ambiguity that they are neither Korean nor American, the literature written by Korean-Americans for multiple reason will be the object of discussion, and the characteristics mentioned above will be studied as it is reflected in their literature as kernel themes. According to Edward W. Said, <filiation> means the natural transference or continuity between generations, or the relation between one's inborn culture and the individual. <Afiliation> means various relations and solidarity which one has experienced since birth. For 'Korean-Americans,' filiation means continuity as a Korean and affiliation gives one a new identity as an American. These people have cut away from their inborn identity and culture as Koreans and have formed a new identity and culture as Americans. They should escape from filiation to find a new affiliation, but it is thought not to be an artificial cutoff but to be a harmonization and unification that is hopefully on the boundary of filiation and affiliation. Their locality and literary ambiguous boundary, or their cultural syncretity, diversity and cross-cultural hybridity which emerge from this 3rd identity will create a dynamism and individuality that they can be responsible for and bring into being.
Carbon nanotubes have unique physical and chemical properties, High=purity aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWNTs) were synthesized through the catalytic decomposition of a ferrocene-xylene mixture in a quartz tube reactor. In this study, we investigated the influence of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, ferrocene-xylene ratio, gas flow rate, reaction time on the yield and structure of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition method.
In this paper, the vertical Hall device which is sensitive to the magnetic fields parallel to the surface of the chip, is fabricated and characterized. The Hall voltage was ±0.2[mV] in the range of ±100[Gauss]. The current-related Magnetic sensitivity(S_(H)) was about 55[V/AT]. With an increased I_(sup), the offset voltage was also increased. Alternating Current(AC) driving system was used to process the amplification of Hall voltage and the reduction of offset and noise by the AC driving of the vertical Hall device. When the AC driving system was operated, the output of the Hall voltage was ±74.0 [mV] in the low magnetic field ranges of ±100 [Gauss], The magnetic fields resolution was 0.74[mV/Gauss].
This study tends to compare Yi, Kwang-soo's literary criticism and that of M. Arnold, especially in view of literature (poetry). They agreeded on the fact the literature is the criticism of life, and it has the importance of social usage. They also acclaimed 'arts for life's sake'. They are both humanists and classicists who layed emphasis on morality, university, eternity, and moderation in literature. They are, moreover, regarded as critics who greatly recognized the role of criticism and critics. These similarities suggest that Mr. Yi might have been influenced by M. Arnold in view of literature.
본 연구의 목적은 ANSI N13. 11-1983의 시험기준에서 제시한 개인선량계의 선량평가 시험범주를 모두 만족시킬 수 있는 선량평가 알고리즘을 개발하는데 있다. 알고리즘 개발 대상 개인선량계로는 Teledyne Isotopes사의 PB-3 열형광선량계로 하였다. 개발된 알고리즘에 대한 미국 Atlan-Tech사와의 2차례의 검증결과, 본 알고리즘은 ANSI N-13. 11-1983의 선량평가 범주를 모두 만족시키는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm of TLD dose evaluation to meet all requirements stated in ANSI N13. 11-1983. It made the PB-3 TLD of Teledyne Isotopes an object of the development. Personal dosimetry performance testings of the development algorithm have been performed twice through the Atlan-Tech, INC. in accordance with the criteria of testing described in ANSI N13. 11-1983. As a result, it is assured that the developed algorithm has complied with all requirements stated in ANSI N13-1983.
임파구의 염색체이상 빈도로부터 피폭자의 흡수선량을 구하는 방법은 사고로 인해 급성피폭을 받는 경우 유용하게 사용될 수 있다. 그러나 방사선 피폭 후 시간이 경과함에 따라 불안정 염색체이상을 가진 임파구는 감소하게 된다. 이에 방사선 치료후 시간 경과에 따른 불안정 염색체이상 빈도의 변화를 규명하고자 한다. 전골반에 50.4 Gy의 방사선 치료를 받은 총 20명의 자궁경부암 또는 자궁내막암 환자를 대상으로 41개의 검체를 얻었다. 채혈의 시기는 방사선 치료후 1일 3주, 6주, 12주, 24주, 52주, 104주, 156주, 208주, 520주로 하였다. 이들 말초혈액의 임파구에 대해 전혈미세배양을 실시한 후 임파구의 불안정 염색체이상을 관찰하여 Ydr, Qdr, Qdra를 얻었다. Ydr 값은 방사선 치료가 끝난 직후부터 3주까지 plateau를 보였고 이후 감소하는 경향이었다. Ydr의 평균값은 치료후 3주에 0.29에서 급격히 감소하여 2년후 0.05로 감소하였으며 이후 5년까지 서서히 감소하였다. 회귀분석을 실시한바 Ydr = 0.259×exp(-0.0429T)+0.0560×exp(-0.00106T)(time in weeks)로 나타났다. Qdr값은 치료 직후부터 24주까지 1.51 전후로 거의 변화가 없었으며 이후 감소하여 52주 이후에는 1.17 전후로 거의 일정하였다. Qdra 값은 치료 직후부터 12주까지 1.10 전후이며 이후 감소하여 52주 이후에는 0.81 전후였다. 피폭 후 시간경과에 따른 Ydr 값의 감소는 두 component exponential 모델을 잘 맞고 이 식을 이용하여 생물학적 선량측정이 가능하다. Qdr 값 및 Qdra 값은 피폭후 시간경과가 짧은 경우 피폭선량을 추정하는 지료로 사용할 수 있다. It is good method to use frequency of chromosome aberration in lymphocytes for a biological dosimetry in cases of accidental exposure to radiation. But in cases of past edposure, biological dosimetry is limited because the friquency of aberration decreases by time after exposure. To provide a basic data for estimationof past radiation exposure, the changing pattern of frequency of unstable chromosome aberration by time interbal after exposure was studied. Observation was made on peripheral lymphocytes of 41 blood samples from 20 patients treated for uterine cervical carcinoma and endometrial caricinoma. The patients received 50.4 Gy radiation to whole pelvis. Elapsed times after the completion of radiation therapy were 1 day, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 52, 104, 156, 208, 260 and 520 weeks. All the blood sample were microcultured. The Ydr, Qdr and Qdra were calculated form frequency of unstable aberration. Ydr did not decrease for 3 weeks after radiation therapy, and thereafter, decreased very rapidly and reached 0.05 at two years after radiation therapy and decreased very slowly until 5 years after radiation therapy. Relationship between unstable chromosome aberration and time interval after radiation therapy was described as Ydr = 0.2590.259×exp(-0.0429T)+0.0560×exp(-0.00106T)(time in weeks) Qdr remained constant at 1.51 until 24 weeks after radiation therapy and then decreased to 1.17 at 52 weeks. Therafter, it did not change. Qdra remained constant at 1.10 for 12 weeks after radiation therapy and decreased to 0.81 at 52 weeks. Thereafter, it remanined constant. Two superimposed exponential Ydr disappearance rate wuggests that it is possible to calculate the past exposure dose. When the elapsed time after exposure is short, Qdr and Qdra are useful papameters for biological dosimetry for past radiation exposure.
This dissertation studies Yi Kwang Soo's nationalism and literary though with special reference to his various articles and literary essays. In order to verify the reality of his nationalism, his conception of nationalism should be probed before anything else. And he enumerated lineage, natinality, culture-language an literature-as the essential elements of nation-building up. There are a few interpretations in his nationalism; first, ethno-natinalism stemming from blood lineage, secondly, humanitarian aspiring toward perfection of national and, lastly, cultural or linguistic nationalism emphasizing cultural requisites. In 1910s he represents ideology of modernization which means that man should be emancipated from autocratic society and that the undeveloped country should be modernized with the aid of pragmatism. As his nationalism rests on individual and cultural problems, it appears chara-cteristically peace-oriented, cultural, moderate, universal and diachoric one. The-refore it failed to develop into the political nationalism which contributes to national independence and rebuilding. He insisted the view of literature that it should be independence of religion, morality and policy and that literature may be used to achieve modernization by making public the ideology of modernization. Namely, He proclaimed the view of literature as the effective vehicle to emancipate the oppressed individual and to accomplish the whole man with knowledge, emotion and will as the individual aim and social modernity.
This paper intends to compare Yi, Kwang-soo's view of literature and Tolstoy's view of art, with the help of criticism and the latter's 'what is Art'. These two masters understood literature and art from the point of usage and advocated art for life, repelling art for art's sake. They also laid priority of contents to form, taking the infection of art to the readers seriously. Therefore, there could be found between them similar attitude toward advocating popular art and rejecting professionalism of artists. However, Tolstoy subordinated literature and degraded it as a means of religion in order to fulfill ideals of Christ, and therefore, not accepting pleasure and beauty in art, he insisted that truth, good, and beauty be not in accordance. On the contrary, Mr. Yi, Kwang-soo tried to realize universal humanism. To do this, he didn't absolutely reject the freedom of literature, nor did he take a whole advantage of literature as a vehicle. I also found that Mr. Yi, in contrast to Tolstoy, perceived the important necessity of art education and art criticism as well. In other words, Yi Kwang-soo came near to Neo-Platonism, in that he pursued the consistency among truth, good, beauty, and to Horatius in that he didn't ignore pleasure and beauty in literature. Although Yi Kwang-soo had been, in some ways, influenced by Tolstoy, he might be rated as a far more moderate writer who used to comprehend literature in the fundamental ideals of art than Tolstoy who was addicated to Christian dogma and fell into the narrow attitude. However, both Tolstoy and Mr. Yi were incapable of overstepping the boundary of moralist who confirms that man can seek happiness in life by means of morally reforming human beings as individual, rather than by means of social reformation.